Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 86
Filter
1.
BMJ ; 376: o796, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769878

Subject(s)
Altruism , Warfare , Humans , Ukraine
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266050, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765541

ABSTRACT

Uncertainty has been shown to reduce the willingness to cooperate in various social dilemmas and negatively affect prosocial behavior. However, some studies showed that uncertainty does not always decrease prosocial behavior, depending on the type of uncertainty. More specifically, recent research has shown that prosocial behavior tends to increase under impact uncertainty-uncertainty about the consequences for others if they become infected. In addition, researchers have argued that intuition favors prosocial behavior while deliberation leads to selfish behavior. Our study explored how intuitive (time pressure) or deliberate mental processing, under outcome, or impact uncertainty affect prosocial behavior in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our sample consists of 496 participants, and we used a 4 (COVID-19 scenario: Control vs. Impact Uncertainty vs. Worst-Case vs. Indirect Transmission) by 2 (decision time: time delay vs. time pressure) between-subjects design. Results suggest that participants are more inclined to stay at home (prosocial intention) when forced to make their decisions intuitively rather than deliberately. Additionally, we found that uncertainty does not always decrease prosocial behavior. It seems that uncertainty does not affect the prosocial intention in a scenario with a real infectious disease. These findings suggest that the distinction between outcome and impact uncertainty may be due to the realism of experimental stimuli interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Altruism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Intuition , Pandemics , Social Behavior , Uncertainty
3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264782, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759948

ABSTRACT

What types of public health messages are effective at changing people's beliefs and intentions to practice social distancing to slow the spread of COVID-19? We conducted two randomized experiments in summer 2020 that assigned respondents to read a public health message and then measured their beliefs and behavioral intentions across a wide variety of outcomes. Using both a convenience sample and a pre-registered replication with a nationally representative sample of Americans, we find that a message that reframes not social distancing as recklessness rather than bravery and a message that highlights the need for everyone to take action to protect one another are the most effective at increasing beliefs and intentions related to social distancing. These results provide an evidentiary basis for building effective public health campaigns to increase social distancing during flu pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Education/methods , Persuasive Communication , Physical Distancing , Adult , Altruism , Female , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Male , Risk Reduction Behavior , Self Efficacy , Social Values
4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745708

ABSTRACT

This paper explores the quality and usefulness of ethical guidance for humanitarian aid workers and their agencies. We focus specifically on public health emergencies, such as COVID-19. The authors undertook a literature review and gathered empirical data through semi-structured focus group discussions amongst front-line workers from health clinics in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh and in the Abyei Special Administrative Area, South Sudan. The purpose of the project was to identify how front-line workers respond to ethical challenges, including any informal or local decision-making processes, support networks, or habits of response.The research findings highlighted a dissonance between ethical guidance and the experiences of front-line humanitarian health workers. They suggest the possibility: (1) that few problems confronting front-line workers are conceived, described, or resolved as ethical problems; and (2) of significant dissonance between available, allegedly practically oriented guidance (often produced by academics in North America and Europe), and the immediate issues confronting front-line workers. The literature review and focus group data suggest a real possibility that there is, at best, a significant epistemic gulf between those who produce ethical guidelines and those engaged in real-time problem solving at the point of contact with people. At worst they suggest a form of epistemic control-an imposition of cognitive shapes that shoehorn the round peg of theoretical preoccupations and the disciplinary boundaries of western academies into the square hole of front-line humanitarian practice.


Subject(s)
Altruism , COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Humans , Morals , Public Health
5.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265544, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745306

ABSTRACT

AIM: Our purpose was to clarify the level and correlates of empathy and altruism in the German population during the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: A nationally representative survey (n = 3,075) was conducted in August/September 2021. To measure empathy, a short scale based on the Interpersonality Reactivity Index (IRI; German version: Saarbrucken personality questionnaire, SPF) was used (SPF-K). Based on the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; IPIP-5F30F-R1), the subscale altruism was used to quantify altruism. RESULTS: The average altruism score was 3.3 (SD: 0.7), ranging from 1 to 5. Moreover, the average empathy score was 13.1 (SD: 2.8), ranging from 4 to 20. The level of empathy significantly differed between the subgroups. For example, high levels of empathy were identified among women (average: 13.7, SD: 2.7), individuals with children (average: 13.5, SD: 2.8), and individuals with migration background (average: 13.6, SD: 2.8). Effect sizes were mostly small. Similar differences (in terms of effect size) were identified between these groups regarding altruism. Additionally, regressions showed that higher levels of both empathy and altruism were associated with being female, younger age, having children, sports activities and having at least one chronic disease. Moreover, vaccination against Covid-19 was only associated with higher altruism, but not with higher empathy. CONCLUSION: Our study emphasized the moderately high level of empathy and altruism in Germany during times of the pandemic. Identifying the correlates of these factors may help to address individuals with very low levels of these factors.


