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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934061

ABSTRACT

The literature suggests that leisure walking can play an important role in preventing dementia. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between leisure walking and the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias among older adults. Using the 2020 Health and Retirement Study (HRS), 4581 responses constituted the sample for the present study. A hierarchical logit regression analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between leisure walking and the prevalence of AD and dementia. The results show that leisure walking has been negatively associated with the prevalence of AD and other dementias-that is, they indicate that older adults who frequently engaged in leisure walking were less likely to develop AD and other dementias. This finding suggests the importance of leisure walking as a dementia prevention program for older adults.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Leisure Activities , Prevalence , Walking
2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 283, 2022 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931377

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence has suggested a close correlation between COVID-19 and neurodegenerative disorders. However, whether there exists a causal association and the effect direction remains unknown. To examine the causative role of COVID-19 in the risk of neurodegenerative disorders, we estimated their genetic correlation, and then conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies of susceptibility, hospitalization, and severity of COVID-19, as well as six major neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Lewy body dementia, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. We identified a significant and positive genetic correlation between hospitalization of COVID-19 and AD (genetic correlation: 0.23, P = 8.36E-07). Meanwhile, hospitalization of COVID-19 was significantly associated with a higher risk of AD (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03, P: 1.19E-03). Consistently, susceptibility (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.09, P: 9.30E-03) and severity (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02, P: 0.012) of COVID-19 were nominally associated with higher risk of AD. The results were robust under all sensitivity analyses. These results demonstrated that COVID-19 could increase the risk of AD. Future development of preventive or therapeutic interventions could attach importance to this to alleviate the complications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study/methods , Humans , Mendelian Randomization Analysis/methods , Neurodegenerative Diseases/epidemiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics
3.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 35(2): 172-177, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891231

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) became a global pandemic that would cause most in-person visits for clinical studies to be put on pause. Coupled with protective stay at home guidelines, clinical research at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ISMMS ADRC) needed to quickly adapt to remain operational and maintain our cohort of research participants. Data collected by the ISMMS ADRC as well as from other National Institute on Aging (NIA) Alzheimer Disease centers, follows the guidance of the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center (NACC). However, at the start of this pandemic, NACC had no alternative data collection mechanisms that could accommodate these safety guidelines. To stay in touch with our cohort and to ensure continued data collection under different stages of quarantine, the ISMMS ADRC redeployed their work force to continue their observational study via telehealth assessment. On the basis of this experience and that of other centers, NACC was able to create a data collection process to accommodate remote assessment in mid-August. Here we review our experience in filling the gap during this period of isolation and describe the adaptations for clinical research, which informed the national dialog for conducting dementia research in the age of COVID-19 and beyond.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Data Collection , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Alzheimer Disease/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Dementia/complications , Humans
4.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 129(7): 847-859, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797629

ABSTRACT

Individuals with Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases have been exposed to excess risk by the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19's main manifestations include high body temperature, dry cough, and exhaustion. Nevertheless, some affected individuals may have an atypical presentation at diagnosis but suffer neurological signs and symptoms as the first disease manifestation. These findings collectively show the neurotropic nature of SARS-CoV-2 virus and its ability to involve the central nervous system. In addition, Alzheimer's disease and COVID-19 has a number of common risk factors and comorbid conditions including age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, and the expression of APOE ε4. Until now, a plethora of studies have examined the COVID-19 disease but only a few studies has yet examined the relationship of COVID-19 and Alzheimer's disease as risk factors of each other. This review emphasizes the recently published evidence on the role of the genes of early- or late-onset Alzheimer's disease in the susceptibility of individuals currently suffering or recovered from COVID-19 to Alzheimer's disease or in the susceptibility of individuals at risk of or with Alzheimer's disease to COVID-19 or increased COVID-19 severity and mortality. Furthermore, the present review also draws attention to other uninvestigated early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease genes to elucidate the relationship between this multifactorial disease and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 156, 2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The most common endocrine and metabolic disorders in premenopausal women is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, and/or ultrasound evidence of small ovarian cysts. Obesity and insulin resistance are also the main factors influencing the clinical manifestations of this syndrome. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most typical progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, and recent studies suggest a relationship between endocrinal dysregulation and neuronal loss during AD pathology. AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the common risk factors for Alzheimer's and PCOS based on previous studies. Knowing the common risk factors and eliminating them may prevent neurodegenerative Alzheimer's disease in the future. METHOD: In this narrative review, international databases, including Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, and the Web of Science, were searched to retrieve the relevant studies. The relevant studies' summaries were categorized to discuss the possible pathways that may explain the association between Alzheimer's and PCOS signs/symptoms and complications. RESULTS: According to our research, the factors involved in Alzheimer's and PCOS disorders may share some common risk factors. In patients with PCOS, increased LH to FSH ratio, decreased vitamin D, insulin resistance, and obesity are some of the most important factors that may increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease.


