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1.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 90(2): 811-822, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent innovative non-pharmacological interventions and neurostimulation devices have shown potential for application in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These include photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study assesses the safety, compliance with, and efficacy of a brain-gut PBM therapy for mild-to-moderate AD patients. METHODS: This double-blind, randomized, monocentric sham-controlled study started in 2018 and ended prematurely in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Fifty-three mild-to-moderate AD patients were randomized, 27 in the PBM group and 26 in the sham group. All patients had 40 treatment sessions lasting 25 min each over 8 weeks and were followed for 4 weeks afterwards. Compliance with the treatment was recorded. Safety was assessed by recording adverse events (AEs), and efficacy was evaluated using neuropsychological tests. RESULTS: The PBM therapy proved to be safe in regard to the number of recorded AEs (44% of the patients), which were balanced between the PBM and sham groups. AEs were mainly mild, and no serious AEs were reported. The majority of the patients (92.5%) were highly compliant, which confirms the feasibility of the PBM treatment. Compared to the sham patients, the PBM patients showed lower ADAS-Cog comprehension subscores, higher forward verbal spans, and lower TMT-B execution times, which suggests an improvement in cognitive functions. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the tolerability of and patient compliance with a PBM-based treatment for mild-to-moderate AD patients. It highlights encouraging efficacy trends and provides insights for the design of the next phase trial in a larger AD patient sample.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Low-Level Light Therapy , Humans , Pilot Projects , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome , Alzheimer Disease/radiotherapy , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Brain , Double-Blind Method , Patient Compliance
2.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917015

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are phytochemical compounds present in many plants, fruits, vegetables, and leaves, with potential applications in medicinal chemistry. Flavonoids possess a number of medicinal benefits, including anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties. They also have neuroprotective and cardio-protective effects. These biological activities depend upon the type of flavonoid, its (possible) mode of action, and its bioavailability. These cost-effective medicinal components have significant biological activities, and their effectiveness has been proved for a variety of diseases. The most recent work is focused on their isolation, synthesis of their analogs, and their effects on human health using a variety of techniques and animal models. Thousands of flavonoids have been successfully isolated, and this number increases steadily. We have therefore made an effort to summarize the isolated flavonoids with useful activities in order to gain a better understanding of their effects on human health.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antimalarials/chemistry , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Flavonoids/economics , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Mice , Nervous System/drug effects , Neurons/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/chemistry , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plants/chemistry , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Quercetin/chemistry , Quercetin/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats, Wistar , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/prevention & control
3.
J Pineal Res ; 70(2): e12702, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894785

ABSTRACT

Melatonin was discovered more than 60 years ago. Since then, several seminal discoveries have allowed us to define its function as a neuroendocrine hormone and its molecular targets in mammals and many other species. However, many fundamental issues have not yet been solved such as the subcellular localization of melatonin synthesis and the full spectrum of its molecular targets. In addition, a considerable number of controversies persist in the field, mainly concerning how many functions melatonin has. Altogether, this illustrates how "immature" the field still is. The intention of this opinion article is to note the controversies and limitations in the field, to initiate a discussion and to make proposals/guidelines to overcome them and move the field forward.


Subject(s)
Melatonin , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Animals , Antioxidants , Humans , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
4.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(15): 2145-2148, 2020 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646274

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown that the calcium ion (Ca2+) plays important roles both in Alzheimer's dementia and SARS-CoV S-mediated fusion to host cell entry. An elevated level of intracellular calcium causes neuronal dysfunction, cell death, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of calcium has also been shown to increase the production of amyloid beta (Aß) protein, the hallmark of Alzheimer's dementia. Reversely, deposition of Aß is also responsible for calcium dysregulation. On the other hand, it has been well investigated that viruses can disturb host cell Ca2+ homeostasis as well as modulate signal transduction mechanisms. Viruses can also hijack the host cell calcium channels and pumps to release more intracellular Ca2+ to utilize for their life cycle. Even though evidence has not been reported on SARS-CoV-2 concerning Ca2+ regulation, however, it has been well established that Ca2+ is essential for viral entry, viral gene replication, and virion maturation and release. Recent reports suggest that SARS-CoV needs two Ca2+ ions to fuse with the host cell at the entry step. Furthermore, some calcium channel blockers (CCBs), such as nimodipine, memantine, etc., have been reported to be effective in the treatment of dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as have shown inhibition in various virus infections.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , COVID-19 , Calcium/metabolism , Calcium Channel Blockers/chemistry , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 36: 101812, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is currently being examined for COVID-19. No previous meta-analysis has evaluated its side effects versus placebo. We conducted this meta-analysis to compare the safety of HCQ versus placebo. METHODS: Two authors independently searched PubMed and EMBASE databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adults comparing the adverse events (AEs) of HCQ versus placebo for any indication. Peto odds ratios (Peto ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated based on random-effects models. The heterogeneity (I2) was assessed using Cochran's Q test. RESULTS: Nine RCTs (eight were double-blind) with a total of 916 patients were included. HCQ caused significantly more skin pigmentation than placebo (Peto OR, 4.64; 95% CI, 1.13 to 19.00; P-value = 0.033; I2 = 0%). The increase in other AEs did not reach statistical significance: rash (Peto OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.3 to 3.77; P-value = 0.03; I2 = 0%); gastrointestinal AEs (Peto OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.55 to 3.72; P-value = 0.46; I2 = 15.17%); headache (Peto OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 0.65 to 5.78; P-value = 0.23; I2 = 9.99%); dizziness (Peto OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.49 to 3.52; P-value = 0.58; I2 = 0%); fatigue (Peto OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 0.76 to 5.98; P-value = 0.15; I2 = 0%); and visual AEs (Peto OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 0.76 to 3.41; P-value = 0.22; I2 = 0%). Cardiac toxicity was not reported. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis of RCTs found a significantly higher risk of skin pigmentation in HCQ users versus placebo. More data are needed to evaluate HCQ in the context of COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Chronic Urticaria/drug therapy , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hyperpigmentation/chemically induced , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dizziness/chemically induced , Exanthema/chemically induced , Fatigue/chemically induced , Gastrointestinal Diseases/chemically induced , Headache/chemically induced , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
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