Subject(s)
Altruism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Empathy , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Personality , Sex Characteristics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology , Young Adult
6.
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572496

ABSTRACT

In humans, over-activation of innate immunity in response to viral or bacterial infections often causes severe illness and death. Furthermore, similar mechanisms related to innate immunity can cause pathogenesis and death in sepsis, massive trauma (including surgery and burns), ischemia/reperfusion, some toxic lesions, and viral infections including COVID-19. Based on the reviewed observations, we suggest that such severe outcomes may be manifestations of a controlled suicidal strategy protecting the entire population from the spread of pathogens and from dangerous pathologies rather than an aberrant hyperstimulation of defense responses. We argue that innate immunity may be involved in the implementation of an altruistic programmed death of an organism aimed at increasing the well-being of the whole community. We discuss possible ways to suppress this atavistic program by interfering with innate immunity and suggest that combating this program should be a major goal of future medicine.


Subject(s)
Altruism , Apoptosis/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Death/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/immunology
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studying prosociality in children is a complex but relevant issue related to the qualitative development of human interactions. The main objective of the present study is to identify the psychosocial factors that most promote or inhibit the adoption of prosocial behaviours among children. METHOD: In Spring 2021, a survey was conducted amongst primary school children through a structured paper questionnaire. The data analysis has been carried out through bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Path analysis has been used. RESULTS: The results highlight the role played by the parental education level, the perception of positive and negative emotions, the adherence to gender roles and the involvement in cyberbullying actions in predicting prosocial tendencies among children. On the other hand, adopting prosocial behaviours affects the screen-time as well as the devices' interference in face-to-face interactions and the attitude towards school. CONCLUSIONS: The results are relevant and useful for the study of trends in prosocial behaviours among children. Family education level, individual status, peer interactions and social conditionings are variables that highly influence this multidimensional phenomenon. Further research is needed, including the definition of new measures and indicators concerning the context where children live and interact with others, with the aim of designing interventions aimed at facilitating relational well-being of children.


Subject(s)
Altruism , Socialization , Child , Humans , Peer Group , Schools , Social Behavior , Students
11.
Vox Sang ; 116(10): 1031-1041, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this survey, we aimed to provide early insight into the impact of COVID-19 on blood donors and their motivation to donate during the crisis. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We asked representative samples in 7 European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, the Netherlands and the UK) about their blood donation activity and motivation to donate using an online survey. We analysed donor turnout during the COVID-19 period descriptively and using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 7122 people that responded to the survey, 1205 (16·9%) blood donors were identified, with 33·8% donating during the first 4-5 months of the COVID-19 period. We observed that around half of donors donated less than normal. The vast majority of donors that did donate made a special effort to do so in response to COVID-19. The majority of donors were also not aware of their blood being tested for COVID-19 antibodies. Although the perceived risk of infection among all respondents whilst donating blood was relatively low, those who anticipated a high risk of infection were much less likely to donate (OR = 0·540; P-value = 0·006). Furthermore, those that were adherent to COVID guidelines were also less likely to donate (OR = 0·583; P-value = 0·000). DISCUSSION: We suggest that blood collection services consider specialist campaigns that focus on the altruistic motivation of donors during the crisis and that they continue to communicate the additional safety measures in place with the aim of reducing the fear of infection whilst donating blood.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Altruism , Humans , Motivation , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 44: 220-225, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505827

ABSTRACT

In this review, we describe the development of prosocial behavior in adolescence as a critical inflection period for social adjustment. Experimental research using prosocial giving tasks demonstrates that adolescents differentiate more between recipients and contexts, suggesting increasing ingroup-outgroup differentiation during adolescence. We also demonstrate that social brain development during adolescence is partly driven by environmental influences, further underlining adolescence as a critical period for social development. The COVID-19 pandemic has had and will have long-term effects on the current generation of adolescents, for which we describe both the risks, resilience factors, and opportunities for engaging in prosocial acts of kindness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Altruism , Brain , Humans
13.
Nurs Outlook ; 69(5): 767-779, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The difficulty of providing care to patients with COVID-19 and the extensive social changes caused by COVID-19 have made the experience of providing care to these patients unique. The present study was conducted to explore the lived experiences of nurses providing altruistic care to patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The present qualitative phenomenological study was conducted in spring 2020 on 12 nurses (8 women and 4 men) selected by purposive sampling from hospitals admitting patients with COVID-19 in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected through open, in-depth, semi-structured interviews and were analyzed using the Glaizer technique. FINDINGS: The lived experiences of nurses dealing with COVID-19 included: Disquietude, with subcategories including shock and the dilemma of staying or leaving; Intellectuality, with subcategories including patience, self-sacrifice, spiritual growth; Human transcendence, with subcategories including love of the profession, community's appreciation, and improving the value of nursing. DISCUSSION: Nurses' experience of providing patient care has a transcendental nature, such that nurses went from the usual fears to transcendence in internal and social aspects. The experience of passing through these stages took place over a short period of time, and nurses felt good about this achievement. Despite the difficult circumstances, patient care was not unpleasant for them; rather, it made them feel like a superhuman.