Polycystic ovary syndrome is a disorder of the female reproductive system that can be caused by hormonal disorders. The disease is detected by an ultrasound of the ovaries with small ovarian cysts. Obesity and insulin resistance are among the factors that can affect the clinical symptoms of this disease. Obesity due to high-fat consumption can affect cognitive functions with age. Alzheimer's is the most common disease associated with disorders in brain cells; a link between hormonal disorders and Alzheimer's has recently been reported. We conducted a review of reports and articles published in connection with polycystic ovary syndrome and neurodegenerative disorders in reputable scientific databases. Studies have shown that the factors involved in polycystic ovary syndrome and Alzheimer's disease may indicate that both diseases have common risk factors. It may be linked to the symptoms and/or complications of Alzheimer's disease and polycystic ovary syndrome. Future preclinical studies are needed to closely examine the mechanisms associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and the association with Alzheimer's. The novelty of our study is from the fact that the PCOS may be to some extent considered as a cause (exposure) among others of AD's (outcome) and the association might be confounded by some or all the risk factors assessed in this review. The nature of the method­the narrative review­is relatively subjective (in the determination of which studies to include, the way the studies are analyzed, and the conclusions drawn) and hence may not help mitigate bias.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Anovulation , Hyperandrogenism , Insulin Resistance , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/etiology , Female , Humans , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Risk Factors
6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 87(2): 701-710, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identification of patients at high susceptibility and high risk of developing serious complications related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is clinically important in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are more susceptible to COVID-19 infection and whether they have a higher risk of developing serious complications. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the Korean nationwide population-based COVID-19 dataset for participants who underwent real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for COVID-19 between January 1 and June 4, 2020. A 1 : 3 ratio propensity score matching and binary logistic regression analysis were performed to investigate the association between AD and the susceptibility or severe complications (i.e., mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, or death) of COVID-19. RESULTS: Among 195,643 study participants, 5,725 participants had AD and 7,334 participants were diagnosed with COVID-19. The prevalence of participants testing positive for COVID-19 did not differ according to the presence of AD (p = 0.234). Meanwhile, AD was associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19 complications (OR 2.25 [95% CI 1.54-3.28]). Secondary outcome analyses showed that AD patients had an increased risk for mortality (OR 3.09 [95% CI 2.00-4.78]) but were less likely to receive mechanical ventilation (OR 0.42 [95% CI 0.20-0.87]). CONCLUSION: AD was not associated with increased susceptibility to COVID-19 infection, but was associated with severe COVID-19 complications, especially with mortality. Early diagnosis and active intervention are necessary for patients with AD suspected COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(5): 1306-1313, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741451

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has created significant and new challenges for the conduct of clinical research involving older adults with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). It has also stimulated positive adaptations in methods for engaging older adults with ADRD in research, particularly through the increased availability of virtual platforms. In this paper, we describe how we adapted standard in-person participant recruitment and qualitative data collection methods for virtual use in a study of decision-making experiences in older adults with ADRD. We describe key considerations for the use of technology and virtual platforms and discuss our experience with using recommended strategies to recruit a diverse sample of older adults. We highlight the need for research funding that supports the community-based organizations on which improving equity in ADRD research participation often depends.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
8.
JAMA Neurol ; 79(4): 342-348, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1711998

