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2.
Euro Surveill ; 26(50)2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592477

ABSTRACT

While many European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries recently expanded human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to boys, HPV vaccine supply is currently limited for girls in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) that are severely affected by HPV.Globally, about 50% of countries have introduced HPV vaccination. Some LMIC with high burden of cervical cancer have not yet introduced HPV vaccination, or are reaching suboptimal vaccination coverage. While WHO issued a call for cervical cancer elimination in 2018, a global shortage of HPV vaccines is currently predicted to last at least until 2024.We reviewed national policies of EU/EEA countries and recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunisation to discuss current challenges and dose-sparing options. Several EU/EEA countries have extended HPV vaccination to boys and the European Cancer Organisation has issued a resolution for elimination of all HPV-associated cancers in both sexes. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control concluded in its 2020 guidance that cost-effectiveness of extending routine vaccination to boys depends on several context-specific factors. The extension of HPV vaccination to boys in EU/EEA countries may affect global availability of vaccines. Temporary dose-sparing options could be considered during the COVID-19 post-pandemic period.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , European Union , Female , Humans , Immunization , Male , Morals , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaccination
3.
J Low Genit Tract Dis ; 26(1): 13-19, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592137

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term sustainability of a multilevel intervention and the COVID-19 pandemic impact on adolescent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2016, a pediatric and family medicine practice within a federally qualified health center completed a multilevel intervention, Development of Systems and Education for Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. We examined the intervention impact on HPV vaccine initiation and completion rates among adolescents 10-18 years between March 2016 and October 2020. We determined the total number of HPV vaccine doses administered monthly. Data were plotted on statistical process control charts. RESULTS: Vaccine initiation increased from an average of 14% to an average of 42% for 10-year-old patients and from an average of 72% to an average of 92% for 11- to 12-year-old patients between March 2016 and January 2017 and remained stable through March 2020. Complete vaccination by age 13 years increased from 62% to 88% through October 2020. CONCLUSIONS: This intervention led to continued improvement for on-time HPV vaccination coverage 4 years after intervention completion.Clinical Trial Registration: This trial has been registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (identifier NCT02812732).


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
OMICS ; 25(6): 358-371, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243453

ABSTRACT

About a tenth of all cancers are caused by viruses or associated with viral infection. Recent global events including the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic means that human encounter with viruses is increased. Cancer development in individuals with viral infection can take many years after infection, demonstrating that the involvement of viruses in cancer development is a long and complex process. This complexity emanates from individual genetic heterogeneity and the many steps involved in cancer development owing to viruses. The process of tumorigenesis is driven by the complex interaction between several viral factors and host factors leading to the creation of a tumor microenvironment (TME) that is ideal and promotes tumor formation. Viruses associated with human cancers ensure their survival and proliferation through activation of several cellular processes including inflammation, migration, and invasion, resistance to apoptosis and growth suppressors. In addition, most human oncoviruses evade immune detection and can activate signaling cascades including the PI3K-Akt-mTOR, Notch and Wnt pathways associated with enhanced proliferation and angiogenesis. This expert review examines and synthesizes the multiple biological factors related to oncoviruses, and the signaling cascades activated by these viruses contributing to viral oncogenesis. In particular, I examine and review the Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomaviruses, and Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus in a context of cancer pathogenesis. I conclude with a future outlook on therapeutic targeting of the viruses and their associated oncogenic pathways within the TME. These anticancer strategies can be in the form of, but not limited to, antibodies and inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/virology , Neoplasms/virology , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Retroviridae Infections/virology , Retroviridae/physiology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/virology , Tumor Virus Infections/virology , Alphapapillomavirus/physiology , Carcinogenesis , Cell Transformation, Viral , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/pathology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/physiology , Herpesvirus 8, Human/physiology , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/therapy , Papillomavirus Infections/pathology , Retroviridae Infections/pathology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/pathology , Signal Transduction , Tumor Microenvironment , Tumor Virus Infections/pathology
5.
Vaccine ; 39(20): 2731-2735, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193499

