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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(2): 326-341, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hereditary renal hypouricemia type 1 (RHUC1) is caused by URAT1/SLC22A12 dysfunction, resulting in urolithiasis and exercise-induced AKI (EIAKI). However, because there is no useful experimental RHUC1 animal model, the precise pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying EIAKI have yet to be elucidated. We established a high HPRT activity Urat1-Uox double knockout (DKO) mouse as a novel RHUC1 animal model for investigating the cause of EIAKI and the potential therapeutic effect of xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitors (XOIs). METHODS: The novel Urat1-Uox DKO mice were used in a forced swimming test as loading exercise to explore the onset mechanism of EIAKI and evaluate related purine metabolism and renal injury parameters. RESULTS: Urat1-Uox DKO mice had uricosuric effects and elevated levels of plasma creatinine and BUN as renal injury markers, and decreased creatinine clearance observed in a forced swimming test. In addition, Urat1-Uox DKO mice had increased NLRP3 inflammasome activity and downregulated levels of Na+-K+-ATPase protein in the kidney, as Western blot analysis showed. Finally, we demonstrated that topiroxostat and allopurinol, XOIs, improved renal injury and functional parameters of EIAKI. CONCLUSIONS: Urat1-Uox DKO mice are a useful experimental animal model for human RHUC1. The pathogenic mechanism of EIAKI was found to be due to increased levels of IL-1ß via NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and Na+-K+-ATPase dysfunction associated with excessive urinary urate excretion. In addition, XOIs appear to be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of EIAKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase/metabolism , Organic Anion Transporters/deficiency , Urate Oxidase/deficiency , Xanthine Dehydrogenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Allopurinol/pharmacology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase/genetics , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Nitriles/pharmacology , Organic Anion Transporters/genetics , Physical Exertion , Pyridines/pharmacology , Renal Tubular Transport, Inborn Errors/drug therapy , Renal Tubular Transport, Inborn Errors/etiology , Renal Tubular Transport, Inborn Errors/metabolism , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism , Urate Oxidase/genetics , Urinary Calculi/drug therapy , Urinary Calculi/etiology , Urinary Calculi/metabolism
3.
Inflammation ; 45(4): 1651-1667, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709501

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 by the direct cytopathic effect or indirectly through the propagation of pro-inflammatory cytokines could cause endothelial dysfunction (ED) and oxidative stress (OS). It has been reported that OS is triggered by various types of viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2. Into the bargain, allopurinol is regarded as a potent antioxidant that acts through inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO), which is an essential enzyme of purine metabolism. Herein, the present study aimed to find the potential protective effects of allopurinol on the biomarkers of OS and ED in patients with severe Covid-19. This single-center cohort study recruited 39 patients with mild-moderate Covid-19 compared with 41 patients with severe Covid-19. Nineteen patients with severe Covid-19 were on the allopurinol treatment because of underlying chronic gout 3 years ago compared with 22 Covid-19 patients not on this treatment. The recruited patients were allocated into three groups: group I, mild-moderate Covid-19 on the standard therapy (n = 39); group II, severe Covid-19 patients on the standard therapy only (n = 22); and group III, severe Covid-19 patients on the standard therapy plus allopurinol (n = 19). The duration of the study was 3 weeks from the time of hospitalization till the time of recovery. In addition, inflammatory biomarkers (D-dimer, LDH, ferritin, CRP, procalcitonin), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), endothelin-1 (ET-1), uric acid and oxidative stress index (OSI), CT scan score, and clinical score were evaluated at the time of admission and discharge regarding the effect of allopurinol treatment adds to the standard treatment of Covid-19. Allopurinol plus standard treatment reduced LDH, ferritin, CRP, procalcitonin, and ET-1 serum level significantly (P < 0.05) compared with Covid-19 patients on standard treatment. Besides, neutrophil (%), lymphocyte (%), and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were reduced in patients with severe Covid-19 on standard treatment plus allopurinol compared with Covid-19 patients on standard treatment alone (P < 0.01). OSI was higher in patients with severe Covid-19 than mild-moderate Covid-19 patients (P = 0.00001) at admission. At the time of discharge, the oxidative status of Covid-19 patients was significantly improved compared with that at admission (P = 0.01). In conclusion, Covid-19 severity is linked with high OS and inflammatory reaction with ED development. High uric acid in patients with severe Covid-19 is correlated with high OS and inflammatory biomarkers. Allopurinol with standard treatment in patients with severe Covid-19 reduced oxidative and inflammatory disorders with significant amelioration of ED and clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Allopurinol , COVID-19 , Endothelium, Vascular , Oxidative Stress , Allopurinol/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Ferritins , Humans , Procalcitonin , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Uric Acid
4.
Clin Rheumatol ; 41(3): 811-818, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530329

