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1.
J Cell Biol ; 221(3)2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795409

ABSTRACT

Bo Zhong studies the regulation of the antiviral innate immunity, inflammation, and tumorigenesis by the protein ubiquitination system.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology/history , Immunity, Innate , Ubiquitination , Virology/history , Animals , China , History, 21st Century , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans
2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(4): 979-980, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778258
6.
Nat Immunol ; 22(10): 1187, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442794
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 728936, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413272

ABSTRACT

The use of minimal peptide sets offers an appealing alternative for design of vaccines and T cell diagnostics compared to conventional whole protein approaches. T cell immunogenicity towards peptides is contingent on binding to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules of the given individual. HLA is highly polymorphic, and each variant typically presents a different repertoire of peptides. This polymorphism combined with pathogen diversity challenges the rational selection of peptide sets with broad immunogenic potential and population coverage. Here we propose PopCover-2.0, a simple yet highly effective method, for resolving this challenge. The method takes as input a set of (predicted) CD8 and/or CD4 T cell epitopes with associated HLA restriction and pathogen strain annotation together with information on HLA allele frequencies, and identifies peptide sets with optimal pathogen and HLA (class I and II) coverage. PopCover-2.0 was benchmarked on historic data in the context of HIV and SARS-CoV-2. Further, the immunogenicity of the selected SARS-CoV-2 peptides was confirmed by experimentally validating the peptide pools for T cell responses in a panel of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. In summary, PopCover-2.0 is an effective method for rational selection of peptide subsets with broad HLA and pathogen coverage. The tool is available at https://services.healthtech.dtu.dk/service.php?PopCover-2.0.


Subject(s)
Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , HLA Antigens/genetics , HLA Antigens/immunology , Peptides/immunology , Alleles , Allergy and Immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Genotype , HLA Antigens/classification , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunologic Techniques , Peptides/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 744090, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379961
12.
Immunology ; 163(4): 431-435, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273103

ABSTRACT

The pandemic has brought challenges to teaching lab and research skills. Here Nigel Francis and colleagues explore the diverse approaches taken to replace lab-based immunology teaching, explain how networks of educators have driven this innovation and discuss the importance of retaining best practice into the future.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology/education , Biomedical Research/education , COVID-19 , Computer-Assisted Instruction , Education, Distance , Laboratories , Students , Teaching , Curriculum , Humans
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 647536, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264331

ABSTRACT

The field of immunology is rapidly progressing toward a systems-level understanding of immunity to tackle complex infectious diseases, autoimmune conditions, cancer, and beyond. In the last couple of decades, advancements in data acquisition techniques have presented opportunities to explore untapped areas of immunological research. Broad initiatives are launched to disseminate the datasets siloed in the global, federated, or private repositories, facilitating interoperability across various research domains. Concurrently, the application of computational methods, such as network analysis, meta-analysis, and machine learning have propelled the field forward by providing insight into salient features that influence the immunological response, which was otherwise left unexplored. Here, we review the opportunities and challenges in democratizing datasets, repositories, and community-wide knowledge sharing tools. We present use cases for repurposing open-access immunology datasets with advanced machine learning applications and more.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology , Computational Biology/methods , Datasets as Topic , Immune System , Machine Learning , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic
14.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(4): 301-309, 2021 07 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242273

