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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4869, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354100

ABSTRACT

In COVID-19, immune responses are key in determining disease severity. However, cellular mechanisms at the onset of inflammatory lung injury in SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly involving endothelial cells, remain ill-defined. Using Syrian hamsters as a model for moderate COVID-19, we conduct a detailed longitudinal analysis of systemic and pulmonary cellular responses, and corroborate it with datasets from COVID-19 patients. Monocyte-derived macrophages in lungs exert the earliest and strongest transcriptional response to infection, including induction of pro-inflammatory genes, while epithelial cells show weak alterations. Without evidence for productive infection, endothelial cells react, depending on cell subtypes, by strong and early expression of anti-viral, pro-inflammatory, and T cell recruiting genes. Recruitment of cytotoxic T cells as well as emergence of IgM antibodies precede viral clearance at day 5 post infection. Investigating SARS-CoV-2 infected Syrian hamsters thus identifies cell type-specific effector functions, providing detailed insights into pathomechanisms of COVID-19 and informing therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/immunology , Animals , Cricetinae , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Inflammation , Lung/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Mesocricetus , Monocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology
2.
Nature ; 591(7850): 451-457, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075231

ABSTRACT

All coronaviruses known to have recently emerged as human pathogens probably originated in bats1. Here we use a single experimental platform based on immunodeficient mice implanted with human lung tissue (hereafter, human lung-only mice (LoM)) to demonstrate the efficient in vivo replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as well as two endogenous SARS-like bat coronaviruses that show potential for emergence as human pathogens. Virus replication in this model occurs in bona fide human lung tissue and does not require any type of adaptation of the virus or the host. Our results indicate that bats contain endogenous coronaviruses that are capable of direct transmission to humans. Our detailed analysis of in vivo infection with SARS-CoV-2 in human lung tissue from LoM showed a predominant infection of human lung epithelial cells, including type-2 pneumocytes that are present in alveoli and ciliated airway cells. Acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 was highly cytopathic and induced a robust and sustained type-I interferon and inflammatory cytokine and chemokine response. Finally, we evaluated a therapeutic and pre-exposure prophylaxis strategy for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our results show that therapeutic and prophylactic administration of EIDD-2801-an oral broad-spectrum antiviral agent that is currently in phase II/III clinical trials-markedly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in vivo, and thus has considerable potential for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Hydroxylamines/administration & dosage , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/immunology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Chemoprevention , Chiroptera/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Cytidine/administration & dosage , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Cytokines/immunology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Heterografts , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Type I/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lung Transplantation , Male , Mice , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication
3.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110412, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065477

ABSTRACT

The Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) requires a rapid solution and global collaborative efforts in order to define preventive and treatment strategies. One of the major challenges of this disease is the high number of patients needing advanced respiratory support due to the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) as the lung is the major - although not exclusive - target of the virus. The molecular mechanisms, pathogenic drivers and the target cell type(s) in SARS-CoV-2 infection are still poorly understood, but the development of a "hyperactive" immune response is proposed to play a role in the evolution of the disease and it is envisioned as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Here we propose a theory by which the main targets for SARS-CoV-2 are the Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells and the clinical manifestations of the syndrome are a direct consequence of their involvement. We propose the existence of a vicious cycle by which once alveolar damage starts in AEC II cells, the inflammatory state is supported by macrophage pro-inflammatory polarization (M1), cytokines release and by the activation of the NF-κB pathway. If this theory is confirmed, future therapeutic efforts can be directed to target Type 2 alveolar cells and the molecular pathogenic drivers associated with their dysfunction with currently available therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/immunology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Models, Biological , NF-kappa B/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , COVID-19/etiology , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Liquid Ventilation , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/pathology , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Pandemics , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/immunology
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 271: 113854, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049827