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis, but was not considered in most COVID-19 and rheumatic diseases reports. Our aim was to describe changes in clinical data, treatment, function and quality of life for gout patients during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Prospective, descriptive and analytical study of 101 consecutive gout (ACR/EULAR 2015) patients from our clinic evaluated during pandemic by phone call (n=52) or phone call + face-to-face (n=68) that accepted to participate. Variables are demographics, clinical and treatment data, HAQ, EQ5D questionnaires and COVID-19-related data. Patients were divided in two groups: flare (n=36) or intercritical gout (n=65) also; available pre-pandemic data was obtained from 71 patients. Statistical analyses are X2, paired t-test and Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: Included gout patients were males (95.8%), mean (SD) age 54.7 (10.7) years and disease duration 16.4 (9.8) years; 90% received allopurinol, 50% colchicine as prophylaxis and 25% suspended ≥ 1 medication. Comparison of pre-pandemic vs pandemic data showed > flares (4.4% vs 36%, p=0.01), more flares in the last 6 months: 0.31 (0.75) vs 1.71 (3.1), (p=0.004 and > urate levels: 5.6 (1.7)vs 6.7 (2.2) mg/dL, p=0.016. Unexpectedly, function and quality-of-life scores improved: HAQ score 0.65 (2.16) vs 0.12 (0.17), p= 0.001. Seven patients were COVID-19-confirmed cases; they had significantly more flares, higher urate levels and lower allopurinol doses and two died. CONCLUSIONS: In gout patients, flares were 9 times more frequent during pandemic also, they had increased urate levels but led to an unexpected improvement in HAQ and functionality scores. Resilience and lifestyle changes in gout during COVID-19 pandemic require further studies. Key Points • COVID-19 pandemic is associated with 4 times more flares in gout patients. • Increased flares were also seen in previously well-controlled gout patients. • Increased serum urate levels were also found in gout patients during pandemic. • In our gout clinic, 8/101 patients were diagnosed as COVID-19+, and two of them died.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gout , Allopurinol/therapeutic use , Gout/drug therapy , Gout/epidemiology , Gout Suppressants/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Uric Acid
5.
Am J Transplant ; 20(12): 3326-3340, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455499

ABSTRACT

The eIF5A hypusination inhibitor GC7 (N1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane) was shown to protect from ischemic injuries. We hypothesized that GC7 could be useful for preconditioning kidneys from donors before transplantation. Using a preclinical porcine brain death (BD) donation model, we carried out in vivo evaluation of GC7 pretreatment (3 mg/kg iv, 5 minutes after BD) at the beginning of the 4h-donor management, after which kidneys were collected and cold-stored (18h in University of Wisconsin solution) and 1 was allotransplanted. Groups were defined as following (n = 6 per group): healthy (CTL), untreated BD (Vehicle), and GC7-treated BD (Vehicle + GC7). At the end of 4h-management, GC7 treatment decreased BD-induced markers, as radical oxygen species markers. In addition, GC7 increased expression of mitochondrial protective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1-alpha (PGC1α) and antioxidant proteins (superoxyde-dismutase-2, heme oxygenase-1, nuclear factor [erythroid-derived 2]-like 2 [NRF2], and sirtuins). At the end of cold storage, GC7 treatment induced an increase of NRF2 and PGC1α mRNA and a better mitochondrial integrity/homeostasis with a decrease of dynamin- related protein-1 activation and increase of mitofusin-2. Moreover, GC7 treatment significantly improved kidney outcome during 90 days follow-up after transplantation (fewer creatininemia and fibrosis). Overall, GC7 treatment was shown to be protective for kidneys against BD-induced injuries during donor management and subsequently appeared to preserve antioxidant defenses and mitochondria homeostasis; these protective effects being accompanied by a better transplantation outcome.


Subject(s)
Kidney Transplantation , Reperfusion Injury , Adenosine , Allopurinol , Animals , Brain Death , Glutathione , Insulin , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Organ Preservation Solutions , Peptide Initiation Factors/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins , Raffinose , Reperfusion Injury/etiology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Swine
7.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 8(1)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 on pregnant inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients is currently unknown. Reconfiguration of services during the pandemic may negatively affect medical and obstetric care. We aimed to examine the impacts on IBD antenatal care and pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective data were recorded in consecutive patients attending for IBD antenatal care including outpatient appointments, infusion unit visits and advice line encounters. RESULTS: We included 244 pregnant women with IBD, of which 75 (30.7%) were on biologics in whom the treatment was stopped in 29.3% at a median 28 weeks gestation. In addition, 9% of patients were on corticosteroids and 21.5% continued on thiopurines. The care provided during 460 patient encounters was not affected by the pandemic in 94.1% but 68.2% were performed via telephone (compared with 3% prepandemic practice; p<0.0001). One-hundred-ten women delivered 111 alive babies (mean 38.2 weeks gestation, mean birth weight 3324 g) with 12 (11.0%) giving birth before week 37. Birth occurred by vaginal delivery in 72 (56.4%) and by caesarean section in 48 (43.6%) cases. Thirty-three were elective (12 for IBD indications) and 15 emergency caesarean sections. Breast feeding rates were low (38.6%). Among 244 pregnant women with IBD, 1 suspected COVID-19 infection was recorded. CONCLUSION: IBD antenatal care adjustments during the COVID-19 pandemic have not negatively affected patient care. Despite high levels of immunosuppression, only a single COVID-19 infection occurred. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were infrequent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Allopurinol/analogs & derivatives , Allopurinol/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Withholding Treatment
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