ABSTRACT

Background: Most U.S. patient and health care provider surveys with regard to nasal allergy treatments were conducted before sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)-tablets and allergy immunotherapy (AIT) shared decision-making tools were available. Objective: Patient and health care provider surveys with regard to current perceptions of nasal allergy burden, symptoms, and treatments were conducted to compare with previous surveys and provide insight into the use of SLIT-tablets and AIT shared decision-making tools. Methods: From November-December 2019, adults (N = 510) diagnosed with nasal allergies and health care providers (N = 304) who treated nasal allergies in the United States completed surveys with regard to nasal allergy management. Results: Of the patient respondents, 42% reported that their symptoms were only somewhat controlled and 48% had avoided activities because of their nasal allergies. In all, 38% were using only over-the-counter (OTC) medications for treatment, and 42%, 7%, and 8% had ever received subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), sublingual allergy drops, or SLIT-tablets, respectively; 56% and 85% reported that they had never discussed SCIT or SLIT, respectively, with their health care provider. Of the health care provider respondents, 45%, 58%, and 20% were very likely to discuss OTC medications, SCIT, or SLIT, respectively. Allergists were more inclined to discuss SCIT with their patients than other health care providers (82% versus 33%, respectively). Most allergists (67%) and other health care providers (62%) reported that they did not use an AIT shared decision-making tool, primarily because of unawareness. Conclusion: The patients with nasal allergies continued to report inadequate symptom control and activity impairment. SLIT-tablets and AIT shared decision-making tools were underused. In the coronavirus disease 2019 era, social distancing may limit office visits, which impacts SCIT administration and prompts increased use of telemedicine and a possible advantage for at-home-administered SLIT-tablets over SCIT.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology/trends , COVID-19 , Decision Making, Shared , Decision Support Techniques , Desensitization, Immunologic/trends , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Rhinitis, Allergic/therapy , Telemedicine/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Prognosis , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis , Sublingual Immunotherapy/trends , Time Factors , United States , Young Adult
16.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100745, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213326

ABSTRACT

Fifty years ago, the first landmark structures of antibodies heralded the dawn of structural immunology. Momentum then started to build toward understanding how antibodies could recognize the vast universe of potential antigens and how antibody-combining sites could be tailored to engage antigens with high specificity and affinity through recombination of germline genes (V, D, J) and somatic mutation. Equivalent groundbreaking structures in the cellular immune system appeared some 15 to 20 years later and illustrated how processed protein antigens in the form of peptides are presented by MHC molecules to T cell receptors. Structures of antigen receptors in the innate immune system then explained their inherent specificity for particular microbial antigens including lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, small molecules, and specific proteins. These two sides of the immune system act immediately (innate) to particular microbial antigens or evolve (adaptive) to attain high specificity and affinity to a much wider range of antigens. We also include examples of other key receptors in the immune system (cytokine receptors) that regulate immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, these antigen receptors use a limited set of protein folds to accomplish their various immunological roles. The other main players are the antigens themselves. We focus on surface glycoproteins in enveloped viruses including SARS-CoV-2 that enable entry and egress into host cells and are targets for the antibody response. This review covers what we have learned over the past half century about the structural basis of the immune response to microbial pathogens and how that information can be utilized to design vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Immunity, Innate , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/chemistry , Receptors, Cytokine/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Allergy and Immunology/history , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Specificity , Antigen Presentation , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Crystallography/history , Crystallography/methods , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Protein Folding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , Receptors, Cytokine/genetics , Receptors, Cytokine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , V(D)J Recombination
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(16)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207175
19.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 203(1): 1-2, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985709
20.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 21(4): 26, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155324

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article aims to summarize some recent trends in occupational allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), including dermatitis related to pandemic-level personal protective equipment in healthcare workers, hazards patients may experience when working from home, and occupational perspectives on the recent American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS) allergens of the year and ACDS Core Allergen Series updates. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent ACDS Allergens of the Year may be particularly relevant to healthcare workers, including isobornyl acrylate, which is present in glucose sensors and propylene glycol present in hand cleansers and disinfectants. Lavender, limonene, and linalool, all of which are new additions to the ACDS Core Allergen Series, have been reported as causes for occupational ACD in massage therapists and aromatherapists. Isothiazolinone allergy continues to rise in both consumer and occupational settings. Finally, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a wave of occupational ACD in healthcare workers to personal protective equipment, and revealed new potential allergens for individuals working from home. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis continues to exert a significant occupational disease burden. Remaining aware of the current trends in allergens may allow for earlier recognition, diagnosis, and treatment, subsequently helping our patients to work in healthier and safer environments.


Subject(s)
Allergens/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Occupational/diagnosis , Acrylates , Acyclic Monoterpenes/adverse effects , Allergy and Immunology/trends , Camphanes , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Dermatology/trends , Health Personnel , Humans , Lavandula/adverse effects , Limonene/adverse effects , Pandemics , Patch Tests/adverse effects , Propylene Glycol , Societies, Medical , United States
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