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3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145626

ABSTRACT

The most frequent form of dementia is Alzheimer's Disease (AD), a severe progressive neurological pathology in which the main cognitive functions of an individual are compromised. Recent studies have found that loneliness and living in isolation are likely to cause an acceleration in the cognitive decline associated with AD. Therefore, understanding social behaviours of AD patients is crucial to promote sociability, thus delaying cognitive decline, preserving independence, and providing a good quality of life. In this work, we analyze the localization data of AD patients living in assisted care homes to gather insights about the social dynamics among them. We use localization data collected by a system based on iBeacon technology comprising two components: a network of antennas scattered throughout the facility and a Bluetooth bracelet worn by the patients. We redefine the Relational Index to capture wandering and casual encounters, these being common phenomena among AD patients, and use the notions of Relational and Popularity Indexes to model, visualize and understand the social behaviour of AD patients. We leverage the data analyses to build predictive tools and applications to enhance social activities scheduling and sociability monitoring and promotion, with the ultimate aim of providing patients with a better quality of life. Predictions and visualizations act as a support for caregivers in activity planning to maximize treatment effects and, hence, slow down the progression of Alzheimer's disease. We present the Community Behaviour Prediction Table (CBPT), a tool to visualize the estimated values of sociability among patients and popularity of places within a facility. Finally, we show the potential of the system by analyzing the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown time-frame between February and June 2020 in a specific facility. Through the use of the indexes, we evaluate the effects of the pandemic on the behaviour of the residents, observing no particular impact on sociability even though social distancing was put in place.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Patient Identification Systems , Social Behavior , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Quality of Life
4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(3): 1015-1021, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060642

ABSTRACT

We explored the impact of the Spanish COVID-19 strict home confinement on mental health and cognition in non-infected subjects (N = 16, 60-80 years) diagnosed with subjective cognitive decline and APOEɛ3/ɛ4 carriers. Mental health was monitored for 2 months on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis, and compared to pre-confinement values. Emotional distress, anxiety, and depression scores increased to pathological threshold values during and after confinement. Those with lower mood during confinement experienced a decline in their mood after confinement. Cognition did not change. These preliminary results suggest that mental health consequences of corona measures in preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease should be further evaluated.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Mental Health , Quarantine/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/genetics , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Apolipoprotein E3/genetics , Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Cognition Disorders/genetics , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/genetics , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/genetics , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Psychological Distress , Risk , Spain
5.
J Neurol ; 268(6): 2228-2237, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite (PACC) is a composite score which can detect the first signs of cognitive impairment, which can be of importance for research and clinical practice. It is designed to be administered in person; however, in-person assessments are costly, and are difficult during the current COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of performing the PACC assessment with videoconferencing, and to compare the validity of this remote PACC with the in-person PACC obtained previously. METHODS: Participants from the HEalth and Ageing Data IN the Game of football (HEADING) Study who had already undergone an in-person assessment were re-contacted and re-assessed remotely. The correlation between the two PACC scores was estimated. The difference between the two PACC scores was calculated and used in multiple linear regression to assess which variables were associated with a difference in PACC scores. FINDINGS: Of the 43 participants who were invited to this external study, 28 were re-assessed. The median duration in days between the in-person and the remote assessments was 236.5 days (7.9 months) (IQR 62.5). There was a strong positive correlation between the two assessments for the PACC score, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0·82 (95% CI 0·66, 0·98). The multiple linear regression found that the only predictor of the PACC difference was the time between assessments. INTERPRETATION: This study provides evidence on the feasibility of performing cognitive tests online, with the PACC tests being successfully administered through videoconferencing. This is relevant, especially during times when face-to-face assessments cannot be performed.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Cognition , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Videoconferencing
6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(3): 931-948, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033235

ABSTRACT

Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), with its now appreciated key roles in neurophysiology as well as neuropathophysiology, are sufficiently well-documented to be useful tools for enquiry into the natural history of neurodegenerative diseases. We review the broader literature on TNF to rationalize why abruptly-acquired neurodegenerative states do not exhibit the remorseless clinical progression seen in those states with gradual onsets. We propose that the three typically non-worsening neurodegenerative syndromes, post-stroke, post-traumatic brain injury (TBI), and post cardiac arrest, usually become and remain static because of excess cerebral TNF induced by the initial dramatic peak keeping microglia chronically activated through an autocrine loop of microglial activation through excess cerebral TNF. The existence of this autocrine loop rationalizes post-damage repair with perispinal etanercept and proposes a treatment for cerebral aspects of COVID-19 chronicity. Another insufficiently considered aspect of cerebral proinflammatory cytokines is the fitness of the endogenous cerebral anti-TNF system provided by norepinephrine (NE), generated and distributed throughout the brain from the locus coeruleus (LC). We propose that an intact LC, and therefore an intact NE-mediated endogenous anti-cerebral TNF system, plus the DAMP (damage or danger-associated molecular pattern) input having diminished, is what allows post-stroke, post-TBI, and post cardiac arrest patients a strong long-term survival advantage over Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease sufferers. In contrast, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease patients remorselessly worsen, being handicapped by sustained, accumulating, DAMP and PAMP (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) input, as well as loss of the LC-origin, NE-mediated, endogenous anti-cerebral TNF system. Adrenergic receptor agonists may counter this.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries/physiopathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/physiology , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Brain/physiopathology , Brain Injuries/diagnosis , Brain Injuries/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Etanercept/therapeutic use , Heart Arrest/diagnosis , Heart Arrest/physiopathology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Locus Coeruleus/physiopathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/diagnosis , Neurodegenerative Diseases/therapy , Norepinephrine/physiology , Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Survivors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors
8.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(1): 31-36, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949040