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Since the occurrence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China in December 2019, COVID-19 has been quickly spreading out to other provinces and countries. Considering that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) played an important role during outbreak of SARS and H1N1, finding potential alternative approaches for COVID-19 treatment is necessary before vaccines are developed. According to previous studies, Maxing Shigan decoction (MXSGD) present a prominent antivirus effect and is often used to treat pulmonary diseases. Furthermore, we collected 115 open prescriptions for COVID-19 therapy from the National Health Commission, State Administration of TCM and other organizations, MXSGD was identified as the key formula. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of MXSGD against COVID-19 is still unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic mechanism of MXSGD against COVID-19 by network pharmacology and in vitro experiment verification, and screen the potential components which could bind to key targets of COVID-19 via molecular docking method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiple open-source databases related to TCM or compounds were employed to screen active ingredients and potential targets of MXSGD. Network pharmacology analysis methods were used to initially predict the antivirus and anti-inflammatory effects of MXSGD against COVID-19. IL-6 induced rat lung epithelial type Ⅱ cells (RLE-6TN) damage was established to explore the anti-inflammatory damage activity of MXSGD. After MXSGD intervention, the expression level of related proteins and their phosphorylation in the IL-6 mediated JAK-STAT signaling pathway were detected by Western blot. Molecular docking technique was used to further identify the potential substances which could bind to three key targets (ACE2, Mpro and RdRp) of COVID-19. RESULTS: In this study, 105 active ingredients and 1025 candidate targets were selected for MXSGD, 83 overlapping targets related to MXSGD and COVID-19 were identified, and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of MXSGD against COVID-19 was constructed. According to the results of biological enrichment analysis, 63 significant KEGG pathways were enriched, and most of them were related to signal transduction, immune system and virus infection. Furthermore, according the relationship between signal pathways, we confirmed MXSGD could effectively inhibit IL-6 mediated JAK-STAT signal pathway related protein expression level, decreased the protein expression levels of p-JAK2, p-STAT3, Bax and Caspase 3, and increased the protein expression level of Bcl-2, thereby inhibiting RLE-6TN cells damage. In addition, according to the LibDock scores screening results, the components with strong potential affinity (Top 10) with ACE2, Mpro and RdRp are mainly from glycyrrhiza uralensis (Chinese name: Gancao) and semen armeniacae amarum (Chinese name: Kuxingren). Among them, amygdalin was selected as the optimal candidate component bind to all three key targets, and euchrenone, glycyrrhizin, and glycyrol also exhibited superior affinity interactions with ACE2, Mpro and RdRp, respectively. CONCLUSION: This work explained the positive characteristics of multi-component, multi-target, and multi-approach intervention with MXSGD in combating COVID-19, and preliminary revealed the antiviral and anti-inflammatory pharmacodynamic substances and mechanism of MXSGD, which might provide insights into the vital role of TCM in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Computational Biology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Interleukin-6/immunology , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Rats , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology
5.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 64(1): 79-88, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004249

ABSTRACT

Preclinical mouse models that recapitulate some characteristics of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) will facilitate focused study of pathogenesis and virus-host responses. Human agniotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) serves as an entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to infect people via binding to envelope spike proteins. Herein we report development and characterization of a rapidly deployable COVID-19 mouse model. C57BL/6J (B6) mice expressing hACE2 in the lung were transduced by oropharyngeal delivery of the recombinant human adenovirus type 5 that expresses hACE2 (Ad5-hACE2). Mice were infected with SARS-CoV-2 at Day 4 after transduction and developed interstitial pneumonia associated with perivascular inflammation, accompanied by significantly higher viral load in lungs at Days 3, 6, and 12 after infection compared with Ad5-empty control group. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in pneumocytes in alveolar septa. Transcriptomic analysis of lungs demonstrated that the infected Ad5-hACE mice had a significant increase in IFN-dependent chemokines Cxcl9 and Cxcl10, and genes associated with effector T-cell populations including Cd3 g, Cd8a, and Gzmb. Pathway analysis showed that several Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were enriched in the data set, including cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, the chemokine signaling pathway, the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, the measles pathway, and the IL-17 signaling pathway. This response is correlative to clinical response in lungs of patients with COVID-19. These results demonstrate that expression of hACE2 via adenovirus delivery system sensitized the mouse to SARS-CoV-2 infection and resulted in the development of a mild COVID-19 phenotype, highlighting the immune and inflammatory host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This rapidly deployable COVID-19 mouse model is useful for preclinical and pathogenesis studies of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Gene Expression , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviridae/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/genetics , Transduction, Genetic
6.
Mol Med ; 26(1): 95, 2020 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873932

