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1.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551629

ABSTRACT

Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa have experienced lower COVID-19 caseloads and fewer deaths than countries in other regions worldwide. Under-reporting of cases and a younger population could partly account for these differences, but pre-existing immunity to coronaviruses is another potential factor. Blood samples from Sierra Leonean Lassa fever and Ebola survivors and their contacts collected before the first reported COVID-19 cases were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the presence of antibodies binding to proteins of coronaviruses that infect humans. Results were compared to COVID-19 subjects and healthy blood donors from the United States. Prior to the pandemic, Sierra Leoneans had more frequent exposures than Americans to coronaviruses with epitopes that cross-react with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), SARS-CoV, and Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The percentage of Sierra Leoneans with antibodies reacting to seasonal coronaviruses was also higher than for American blood donors. Serological responses to coronaviruses by Sierra Leoneans did not differ by age or sex. Approximately a quarter of Sierra Leonian pre-pandemic blood samples had neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, while about a third neutralized MERS-CoV pseudovirus. Prior exposures to coronaviruses that induce cross-protective immunity may contribute to reduced COVID-19 cases and deaths in Sierra Leone.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Distribution , Alphacoronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Blood Donors , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cross Protection , Cross Reactions , Epitopes , Female , Humans , Male , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Sierra Leone , United States
2.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524180

ABSTRACT

Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa have experienced lower COVID-19 caseloads and fewer deaths than countries in other regions worldwide. Under-reporting of cases and a younger population could partly account for these differences, but pre-existing immunity to coronaviruses is another potential factor. Blood samples from Sierra Leonean Lassa fever and Ebola survivors and their contacts collected before the first reported COVID-19 cases were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the presence of antibodies binding to proteins of coronaviruses that infect humans. Results were compared to COVID-19 subjects and healthy blood donors from the United States. Prior to the pandemic, Sierra Leoneans had more frequent exposures than Americans to coronaviruses with epitopes that cross-react with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), SARS-CoV, and Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The percentage of Sierra Leoneans with antibodies reacting to seasonal coronaviruses was also higher than for American blood donors. Serological responses to coronaviruses by Sierra Leoneans did not differ by age or sex. Approximately a quarter of Sierra Leonian pre-pandemic blood samples had neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, while about a third neutralized MERS-CoV pseudovirus. Prior exposures to coronaviruses that induce cross-protective immunity may contribute to reduced COVID-19 cases and deaths in Sierra Leone.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Distribution , Alphacoronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Blood Donors , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cross Protection , Cross Reactions , Epitopes , Female , Humans , Male , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Sierra Leone , United States
4.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 186-196, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370367

ABSTRACT

In classical viral infections, the avidity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is low during acute infection and high a few months later. As recently reported, SARS-CoV-2 infections are not following this scheme, but they are rather characterized by incomplete avidity maturation. This study was performed to clarify whether infection with seasonal coronaviruses also leads to incomplete avidity maturation. The avidity of IgG toward the nucleoprotein (NP) of the seasonal coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1 and of SARS-CoV-2 was determined in the sera from 88 healthy, SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects and in the sera from 70 COVID-19 outpatients, using the recomLine SARS-CoV-2 assay with recombinant antigens. In the sera from SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects, incomplete avidity maturation (persistent low and intermediate avidity indices) was the lowest for infections with the alpha-coronaviruses 229E (33.3%) and NL63 (61.3%), and the highest for the beta-coronaviruses OC43 (77.5%) and HKU1 (71.4%). In the sera from COVID-19 patients, the degree of incomplete avidity maturation of IgG toward NP of 223E, OC43, and HKU1 was not significantly different from that found in SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects, but a significant increase in avidity was observed for IgG toward NP of NL63. Though there was no cross-reaction between SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal coronaviruses, higher concentrations of IgG directed toward seasonal coronaviruses seemed to indirectly increase avidity maturation of IgG directed toward SARS-CoV-2. Our data show that incomplete IgG avidity maturation represents a characteristic consequence of coronavirus infections. This raises problems for the serological differentiation between acute and past infections and may be important for the biology of coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/immunology , Antibody Affinity , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Seasons , Young Adult
5.
Cell ; 184(7): 1858-1864.e10, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071140