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: The COVID-19 pandemic fundamentally altered the delivery of health care in the United States. The associations between these COVID-19-related changes and outcomes in vulnerable patients, such as among persons with Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRD), are not yet well understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between regional rates of COVID-19 infection and excess mortality among individuals with ADRD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This retrospective cross-sectional study used data from beneficiaries of 100% fee-for-service Medicare Parts A and B between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2020, to assess age- and sex-adjusted mortality rates. Participants were 53 640 888 Medicare enrollees 65 years of age or older categorized into 4 prespecified cohorts: enrollees with or without ADRD and enrollees with or without ADRD residing in nursing homes. EXPOSURES: Monthly COVID-19 infection rates by hospital referral region between January and December 2020. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Mortality rates from March through December 2020 were compared with those from March through December 2019. Excess mortality was calculated by comparing mortality rates in 2020 with rates in 2019 for specific, predetermined groups. Means were compared using t tests, and 95% CIs were estimated using the delta method. RESULTS: This cross-sectional study included 26 952 752 Medicare enrollees in 2019 and 26 688 136 enrollees in 2020. In 2019, the mean (SD) age of community-dwelling beneficiaries without ADRD was 74.1 (8.8) years and with ADRD was 82.6 (8.4) years. The mean (SD) age of nursing home residents with ADRD (83.6 [8.4] years) was similar to that for patients without ADRD (79.7 [8.8] years). Among patients diagnosed as having ADRD in 2019, 63.5% were women, 2.7% were Asian, 9.2% were Black, 5.7% were Hispanic, 80.7% were White, and 1.7% were identified as other (included all races or ethnicities other than those given); the composition did not change appreciably in 2020. Compared with 2019, adjusted mortality in 2020 was 12.4% (95% CI, 12.1%-12.6%) higher among enrollees without ADRD and 25.7% (95% CI, 25.3%-26.2%) higher among all enrollees with ADRD, with even higher percentages for Asian (36.0%; 95% CI, 32.6%-39.3%), Black (36.7%; 95% CI, 35.2%-38.2%), and Hispanic (40.1%; 95% CI, 37.9%-42.3%) populations with ADRD. The hospital referral region in the lowest quintile for COVID-19 infections in 2020 had no excess mortality among enrollees without ADRD but 8.8% (95% CI, 7.5%-10.2%) higher mortality among community-dwelling enrollees with ADRD and 14.2% (95% CI, 12.2%-16.2%) higher mortality among enrollees with ADRD living in nursing homes. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic may be associated with excess mortality among older adults with ADRD, especially for Asian, Black, and Hispanic populations and people living in nursing homes, even in areas with low COVID-19 prevalence.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Medicare , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
9.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets ; 21(3): 235-245, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674157

ABSTRACT

It is noticeable how the novel coronavirus has spread from the Wuhan region of China to the whole world, devastating the lives of people worldwide. All the data related to the precautionary measures, diagnosis, treatment, and even the epidemiological data are being made freely accessible and reachable in a very little time as well as being rapidly published to save humankind from this pandemic. There might be neurological complications of COVID-19 and patients suffering from neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease might have repercussions as a result of the pandemic. In this review article, we have discussed the effect of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection on the people affected with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. It primarily emphasizes two issues, i.e., vulnerability to infection and modifications of course of the disease concerning the clinical neurological manifestations, the advancement of the disease and novel approaches to support health care professionals in disease management, the susceptibility to these diseases, and impact on the severity of disease and management.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Management , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
10.
Alzheimers Dement ; 17(11): 1868-1871, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669365
11.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 289: 170-173, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643439

ABSTRACT

We randomly extracted Tweets mentioning dementia/Alzheimer's caregiving-related terms (n= 58,094) from Aug 23, 2019, to Sep 14, 2020, via an API. We applied a clustering algorithm and natural language processing (NLP) to publicly available English Tweets to detect topics and sentiment. We compared emotional valence scores of Tweets from before (through the end of 2019) and after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-). Prevalence of topics related to caregiver emotional distress (e.g., depression, helplessness, stigma, loneliness, elder abuse) and caregiver coping (e.g., resilience, love, reading books) increased, and topics related to late-stage dementia caregiving (e.g., nursing home placement, hospice, palliative care) decreased during the pandemic. The mean emotional valence score significantly decreased from 1.18 (SD 1.57; range -7.1 to 7.9) to 0.86 (SD 1.57; range -5.5 to 6.85) after the advent of COVID-19 (difference -0.32 CI: -0.35, -0.29). The application of topic modeling and sentiment analysis to streaming social media provides a foundation for research insights regarding mental health needs for family caregivers of a person with ADRD during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Social Media , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Attitude , Caregivers , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentiment Analysis
12.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 18(12): 915-924, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622465