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis arises from the repeated epithelial mild injuries and insufficient repair lead to over activation of fibroblasts and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix, which result in a mechanical stretched niche. However, increasing mechanical stress likely exists before the establishment of fibrosis since early micro injuries increase local vascular permeability and prompt cytoskeletal remodeling which alter cellular mechanical forces. It is noteworthy that COVID-19 patients with severe hypoxemia will receive mechanical ventilation as supportive treatment and subsequent pathology studies indicate lung fibrosis pattern. At advanced stages, mechanical stress originates mainly from the stiff matrix since boundaries between stiff and compliant parts of the tissue could generate mechanical stress. Therefore, mechanical stress has a significant role in the whole development process of pulmonary fibrosis. The alveoli are covered by abundant capillaries and function as the main gas exchange unit. Constantly subject to variety of damages, the alveolar epithelium injuries were recently recognized to play a vital role in the onset and development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In this review, we summarize the literature regarding the effects of mechanical stress on the fundamental cells constituting the alveoli in the process of pulmonary fibrosis, particularly on epithelial cells, capillary endothelial cells, fibroblasts, mast cells, macrophages and stem cells. Finally, we briefly review this issue from a more comprehensive perspective: the metabolic and epigenetic regulation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Epigenesis, Genetic/immunology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Mechanotransduction, Cellular/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/immunology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomechanical Phenomena , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Fibroblasts/immunology , Fibroblasts/pathology , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , Lung/blood supply , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/pathology , Mechanotransduction, Cellular/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/genetics , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/genetics , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Mechanical
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(9)2020 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730522

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an RNA virus, is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic of 2020. Experimental evidence suggests that microRNA can mediate an intracellular defence mechanism against some RNA viruses. The purpose of this study was to identify microRNA with predicted binding sites in the SARS-CoV-2 genome, compare these to their microRNA expression profiles in lung epithelial tissue and make inference towards possible roles for microRNA in mitigating coronavirus infection. We hypothesize that high expression of specific coronavirus-targeting microRNA in lung epithelia may protect against infection and viral propagation, conversely, low expression may confer susceptibility to infection. We have identified 128 human microRNA with potential to target the SARS-CoV-2 genome, most of which have very low expression in lung epithelia. Six of these 128 microRNA are differentially expressed upon in vitro infection of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, 28 microRNA also target the SARS-CoV genome while 23 microRNA target the MERS-CoV genome. We also found that a number of microRNA are commonly identified in two other studies. Further research into identifying bona fide coronavirus targeting microRNA will be useful in understanding the importance of microRNA as a cellular defence mechanism against pathogenic coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cell Line, Tumor , Genome, Viral , Humans , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Nucleotide Motifs , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA
8.
Life Sci ; 258: 118166, 2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703163

ABSTRACT

In this paper, a model is proposed of the pathophysiological processes of COVID-19 starting from the infection of human type II alveolar epithelial cells (pneumocytes) by SARS-CoV-2 and culminating in the development of ARDS. The innate immune response to infection of type II alveolar epithelial cells leads both to their death by apoptosis and pyroptosis and to alveolar macrophage activation. Activated macrophages secrete proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and tend to polarise into the inflammatory M1 phenotype. These changes are associated with activation of vascular endothelial cells and thence the recruitment of highly toxic neutrophils and inflammatory activated platelets into the alveolar space. Activated vascular endothelial cells become a source of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and contribute to the development of coagulopathy, systemic sepsis, a cytokine storm and ARDS. Pulmonary activated platelets are also an important source of proinflammatory cytokines and ROS, as well as exacerbating pulmonary neutrophil-mediated inflammatory responses and contributing to systemic sepsis by binding to neutrophils to form platelet-neutrophil complexes (PNCs). PNC formation increases neutrophil recruitment, activation priming and extraversion of these immune cells into inflamed pulmonary tissue, thereby contributing to ARDS. Sequestered PNCs cause the development of a procoagulant and proinflammatory environment. The contribution to ARDS of increased extracellular histone levels, circulating mitochondrial DNA, the chromatin protein HMGB1, decreased neutrophil apoptosis, impaired macrophage efferocytosis, the cytokine storm, the toll-like receptor radical cycle, pyroptosis, necroinflammation, lymphopenia and a high Th17 to regulatory T lymphocyte ratio are detailed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/immunology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/therapy , Macrophage Activation , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/pathology , Neutrophil Activation , Pandemics , Platelet Activation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/immunology , Thrombophilia/physiopathology , Thrombophilia/therapy
9.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(8): e12642, 2020 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607958

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has recently emerged in China and spread internationally, posing a health emergency to the global community. COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is associated with an acute respiratory illness that varies from mild to the life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The complement system is part of the innate immune arsenal against pathogens, in which many viruses can evade or employ to mediate cell entry. The immunopathology and acute lung injury orchestrated through the influx of pro-inflammatory macrophages and neutrophils can be directly activated by complement components to prime an overzealous cytokine storm. The manifestations of severe COVID-19 such as the ARDS, sepsis and multiorgan failure have an established relationship with activation of the complement cascade. We have collected evidence from all the current studies we are aware of on SARS-CoV-2 immunopathogenesis and the preceding literature on SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV infection linking severe COVID-19 disease directly with dysfunction of the complement pathways. This information lends support for a therapeutic anti-inflammatory strategy against complement, where a number of clinically ready potential therapeutic agents are available.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Complement Activation/drug effects , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/immunology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Child , Complement C3b/antagonists & inhibitors , Complement C3b/physiology , Complement Inactivating Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Glycosylation , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Ligands , Mice , Models, Animal , Models, Molecular , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Protein Conformation , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
10.
Science ; 369(6504): 712-717, 2020 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594812

ABSTRACT

Excessive cytokine signaling frequently exacerbates lung tissue damage during respiratory viral infection. Type I (IFN-α and IFN-ß) and III (IFN-λ) interferons are host-produced antiviral cytokines. Prolonged IFN-α and IFN-ß responses can lead to harmful proinflammatory effects, whereas IFN-λ mainly signals in epithelia, thereby inducing localized antiviral immunity. In this work, we show that IFN signaling interferes with lung repair during influenza recovery in mice, with IFN-λ driving these effects most potently. IFN-induced protein p53 directly reduces epithelial proliferation and differentiation, which increases disease severity and susceptibility to bacterial superinfections. Thus, excessive or prolonged IFN production aggravates viral infection by impairing lung epithelial regeneration. Timing and duration are therefore critical parameters of endogenous IFN action and should be considered carefully for IFN therapeutic strategies against viral infections such as influenza and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/immunology , Animals , Apoptosis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/administration & dosage , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Interferon Type I/administration & dosage , Interferon Type I/pharmacology , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , Interferon-beta/administration & dosage , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Interferon-beta/pharmacology , Interferons/administration & dosage , Interferons/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/genetics , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/metabolism , Receptors, Interferon/genetics , Receptors, Interferon/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism
11.
Cell ; 181(5): 1016-1035.e19, 2020 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-100497

ABSTRACT

There is pressing urgency to understand the pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the disease COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), promotes cellular entry. The cell subsets targeted by SARS-CoV-2 in host tissues and the factors that regulate ACE2 expression remain unknown. Here, we leverage human, non-human primate, and mouse single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets across health and disease to uncover putative targets of SARS-CoV-2 among tissue-resident cell subsets. We identify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expressing cells within lung type II pneumocytes, ileal absorptive enterocytes, and nasal goblet secretory cells. Strikingly, we discovered that ACE2 is a human interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) in vitro using airway epithelial cells and extend our findings to in vivo viral infections. Our data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 could exploit species-specific interferon-driven upregulation of ACE2, a tissue-protective mediator during lung injury, to enhance infection.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Enterocytes/metabolism , Goblet Cells/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Nasal Mucosa/cytology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Adolescent , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Child , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enterocytes/immunology , Goblet Cells/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Influenza, Human/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Lung/cytology , Lung/pathology , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis , Tuberculosis/immunology , Up-Regulation
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