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Cell ; 185(4): 614-629.e21, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676664


Activation of the innate immune system via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is key to generate lasting adaptive immunity. PRRs detect unique chemical patterns associated with invading microorganisms, but whether and how the physical properties of PRR ligands influence the development of the immune response remains unknown. Through the study of fungal mannans, we show that the physical form of PRR ligands dictates the immune response. Soluble mannans are immunosilent in the periphery but elicit a potent pro-inflammatory response in the draining lymph node (dLN). By modulating the physical form of mannans, we developed a formulation that targets both the periphery and the dLN. When combined with viral glycoprotein antigens, this mannan formulation broadens epitope recognition, elicits potent antigen-specific neutralizing antibodies, and confers protection against viral infections of the lung. Thus, the physical properties of microbial ligands determine the outcome of the immune response and can be harnessed for vaccine development.

Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Candida albicans/chemistry , Mannans/immunology , Aluminum Hydroxide/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epitopes/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Immunization , Inflammation/pathology , Interferons/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Ligands , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Lymph Nodes/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Paranasal Sinuses/metabolism , Protein Subunits/metabolism , Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 1/metabolism , Solubility , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transcription Factor RelB/metabolism , Vero Cells , beta-Glucans/metabolism
EBioMedicine ; 63: 103197, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014450


BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic, infecting millions of people. A safe, effective vaccine is urgently needed and remains a global health priority. Subunit vaccines are used successfully against other viruses when administered in the presence of an effective adjuvant. METHODS: We evaluated three different clinically tested adjuvant systems in combination with the SARS-CoV-2 pre-fusion stabilized (S-2P) spike protein using a one-dose regimen in mice. FINDINGS: Whilst spike protein alone was only weakly immunogenic, the addition of either Aluminum hydroxide, a squalene based oil-in-water emulsion system (SE) or a cationic liposome-based adjuvant significantly enhanced antibody responses against the spike receptor binding domain (RBD). Kinetics of antibody responses differed, with SE providing the most rapid response. Neutralizing antibodies developed after a single immunization in all adjuvanted groups with ID50 titers ranging from 86-4063. Spike-specific CD4 T helper responses were also elicited, comprising mainly of IFN-γ and IL-17 producing cells in the cationic liposome adjuvanted group, and more IL-5- and IL-10-secreting cells in the AH group. INTERPRETATION: These results demonstrate that adjuvanted spike protein subunit vaccine is a viable strategy for rapidly eliciting SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies and CD4 T cell responses of various qualities depending on the adjuvant used, which can be explored in further vaccine development against COVID-19. FUNDING: This work was supported by the European Union Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement no. 101003653.

Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Aluminum Hydroxide/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Immunization , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Liposomes/chemistry , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Squalene/chemistry , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(4): 504-507, 2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983835


A novel STING agonist, CDGSF, ipsilaterally modified with phosphorothioate and fluorine, was synthesized. The phosphorothioate in CDGSF might be a site for covalent conjugation. Injection of CDGSF generated an immunogenic ("hot") tumor microenvironment to suppress melanoma, more efficiently than dithio CDG. In particular, immunization with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein using CDGSF as an adjuvant elicited an exceptionally high antibody titer and a robust T cell response, overcoming the drawbacks of aluminum hydroxide. These results highlighted the therapeutic potential of CDGSF for cancer immunotherapy and the adjuvant potential of the STING agonist in the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine for the first time.

Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Melanoma, Experimental/drug therapy , Membrane Proteins/agonists , Nucleotides, Cyclic/administration & dosage , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemical synthesis , Aluminum Hydroxide/administration & dosage , Aluminum Hydroxide/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Melanoma, Experimental/immunology , Melanoma, Experimental/mortality , Melanoma, Experimental/pathology , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Mice , Nucleotides, Cyclic/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Skin Neoplasms/immunology , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Survival Analysis , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Tumor Burden/drug effects , Tumor Microenvironment/drug effects , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology , Vaccination/methods