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread within the human population. Although SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus, most humans had been previously exposed to other antigenically distinct common seasonal human coronaviruses (hCoVs) before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we quantified levels of SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies and hCoV-reactive antibodies in serum samples collected from 431 humans before the COVID-19 pandemic. We then quantified pre-pandemic antibody levels in serum from a separate cohort of 251 individuals who became PCR-confirmed infected with SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we longitudinally measured hCoV and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the serum of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Our studies indicate that most individuals possessed hCoV-reactive antibodies before the COVID-19 pandemic. We determined that ∼20% of these individuals possessed non-neutralizing antibodies that cross-reacted with SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins. These antibodies were not associated with protection against SARS-CoV-2 infections or hospitalizations, but they were boosted upon SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cross Protection , Cross Reactions , Disease Susceptibility , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Vero Cells
6.
SLAS Technol ; 25(6): 545-552, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724761

ABSTRACT

As of July 22, 2020, more than 14.7 million infections of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), have been confirmed globally. Serological assays are essential for community screening, assessing infection prevalence, aiding identification of infected patients, and enacting appropriate treatment and quarantine protocols in the battle against this rapidly expanding pandemic. Antibody detection by agglutination-PCR (ADAP) is a pure solution phase immunoassay that generates a PCR amplifiable signal when patient antibodies agglutinate DNA-barcoded antigen probes into a dense immune complex. Here, we present an ultrasensitive and high-throughput automated liquid biopsy assay based on the Hamilton Microlab ADAP STAR automated liquid-handling platform, which was developed and validated for the qualitative detection of total antibodies against spike protein 1 (S1) of SARS-CoV-2 that uses as little as 4 µL of serum. To assess the clinical performance of the ADAP assay, 57 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients and 223 control patients were tested. The assay showed a sensitivity of 98% (56/57) and a specificity of 99.55% (222/223). Notably, the SARS-CoV-2-negative control patients included individuals with other common coronaviral infections, such as CoV-NL63 and CoV-HKU, which did not cross-react. In addition to high performance, the hands-free automated workstation enabled high-throughput sample processing to reduce screening workload while helping to minimize analyst contact with biohazardous samples. Therefore, the ADAP STAR liquid-handling workstation can be used as a valuable tool to address the COVID-19 global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Automation, Laboratory , Chiroptera , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cross Reactions , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Immunoassay , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
J Immunol Methods ; 483: 112808, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602160

ABSTRACT

Three different porcine enteric coronaviruses (PECs), i.e., porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) are currently circulating in U.S. commercial swine herds. Differential diagnosis of PECs relies on laboratory methods. This study describes the development of an ELISA-like multiplex planar immunoassay based on virus-specific recombinant S1 proteins printed in an array of spots at the bottom of a 96-well microplate for simultaneous detection differential serodiagnosis of PEDV, TGEV, PDCoV in a single sample. The technology overall format and working principle is similar to the solid-phase standard ELISA. After the three typical incubation steps, the reaction was visualized as blue spots which intensity correlated with antibody levels to specific viral antigen target in the array. The diagnostic performance of the assay was evaluated on known status serum samples (n = 480) collected over time (day post-inoculation -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42) from pigs inoculated with PEDV, TGEV Purdue, TGEV Miller, PDCoV (USA/IL/2014), or mock inoculated with culture media under experimental conditions. Antigen-specific cut-offs were selected to ensure 100% diagnostic and analytical specificity for each given antigen target. The overall diagnostic sensitivity was 92% (44/48 positives, 95% confidence interval (CI) 98,100) for PEDV S1, 100% (95/95 positives, 95% CI 98, 100) for TGEV S1, and 98% (47/48 positives, 95% CI 97, 100) for PDCoV S1. The results of this study demonstrate that the AgroDiag PEC multiplex immunoassay is an efficient and reliable test for differential detection and serodiagnosis of PEDV, TGEV and PDCoV.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Serologic Tests/veterinary , Animals , Biomarkers/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Deltacoronavirus/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/diagnosis , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/immunology , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/virology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Swine , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/immunology
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