Subject(s)
Altruism , COVID-19/therapy , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Emotions , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Motivation , Nurse's Role , Qualitative Research
14.
J Med Ethics ; 46(8): 514-525, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humanitarian crises and emergencies, events often marked by high mortality, have until recently excluded palliative care-a specialty focusing on supporting people with serious or terminal illness or those nearing death. In the COVID-19 pandemic, palliative care has received unprecedented levels of societal attention. Unfortunately, this has not been enough to prevent patients dying alone, relatives not being able to say goodbye and palliative care being used instead of intensive care due to resource limitations. Yet global guidance was available. In 2018, the WHO released a guide on 'Integrating palliative care and symptom relief into the response to humanitarian emergencies and crises'-the first guidance on the topic by an international body. AIMS: This paper argues that while a landmark document, the WHO guide took a narrowly clinical bioethics perspective and missed crucial moral dilemmas. We argue for adding a population-level bioethics lens, which draws forth complex moral dilemmas arising from the fact that groups having differential innate and acquired resources in the context of social and historical determinants of health. We discuss dilemmas concerning: limitations of material and human resources; patient prioritisation; euthanasia; and legacy inequalities, discrimination and power imbalances. IMPLICATIONS: In parts of the world where opportunity for preparation still exists, and as countries emerge from COVID-19, planners must consider care for the dying. Immediate steps to support better resolutions to ethical dilemmas of the provision of palliative care in humanitarian and emergency contexts will require honest debate; concerted research effort; and international, national and local ethical guidance.


Subject(s)
Bioethical Issues , Delivery of Health Care/ethics , Disaster Planning , Palliative Care/ethics , Pandemics/ethics , Terminal Care/ethics , Altruism , Betacoronavirus , Bioethics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Care , Decision Making/ethics , Emergencies , Ethics, Clinical , Global Health , Health Care Rationing , Health Equity , Health Resources , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have examined the association between socioeconomic status and prosocial behavior, but the underlying mechanism between them is unclear. The present study aimed to examine the serially mediating roles of community identity and perceived control in this relationship. METHODS: Using the convenient sampling technique, a total of 477 Chinese adults from Chinese communities, and ranging in age from 20 to 65 completed the questionnaires for objective socioeconomic status, the MacArthur scale of subjective socioeconomic status, an eight-item community identity scale, the perceived control scale, and a prosocial tendencies measure. Bivariate correlation analysis and regression analysis were used to examine the relationships among the major variables. RESULTS: Socioeconomic status was positively associated with prosocial behavior. It was also found that community identity and perceived control played mediating roles between socioeconomic status and prosocial behavior, respectively. In addition, community identity and perceived control also had a serially mediating role in the relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Community identity and perceived control played a serially mediating role in the association between socioeconomic status and prosocial behavior. The findings in the present study contribute to understanding the underlying mechanism in the association between socioeconomic status and prosocial behavior among adults, and have important implications for interventions aimed at improving prosocial behavior in lower-status individuals.


Subject(s)
Altruism , Social Class , Adult , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
J Exp Anal Behav ; 114(1): 72-86, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451867

ABSTRACT

Choosing a larger-later reward over a smaller-sooner reward may be thought of as altruism toward one's future self. A question that arises in this connection is: What is the relation between delay and social discounting? To begin to answer this question, social and delay discount functions need to be comparable. Delay is ordinarily measured on a ratio scale (time), which allows for meaningful division and addition. Social distance is ordinarily measured on an ordinal scale (rank order of social closeness). To convert social distance to a ratio scale we use a psychophysical distance function obtained via magnitude estimation (Stevens, 1956). The distance functions obtained are well described by a power function (median exponent = 1.9); we show how they may be used to rescale ordinal to ratio social discount functions.