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly affected utilization of preventative health care, including vaccines. We aimed to assess HPV vaccination rates during the pandemic, and conduct a simulation model-based analysis to estimate the impact of current coverage and future pandemic recovery scenarios on disease outcomes. The model population included females and males of all ages in the US. The model compares pre-COVID vaccine uptake to 3 reduced coverage scenarios with varying recovery speed. Vaccine coverage was obtained from Truven Marketscan™. Substantially reduced coverage between March-August 2020 was observed compared to 2018-2019. The model predicted that 130,853 to 213,926 additional cases of genital warts; 22,503 to 48,157 cases of CIN1; 48,682 to 110,192 cases of CIN2/3; and 2,882 to 6,487 cases of cervical cancer will occur over the next 100 years, compared to status quo. Providers should plan efforts to recover HPV vaccination and minimize potential long-term consequences.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(3): 432-434, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133380

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer screening has undergone a transformation in recent decades. Historically, programs were based on cervical cytology (i.e., "Pap smear"), which had to be repeated often because of its limited sensitivity and reproducibility. In more recent years, the discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the necessary cause of virtually all cervical cancers has led to the introduction of HPV testing into clinical practice, first as a triage test for minor cytologic abnormalities, then in conjunction with cervical cytology (cotesting), and most recently, as a standalone screening test. Multiple randomized trials have shown that HPV-based screening has higher sensitivity compared with cytology, providing great reassurance against cervical precancer and cancer for women testing HPV-negative for many years. Analyses have also been conducted in support of the recent U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines that show that primary HPV screening achieves the greatest balance of benefits and harms compared with other strategies. An added benefit of primary HPV testing is the ability to conduct it from self-collected samples, which is critical for extending coverage among hard-to-reach individuals and could provide a safe and effective alternative to in-person screening visits during the COVID-19 pandemic.See related article by Liang et al., p. 474.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Papanicolaou Test , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Vaginal Smears
8.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2228, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126517

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been used as antiviral agents for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection. We performed a systematic review to examine whether prior clinical studies that compared the effects of CQ and HCQ to a control for the treatment of non-SARS-CoV2 infection supported the use of these agents in the present SARS-CoV2 outbreak. PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science (PROSPERO CRD42020183429) were searched from inception through 2 April 2020 without language restrictions. Of 1766 retrieved reports, 18 studies met our inclusion criteria, including 17 prospective controlled studies and one retrospective study. CQ or HCQ were compared to control for the treatment of infectious mononucleosis (EBV, n = 4), warts (human papillomavirus, n = 2), chronic HIV infection (n = 6), acute chikungunya infection (n = 1), acute dengue virus infection (n = 2), chronic HCV (n = 2), and as preventive measures for influenza infection (n = 1). Survival was not evaluated in any study. For HIV, the virus that was most investigated, while two early studies suggested HCQ reduced viral levels, four subsequent ones did not, and in two of these CQ or HCQ increased viral levels and reduced CD4 counts. Overall, three studies concluded CQ or HCQ were effective; four concluded further research was needed to assess the treatments' effectiveness; and 11 concluded that treatment was ineffective or potentially harmful. Prior controlled clinical trials with CQ and HCQ for non-SARS-CoV2 viral infections do not support these agents' use for the SARS-CoV2 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever/drug therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Infectious Mononucleosis/drug therapy , Severe Dengue/drug therapy , Warts/drug therapy , Alphapapillomavirus/drug effects , Alphapapillomavirus/immunology , Alphapapillomavirus/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Chikungunya Fever/immunology , Chikungunya Fever/pathology , Chikungunya Fever/virology , Chikungunya virus/drug effects , Chikungunya virus/immunology , Chikungunya virus/pathogenicity , Dengue Virus/drug effects , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , HIV/drug effects , HIV/immunology , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/pathology , HIV Infections/virology , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis C, Chronic/immunology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/drug effects , Herpesvirus 4, Human/immunology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/pathogenicity , Humans , Infectious Mononucleosis/immunology , Infectious Mononucleosis/pathology , Infectious Mononucleosis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Dengue/immunology , Severe Dengue/pathology , Severe Dengue/virology , Treatment Outcome , Warts/immunology , Warts/pathology , Warts/virology
9.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 20(7): 2001-2003, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099725

