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Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2228, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126517


Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been used as antiviral agents for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection. We performed a systematic review to examine whether prior clinical studies that compared the effects of CQ and HCQ to a control for the treatment of non-SARS-CoV2 infection supported the use of these agents in the present SARS-CoV2 outbreak. PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science (PROSPERO CRD42020183429) were searched from inception through 2 April 2020 without language restrictions. Of 1766 retrieved reports, 18 studies met our inclusion criteria, including 17 prospective controlled studies and one retrospective study. CQ or HCQ were compared to control for the treatment of infectious mononucleosis (EBV, n = 4), warts (human papillomavirus, n = 2), chronic HIV infection (n = 6), acute chikungunya infection (n = 1), acute dengue virus infection (n = 2), chronic HCV (n = 2), and as preventive measures for influenza infection (n = 1). Survival was not evaluated in any study. For HIV, the virus that was most investigated, while two early studies suggested HCQ reduced viral levels, four subsequent ones did not, and in two of these CQ or HCQ increased viral levels and reduced CD4 counts. Overall, three studies concluded CQ or HCQ were effective; four concluded further research was needed to assess the treatments' effectiveness; and 11 concluded that treatment was ineffective or potentially harmful. Prior controlled clinical trials with CQ and HCQ for non-SARS-CoV2 viral infections do not support these agents' use for the SARS-CoV2 outbreak.

Chikungunya Fever/drug therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Infectious Mononucleosis/drug therapy , Severe Dengue/drug therapy , Warts/drug therapy , Alphapapillomavirus/drug effects , Alphapapillomavirus/immunology , Alphapapillomavirus/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Chikungunya Fever/immunology , Chikungunya Fever/pathology , Chikungunya Fever/virology , Chikungunya virus/drug effects , Chikungunya virus/immunology , Chikungunya virus/pathogenicity , Dengue Virus/drug effects , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , HIV/drug effects , HIV/immunology , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/pathology , HIV Infections/virology , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis C, Chronic/immunology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/drug effects , Herpesvirus 4, Human/immunology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/pathogenicity , Humans , Infectious Mononucleosis/immunology , Infectious Mononucleosis/pathology , Infectious Mononucleosis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Dengue/immunology , Severe Dengue/pathology , Severe Dengue/virology , Treatment Outcome , Warts/immunology , Warts/pathology , Warts/virology
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(3): 836-837, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-786983


The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been growing, including in Japan where it has been estimated that as many as 3.1% of patients positive for new CoV strain SARS-CoV-2 might die of COVID-19-related respiratory failure. Meanwhile, human papillomavirus (HPV) is spreading in Japan. The fatality rate for HPV-associated cancers after infection with HPV is as much as that for COVID-19 in Japan, although the time to disease is much longer for HPV. Among advanced countries, the cervical cancer screening rate in Japanese females is very low. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) suspended its official recommendation for HPV vaccination in June 2013 due to alleged adverse post-vaccination events in several young girls, such as chronic pain and motor impairment, which were repeatedly reported in the media. Subsequently, the rate for vaccinating girls plummeted from approximately 70% to the current rate of 1% or less. Women should accept HPV vaccination for the eventual prevention of cervical cancer with the same passion they are for COVID-19 testing.

Alphapapillomavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Humans , Japan , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/immunology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Vaccination/methods
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 277-284, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635339


The age-standardised incidence of cervical cancer in Europe varies widely by country (between 3 and 25/100000 women-years) in 2018. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage is low in countries with the highest incidence and screening performance is heterogeneous among European countries. A broad group of delegates of scientific professional societies and cancer organisations endorse the principles of the WHO call to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health problem, also in Europe. All European nations should, by 2030, reach at least 90% HPV vaccine coverage among girls by the age of 15 years and also boys, if cost-effective; they should introduce organised population-based HPV-based screening and achieve 70% of screening coverage in the target age group, providing also HPV testing on self-samples for nonscreened or underscreened women; and to manage 90% of screen-positive women. To guide member states, a group of scientific professional societies and cancer organisations engage to assist in the rollout of a series of concerted evidence-based actions. European health authorities are requested to mandate a group of experts to develop the third edition of European Guidelines for Quality Assurance of Cervical Cancer prevention based on integrated HPV vaccination and screening and to monitor the progress towards the elimination goal. The occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic, having interrupted prevention activities temporarily, should not deviate stakeholders from this ambition. In the immediate postepidemic phase, health professionals should focus on high-risk women and adhere to cost-effective policies including self-sampling.

Alphapapillomavirus/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Public Health/methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Alphapapillomavirus/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Early Detection of Cancer , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Public Health/standards , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/immunology , Vaccination/methods , World Health Organization , Young Adult