ABSTRACT

Patients admitted with COVID-19 can develop delirium due to predisposing factors, isolation, and the illness itself. Standard delirium prevention methods focus on interaction and stimulation. It can be challenging to deliver these methods of care in COVID settings where it is necessary to increase patient isolation. This paper presents a typical clinical vignette of representative patients in a tertiary care hospital and how a medical team modified an evidence-based delirium prevention model to deliver high-quality care to COVID-19 patients. The implemented model focuses on four areas of delirium-prevention: Mobility, Sleep, Cognitive Stimulation, and Nutrition. Future studies will be needed to track quantitative outcome measures.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delirium/prevention & control , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/psychology , Humans , Male
9.
Am J Manag Care ; 26(8 Suppl): S167-S176, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-946633

ABSTRACT

The burden of Alzheimer disease (AD) on the US healthcare system is substantial and increasing. AD progresses along a continuum from preclinical disease characterized by normal cognition and abnormal brain biomarkers to mild cognitive impairment and then clinically apparent dementia. Diagnosis early in the AD continuum has benefits for patients and caregivers and appears cost-effective, but often, the clinical diagnosis of AD may be delayed. Currently available biomarkers include ß-amyloid positron emission tomography and cerebrospinal fluid tests. Collectively, they are expensive, may lead to adverse effects, are not widely available, and are not suited for primary care. Currently available treatment options, cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, do not alter disease progression, but can help with some symptoms. Benefits of currently available treatments on cognition are difficult to quantify and are offset by a burden of adverse effects that often go unrecognized. More accurate diagnostic biomarkers and disease-modifying drug therapies are critical unmet needs of patients with AD despite decades of clinical research. Because many phase 3 clinical trials that enrolled patients with symptomatic AD have failed, researchers believe that disease-modifying treatment is more likely to demonstrate benefit when utilized early in the disease continuum. Within the past few years, significant achievements that will advance clinical trials in early AD include the Research Framework to define and stage the AD continuum, FDA guidance on study design in early AD, and development of scales to measure cognition that are suitable for early AD. In October 2019, the AD community was re-invigorated by unexpected news that a Biologics License Application will be submitted for aducanumab to treat AD. This article explores the current state of biomarker-driven drug development across the AD continuum and reviews investigational drugs in phase 2/3 clinical development for AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Biomarkers , Brain , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Positron-Emission Tomography
10.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 77(2): 539-541, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760838

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has substantially affected patients with dementia and their caregivers. However, we found not all Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients were afraid of COVID-19 infection. Therefore, we investigated the association between rate of awareness of COVID-19 and depressive tendency in AD. 126 consecutive outpatients with AD were enrolled in this study from May 25, on the day when the declaration of emergency was lifted in Japan, through June 30, 2020. In addition to routine psychological tests, the participants were asked the following two questions: "Do you know COVID-19?" and "Why are you wearing a face mask?". Moderate to severe AD patients were found to have a low COVID-19 recognition rate and did not fully understand why they were wearing face masks. In addition, because they did not understand the seriousness of the COVID-19 outbreak, their Geriatric Depression Scale scores were also substantially lower. These results may appear to simply indicate that people with severe dementia are unaware of current events. However, these results provide insights into how to care for patients with dementia and how to allocate the time and support of our limited staff during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Awareness , Coronavirus Infections , Mental Competency , Pandemics , Patient Care , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Alzheimer Disease/virology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Caregivers/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care/methods , Patient Care/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychosocial Support Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Neurologia (Engl Ed) ; 36(1): 9-15, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759218

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Health systems in numerous countries around the world are suffering a serious burden as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result of this situation, the follow-up of such chronic diseases as dementia may be at risk. Similarly, neuropsychiatric complications related to lockdown measures may also be neglected; Argentina's lockdown has been the longest implemented in Latin America. This study aims to determine the frequency of the different types of medical consultations for neurocognitive disorders and the predictors for requiring consultation since the beginning of the lockdown. METHODS: We performed a descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study based on data collected through an online survey. RESULTS: Data were collected on 324 participants, with 165 (50.9%) having had at least one medical consultation. Consultations were held by telephone in 109 cases (33.6%), by e-mail in 62 (19.1%), by video conference in 30 (9.3%), and at the emergency department in 23 (7.1%). Predictors of requiring consultation were Clinical Dementia Rating scores ≥1 (P<.001) and diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (P=.017). Higher Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores were found in the group of respondents who did require medical consultation (P<.001), but no significant differences were found between groups for Zarit Burden Interview scores. CONCLUSION: We identified a high prevalence of behavioural disorders and caregiver burden during lockdown. Nevertheless, only 50% of respondents had sought medical consultation (by telephone or email in 52.7% of cases). Care of people with dementia must be emphasised, guaranteeing follow-up of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care , Neurocognitive Disorders/diagnosis , Referral and Consultation , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Argentina/epidemiology , Caregiver Burden/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 76(1): 27-31, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637281

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to an abrupt halt of many Alzheimer's disease (AD) research studies at sites spanning the world. This is especially true for studies requiring in-person contact, such as studies collecting biofluids. Since COVID-19 is likely to remain a threat for an extended period, the resumption of fluid biomarker studies requires the development and implementation of procedures that minimize the risk of in-person visits to participants, staff, and individuals handling the biofluid samples. Some issues to consider include structuring the visit workflow to minimize contacts and promote social distancing; screening and/or testing participants and staff for COVID-19; wearing masks and performing hand hygiene; and precautions for handling, storing, and analyzing biofluids. AD fluid biomarker research remains a vitally important public health priority and resuming studies requires appropriate safety procedures to protect research participants and staff.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Health Personnel/trends , Patient Safety , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Biomarkers/metabolism , Body Fluids/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
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