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a multisystemic disease that can cause progressive lung failure, organ dysfunction, and coagulation disorder associated with high mortality and morbidity. COVID-19 is known to either primarily cause skin symptoms or increase existing skin diseases. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus that can cause benign and malignant neoplasms. Mucocutaneous verruca vulgaris are common benign lesions of HPV. Here, we report a case of verruca vulgaris regressed after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Humans , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Talanta ; 227: 122154, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078200

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases caused by viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and HPV have greatly endangered human health. The nucleic acid detection is essential for the early diagnosis of diseases. Here, we propose a method called PLCR (PfAgo coupled with modified Ligase Chain Reaction for nucleic acid detection) which utilizes PfAgo to only use DNA guides longer than 14-mer to specifically cleave DNA and LCR to precisely distinguish single-base mismatch. PLCR can detect DNA or RNA without PCR at attomolar sensitivities, distinguish single base mutation between the genome of wild type SARS-CoV-2 and its mutant spike D614G, effectively distinguish the novel coronavirus from other coronaviruses and finally achieve multiplexed detection in 70 min. Additionally, LCR products can be directly used as DNA guides without additional input guides to simplify primer design. With desirable sensitivity, specificity and simplicity, the method can be extended for detecting other pathogenic microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Argonaute Proteins/chemistry , DNA, Viral/analysis , Ligase Chain Reaction/methods , Pyrococcus furiosus/enzymology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Alphapapillomavirus/chemistry , Alphapapillomavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA, Viral/chemistry , Humans , Limit of Detection , Mutation , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
14.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(3): 836-837, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-786983

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been growing, including in Japan where it has been estimated that as many as 3.1% of patients positive for new CoV strain SARS-CoV-2 might die of COVID-19-related respiratory failure. Meanwhile, human papillomavirus (HPV) is spreading in Japan. The fatality rate for HPV-associated cancers after infection with HPV is as much as that for COVID-19 in Japan, although the time to disease is much longer for HPV. Among advanced countries, the cervical cancer screening rate in Japanese females is very low. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) suspended its official recommendation for HPV vaccination in June 2013 due to alleged adverse post-vaccination events in several young girls, such as chronic pain and motor impairment, which were repeatedly reported in the media. Subsequently, the rate for vaccinating girls plummeted from approximately 70% to the current rate of 1% or less. Women should accept HPV vaccination for the eventual prevention of cervical cancer with the same passion they are for COVID-19 testing.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Humans , Japan , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/immunology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Vaccination/methods
15.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 277-284, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635339

ABSTRACT

The age-standardised incidence of cervical cancer in Europe varies widely by country (between 3 and 25/100000 women-years) in 2018. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage is low in countries with the highest incidence and screening performance is heterogeneous among European countries. A broad group of delegates of scientific professional societies and cancer organisations endorse the principles of the WHO call to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health problem, also in Europe. All European nations should, by 2030, reach at least 90% HPV vaccine coverage among girls by the age of 15 years and also boys, if cost-effective; they should introduce organised population-based HPV-based screening and achieve 70% of screening coverage in the target age group, providing also HPV testing on self-samples for nonscreened or underscreened women; and to manage 90% of screen-positive women. To guide member states, a group of scientific professional societies and cancer organisations engage to assist in the rollout of a series of concerted evidence-based actions. European health authorities are requested to mandate a group of experts to develop the third edition of European Guidelines for Quality Assurance of Cervical Cancer prevention based on integrated HPV vaccination and screening and to monitor the progress towards the elimination goal. The occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic, having interrupted prevention activities temporarily, should not deviate stakeholders from this ambition. In the immediate postepidemic phase, health professionals should focus on high-risk women and adhere to cost-effective policies including self-sampling.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Public Health/methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Alphapapillomavirus/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Early Detection of Cancer , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Public Health/standards , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/immunology , Vaccination/methods , World Health Organization , Young Adult
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