Subject(s)
Delay Discounting , Social Isolation/psychology , Social Perception/psychology , Adult , Altruism , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Psychological , Probability
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18950, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437687

ABSTRACT

Theory posits that situations of existential threat will enhance prosociality in general and particularly toward others perceived as belonging to the same group as the individual (parochial altruism). Yet, the global character of the COVID-19 pandemic may blur boundaries between ingroups and outgroups and engage altruism at a broader level. In an online experiment, participants from the U.S. and Italy chose whether to allocate a monetary bonus to a charity active in COVID-19 relief efforts at the local, national, or international level. The purpose was to address two important questions about charitable giving in this context: first, what influences the propensity to give, and second, how is charitable giving distributed across different levels of collective welfare? We found that personal exposure to COVID-19 increased donations relative to those not exposed, even as levels of environmental exposure (numbers of cases locally) had no effect. With respect to targets of giving, we found that donors predominantly benefitted the local level; donations toward country and world levels were half as large. Social identity was found to influence charity choice in both countries, although an experimental manipulation of identity salience did not have any direct effect.


Subject(s)
Altruism , COVID-19/psychology , Choice Behavior/ethics , Charities/trends , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Behavior , United States
18.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 44: 182-187, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433107

ABSTRACT

Pro-environmental behavior, a form of prosocial behavior that ultimately benefits all humanity, is essential for addressing climate change. This review presents pro-environmental behavior in a social dilemma framework describing how non-aligned interests in nested groups (e.g. smaller groups with interests opposing the interests of a superordinate group entailing the smaller groups) and unequal opportunities (e.g. differential access to resources) constitute barriers to pro-environmental behavior. We then summarize recent literature on three ways in which these barriers could be addressed. Specifically, we review how individual and conflicting interests might be overcome and benefits for the collective can be achieved by (1) collective action and global identities, (2) applying insights from another global crisis, the COVID-19 pandemic, and (3) a shift to research methods that consider the nested structure of and unequal opportunities within global crises as well as high-impact actions. Taken together, these approaches might foster one form of prosociality, pro-environmental behavior, that is desperately needed in the pursuit of sustainability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Environmental Psychology , Altruism , Climate Change , Humans , Pandemics
19.
Global Health ; 17(1): 111, 2021 09 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430460

ABSTRACT

Ten years of the Syrian war had a devastating effect on Syrian lives, including millions of refugees and displaced people, enormous destruction in the infrastructure, and the worst economic crisis Syria has ever faced. The health sector was hit hard by this war, up to 50% of the health facilities have been destroyed and up to 70% of the healthcare providers fled the country seeking safety, which increased the workload and mental pressure for the remaining medical staff. Five databases were searched and 438 articles were included according to the inclusion criteria, the articles were divided into categories according to the topic of the article.Through this review, the current health status of the Syrian population living inside Syria, whether under governmental or opposition control, was reviewed, and also, the health status of the Syrian refugees was examined according to each host country. Public health indicators were used to summarize and categorize the information. This research reviewed mental health, children and maternal health, oral health, non-communicable diseases, infectious diseases, occupational health, and the effect of the COVID - 19 pandemic on the Syrian healthcare system. The results of the review are irritating, as still after ten years of war and millions of refugees there is an enormous need for healthcare services, and international organization has failed to respond to those needs. The review ended with the current and future challenges facing the healthcare system, and suggestions about rebuilding the healthcare system.Through this review, the major consequences of the Syrian war on the health of the Syrian population have been reviewed and highlighted. Considerable challenges will face the future of health in Syria which require the collaboration of the health authorities to respond to the growing needs of the Syrian population. This article draws an overview about how the Syrian war affected health sector for Syrian population inside and outside Syria after ten years of war which makes it an important reference for future researchers to get the main highlight of the health sector during the Syrian crisis.


Subject(s)
Public Health/standards , Refugees/statistics & numerical data , Warfare/statistics & numerical data , Altruism , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Resources/trends , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Humans , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/trends , Syria
20.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 44: 202-207, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415334

ABSTRACT

High-cost cooperation directed towards strangers is difficult to explain from an evolutionary perspective. Here, it is argued that by studying the behaviours, motivations, and preferences of real-world high-cost cooperators - blood and organ donors - insights can be uncovered into the mechanisms supporting cooperation. In this respect, this article details two novel mechanisms to enhance cooperation in the face of free-riding, (1) 'reactive reluctant altruism' whereby people help because they do not trust others to help and (2) the 'Good Shepherd' effect whereby cooperation is enhanced when people observed others cooperate although the social norm is to free-ride. Finally, it is argued that repeated acts of high-cost cooperation are sustained by a self-selection process based on the reinforcing effect of warm-glow.


Subject(s)
Tissue and Organ Procurement , Altruism , Biological Evolution , Humans , Motivation , Trust
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL