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1.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674829

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoV) are divided into the genera α-CoVs, ß-CoVs, γ-CoVs and δ-CoVs. Of these, α-CoVs and ß-CoVs are solely capable of causing infections in humans, resulting in mild to severe respiratory symptoms. Bats have been identified as natural reservoir hosts for CoVs belonging to these two genera. Consequently, research on bat populations, CoV prevalence in bats and genetic characterization of bat CoVs is of special interest to investigate the potential transmission risks. We present the genome sequence of a novel α-CoV strain detected in rectal swab samples of Miniopterus fuliginosus bats from a colony in the Wavul Galge cave (Koslanda, Sri Lanka). The novel strain is highly similar to Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1, an α-CoV located in the subgenus of Minunacoviruses. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed a high identity of the novel strain to other α-CoVs derived from Miniopterus bats, while human-pathogenic α-CoV strains like HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63 were more distantly related. Comparison with selected bat-related and human-pathogenic strains of the ß-CoV genus showed low identities of ~40%. Analyses of the different genes on nucleotide and amino acid level revealed that the non-structural ORF1a/1b are more conserved among α-CoVs and ß-CoVs, while there are higher variations in the structural proteins known to be important for host specificity. The novel strain was named batCoV/MinFul/2018/SriLanka and had a prevalence of 50% (66/130) in rectal swab samples and 58% (61/104) in feces samples that were collected from Miniopterus bats in Wavul Galge cave. Based on the differences between strain batCoV/MinFul/2018/SriLanka and human-pathogenic α-CoVs and ß-CoVs, we conclude that there is a rather low transmission risk to humans. Further studies in the Wavul Galge cave and at other locations in Sri Lanka will give more detailed information about the prevalence of this virus.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Genome, Viral , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Animals , Caves/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Female , Male , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sri Lanka
2.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625724

ABSTRACT

Bats are a reservoir for coronaviruses (CoVs) that periodically spill over to humans, as evidenced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2. A collection of 174 bat samples originating from South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, and Nebraska submitted for rabies virus testing due to human exposure were analyzed using a pan-coronavirus PCR. A previously partially characterized CoV, Eptesicus bat CoV, was identified in 12 (6.9%) samples by nested RT-PCR. Six near-complete genomes were determined. Genetic analysis found a high similarity between all CoV-positive samples, Rocky Mountain bat CoV 65 and alphacoronavirus HCQD-2020 recently identified in South Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of genome sequences showed EbCoV is closely related to bat CoV HKU2 and swine acute diarrhea syndrome CoV; however, topological incongruences were noted for the spike gene that was more closely related to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. Similar to some alphaCoVs, a novel gene, ORF7, was discovered downstream of the nucleocapsid, whose protein lacked similarity to known proteins. The widespread circulation of EbCoV with similarities to bat viruses that have spilled over to swine warrants further surveillance.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Phylogeny , Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Animals , Genome, Viral , Iowa , Midwestern United States , Minnesota , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA , South Dakota , Viral Zoonoses/transmission
3.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463837

ABSTRACT

In summer 2020, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was detected on mink farms in Utah. An interagency One Health response was initiated to assess the extent of the outbreak and included sampling animals from on or near affected mink farms and testing them for SARS-CoV-2 and non-SARS coronaviruses. Among the 365 animals sampled, including domestic cats, mink, rodents, raccoons, and skunks, 261 (72%) of the animals harbored at least one coronavirus. Among the samples that could be further characterized, 127 alphacoronaviruses and 88 betacoronaviruses (including 74 detections of SARS-CoV-2 in mink) were identified. Moreover, at least 10% (n = 27) of the coronavirus-positive animals were found to be co-infected with more than one coronavirus. Our findings indicate an unexpectedly high prevalence of coronavirus among the domestic and wild free-roaming animals tested on mink farms. These results raise the possibility that mink farms could be potential hot spots for future trans-species viral spillover and the emergence of new pandemic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Cats , Disease Hotspot , Female , Male , Mephitidae/virology , Mice , Mink/virology , Raccoons/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Utah/epidemiology
4.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460086

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus, an important zoonotic disease, raises concerns of future pandemics. The bat is considered a source of noticeable viruses resulting in human and livestock infections, especially the coronavirus. Therefore, surveillance and genetic analysis of coronaviruses in bats are essential in order to prevent the risk of future diseases. In this study, the genome of HCQD-2020, a novel alphacoronavirus detected in a bat (Eptesicus serotinus), was assembled and described using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. The comparison of the whole-genome sequence and the conserved amino acid sequence of replicated proteins revealed that the new strain was distantly related with other known species in the Alphacoronavirus genus. Phylogenetic construction indicated that this strain formed a separated branch with other species, suggesting a new species of Alphacoronavirus. Additionally, in silico prediction also revealed the risk of cross-species infection of this strain, especially in the order Artiodactyla. In summary, this study provided the genetic characteristics of a possible new species belonging to Alphacoronavirus.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Genome, Viral/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Animals , Artiodactyla/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Phylogeny , Republic of Korea , Sequence Alignment , Whole Genome Sequencing
5.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460085

ABSTRACT

According to various estimates, only a small percentage of existing viruses have been discovered, naturally much less being represented in the genomic databases. High-throughput sequencing technologies develop rapidly, empowering large-scale screening of various biological samples for the presence of pathogen-associated nucleotide sequences, but many organisms are yet to be attributed specific loci for identification. This problem particularly impedes viral screening, due to vast heterogeneity in viral genomes. In this paper, we present a new bioinformatic pipeline, VirIdAl, for detecting and identifying viral pathogens in sequencing data. We also demonstrate the utility of the new software by applying it to viral screening of the feces of bats collected in the Moscow region, which revealed a significant variety of viruses associated with bats, insects, plants, and protozoa. The presence of alpha and beta coronavirus reads, including the MERS-like bat virus, deserves a special mention, as it once again indicates that bats are indeed reservoirs for many viral pathogens. In addition, it was shown that alignment-based methods were unable to identify the taxon for a large proportion of reads, and we additionally applied other approaches, showing that they can further reveal the presence of viral agents in sequencing data. However, the incompleteness of viral databases remains a significant problem in the studies of viral diversity, and therefore necessitates the use of combined approaches, including those based on machine learning methods.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Chiroptera/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Metagenome/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Chiroptera/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Feces/virology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Metagenomics/methods , Moscow , Phycodnaviridae/classification , Phycodnaviridae/genetics , Phycodnaviridae/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, DNA
6.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282637

ABSTRACT

Bat species worldwide are receiving increased attention for the discovery of emerging viruses, cross-species transmission, and zoonoses, as well as for characterizing virus infections specific to bats. In a previous study, we investigated the presence of coronaviruses in faecal samples from bats at different locations in Denmark, and made phylogenies based on short, partial ORF1b sequences. In this study, selected samples containing bat coronaviruses from three different bat species were analysed, using a non-targeted approach of next-generation sequencing. From the resulting metagenomics data, we assembled full-genome sequences of seven distinct alphacoronaviruses, three astroviruses, and a polyomavirus, as well as partial genome sequences of rotavirus H and caliciviruses, from the different bat species. Comparisons to published sequences indicate that the bat alphacoronaviruses belong to three different subgenera-i.e., Pedacovirus, Nyctacovirus, and Myotacovirus-that the astroviruses may be new species in the genus Mamastrovirus, and that the polyomavirus could also be a new species, but unassigned to a genus. Furthermore, several viruses of invertebrates-including two Rhopalosiphum padi (aphid) viruses and a Kadipiro virus-present in the faecal material were assembled. Interestingly, this is the first detection in Europe of a Kadipiro virus.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Astroviridae/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , Genome, Viral , Whole Genome Sequencing , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Animals , Astroviridae/classification , Astroviridae/isolation & purification , Denmark , Feces/virology , Genomics/methods , Open Reading Frames , Phylogeny
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1015-1022, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150678

ABSTRACT

The ongoing global pandemic caused by coronavirus disease has once again demonstrated the role of the family Coronaviridae in causing human disease outbreaks. Because severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was first detected in December 2019, information on its tropism, host range, and clinical manifestations in animals is limited. Given the limited information, data from other coronaviruses might be useful for informing scientific inquiry, risk assessment, and decision-making. We reviewed endemic and emerging infections of alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses in wildlife, livestock, and companion animals and provide information on the receptor use, known hosts, and clinical signs associated with each host for 15 coronaviruses detected in humans and animals. This information can be used to guide implementation of a One Health approach that involves human health, animal health, environmental, and other relevant partners in developing strategies for preparedness, response, and control to current and future coronavirus disease threats.


Subject(s)
Coronaviridae/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Zoonoses/virology , Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Animals , Animals, Wild , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Host Specificity , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology
9.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244006, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1074162

ABSTRACT

In this study, we examined the role of the eastern bent-winged bat (Miniopterus fuliginosus) in the dispersion of bat adenovirus and bat alphacoronavirus in east Asia, considering their gene flows and divergence times (based on deep-sequencing data), using bat fecal guano samples. Bats in China moved to Jeju Island and/or Taiwan in the last 20,000 years via the Korean Peninsula and/or Japan. The phylogenies of host mitochondrial D-loop DNA was not significantly congruent with those of bat adenovirus (m2XY = 0.07, p = 0.08), and bat alphacoronavirus (m2XY = 0.48, p = 0.20). We estimate that the first divergence time of bats carrying bat adenovirus in five caves studied (designated as K1, K2, JJ, N2, and F3) occurred approximately 3.17 million years ago. In contrast, the first divergence time of bat adenovirus among bats in the 5 caves was estimated to be approximately 224.32 years ago. The first divergence time of bats in caves CH, JJ, WY, N2, F1, F2, and F3 harboring bat alphacoronavirus was estimated to be 1.59 million years ago. The first divergence time of bat alphacoronavirus among the 7 caves was estimated to be approximately 2,596.92 years ago. The origin of bat adenovirus remains unclear, whereas our findings suggest that bat alphacoronavirus originated in Japan. Surprisingly, bat adenovirus and bat alphacoronavirus appeared to diverge substantially over the last 100 years, even though our gene-flow data indicate that the eastern bent-winged bat serves as an important natural reservoir of both viruses.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Chiroptera/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Animals , Caves , Chiroptera/classification , Chiroptera/virology , DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry , DNA, Mitochondrial/metabolism , DNA, Viral/chemistry , DNA, Viral/metabolism , Far East , Feces/virology , Gene Flow , Genetic Variation , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Monte Carlo Method , Phylogeny
10.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(4): 616-620, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634158

ABSTRACT

Ferret systemic coronaviral disease (FSCD) is a well-established cause of mortality in domestic ferrets. We describe herein novel findings in a case of FSCD that was diagnosed and medically managed following virus detection by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of surgical biopsy samples. Hematologic changes in this ferret suggested spread of the virus to the bone marrow, which was confirmed by IHC staining of a postmortem sample. Genotyping of the virus indicated that the virus grouped with alphacoronaviruses and was most closely related to ferret enteric coronavirus (FRECV) MSU-2. Our clinical case demonstrates that a FRECV MSU-2-like ferret coronavirus associated previously with the enteric pathotype may cause systemic disease, including bone marrow involvement causing persistent pancytopenia.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Ferrets/virology , Pancytopenia/veterinary , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pancytopenia/etiology
11.
J Clin Virol ; 129: 104543, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread and caused death worldwide. Preventive measures and infection control are underway, and some areas show signs of convergence. Other viruses in addition to SARS-CoV-2 cause cold-like symptoms and spread in the winter. However, the extent to which SARS-CoV-2, influenza viruses and other causative viruses have prevailed since implementing preventive measures is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aim to investigate the incidence of causative viruses and pathogens in patients. STUDY DESIGN: We collected 191 nasopharyngeal swabs from patients with cold-like symptoms in Japan. All samples were subjected to multiplex PCR with the FilmArray Respiratory Panel and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) to detect SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: FilmArray Respiratory Panel analysis detected at least one virus in 32 of 191 patients with cold-like symptoms (21 %). Of these, we frequently identified human rhinoviruses/enteroviruses (5.8 %, n=11), human metapneumovirus (3.7 %, n=7), coronavirus 229E (2.1 %, n=4) and coronavirus OC43 (1.6 %, n=3); while no influenza viruses were detected. RT-PCR analysis detected SARS-CoV-2 (4.2 %, n=8) in patients who were not infected with the aforementioned respiratory viruses. CONCLUSIONS: Co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses was not observed. Causative viruses remain prevalent after implementing preventive measures. SARS-CoV-2 differs from influenza viruses in its infectivity.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coinfection/virology , Humans , Incidence , Japan , Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nasopharynx/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Prospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification
12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1125: 57-65, 2020 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626172

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and swine acute diarrhea syndrome-coronavirus (SADS-CoV) are three emerging and re-emerging coronaviruses (CoVs). Symptoms caused by these three viruses are extremely similar, including acute diarrhea, vomiting and even death in piglets. To date, strict biosecurity is still the most effective disease prevention and control measures, and the early detection of pathogens is the most important link. Here, we developed a microfluidic-RT-LAMP chip detection system for the first time, which could detected PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV simultaneously, and had advantages of rapid, simple, sensitive, high-throughput, and accurate at point-of-care settings. The lowest detection limits of the microfluidic-RT-LAMP chip method are 101 copies/µL, 102 copies/µL and 102 copies/µL for PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV, respectively. The whole detection procedure can be finished rapidly in 40 min without any cross-reaction with other common swine viruses. A total of 173 clinical swine fecal samples characterized with diarrheal symptoms were used to evaluate the performance of the newly developed system, which presented good stabilities (C.V.s<5%) and specificities (100%), and possessed sensitivities of 92.24%, 92.19% and 91.23% for PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV respectively. In summary, the established microfluidic-RT-LAMP chip detection system could satisfy the demanding in field diagnoses, which was suitable for promotion in remote areas due to its fast, portable and cost-effective characters.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , RNA, Viral/analysis , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Animals , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Limit of Detection , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Point-of-Care Systems , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine
13.
Microb Ecol ; 79(1): 203-212, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326842

ABSTRACT

Bats are flying mammals distributed worldwide known to host several types of Coronavirus (CoV). Since they were reported as the probable source of spillover of highly pathogenic CoV into the human population, investigating the circulation of this virus in bats around the world became of great importance. We analyzed samples from 103 bats from two distinct regions in Brazil. Coronavirus from the Alphacoronavirus genus was detected in 12 animals, 11 from São José do Rio Preto-SP region and 1 from Barreiras-BA region, resulting in a prevalence of 17.18% and 2.56% respectively. The virus was detected not only in intestines but also in lungs and liver. Phylogenetic analysis based on nsP12 genomic region suggests that the sequences group according to host family and sampling location. Studies on the circulation of these viruses in bats remain important to understand the ecology and evolutionary relationship of these pathogens.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Chiroptera/virology , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Animals , Biological Evolution , Brazil , Genome, Viral , Intestines/virology , Liver/virology , Lung/virology , Phylogeny
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