ABSTRACT

Age and comorbidities are key indicators of hospital admission, serious illness, and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Patients with age-related comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, NAFLD, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, are more likely to require hospitalization and suffer severe sickness of COVID-19. Patients with Alzheimer's disease and risk factors associated with dementia may also be more vulnerable to serious COVID-19 infection. Peripheral inflammation, including in patients who recover from illness, may promote the course of neurodegenerative disorders through neuroinflammatory pathways. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of COVID-19 on immunity in patients with age-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome and Alzheimer's disease and also to hypothesize the possible correlation between metabolic syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, and COVID-19. Identifying the mechanisms that explain the complicated interaction between metabolic syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, COVID-19, inflammation, and immunity could be crucial to designing effective pharmacological therapies and procedures. This study adds to our basic information about the new coronavirus by synthesizing current knowledge of these linkages. To reduce inflammation and enhance immunity, patients should acquire good lifestyle practices. Walking, breathing exercises, and a nutritious diet all help in improving lung capacity and immunity. Future research into novel therapeutics for patients with metabolic syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, and COVID-19 inflammation and immunology is encouraged by this paper.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Metabolic Syndrome , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Obesity , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 720180, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581131

ABSTRACT

Lack of social engagement and the resulting social isolation can have negative impacts on health and well-being, especially in senior care communities and for those living with dementia. Project VITAL leverages technology and community resources to create a network for connection, engagement, education, and support of individuals with dementia and their caregivers, and explores the impact of these interventions in reducing feelings of social isolation and increasing mood among residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Through two phases, 600 personalized Wi-Fi-enabled iN2L tablets were distributed to 300 senior care communities (55% assisted living communities, 37% skilled nursing communities, 6% memory care communities, and 2% adult family-care homes) to connect and engage residents and their families. Different phases also included Project ECHO, a video-based learning platform, Alzheimer's Association virtual and online education and support for family caregivers, evidence-based online professional dementia care staff training and certification, and Virtual Forums designed to explore ways to build sustainable, scalable models to ensure access to support and decrease social isolation in the future. Tablet usage was collected over an 11-month period and an interim survey was designed to assess the effectiveness of the tablets, in preventing social isolation and increasing mood among residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 105 care community staff (whose community used the tablets) completed the survey and overall, these staff showed a high level of agreement to statements indicating that residents struggled with loneliness and mood, and that the tablet was useful in improving loneliness and mood in residents and allowing them to stay in touch with family and friends. Additional positive results were seen through a variety of other responses around the tablets and Project ECHO. Overall, the tablets were shown to be an effective way to engage residents and connect them with friends and family, as well as being a useful tool for staff members. A third phase is currently underway in the homes of people with dementia and their family caregivers, which includes tablets and direct access to Alzheimer's Association virtual and online education and support programs.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Dementia , Adult , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Florida , Humans , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Technology
14.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 18(12): 915-924, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566595

ABSTRACT

Age and comorbidities are key indicators of hospital admission, serious illness, and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Patients with age-related comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, NAFLD, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, are more likely to require hospitalization and suffer severe sickness of COVID-19. Patients with Alzheimer's disease and risk factors associated with dementia may also be more vulnerable to serious COVID-19 infection. Peripheral inflammation, including in patients who recover from illness, may promote the course of neurodegenerative disorders through neuroinflammatory pathways. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of COVID-19 on immunity in patients with age-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome and Alzheimer's disease and also to hypothesize the possible correlation between metabolic syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, and COVID-19. Identifying the mechanisms that explain the complicated interaction between metabolic syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, COVID-19, inflammation, and immunity could be crucial to designing effective pharmacological therapies and procedures. This study adds to our basic information about the new coronavirus by synthesizing current knowledge of these linkages. To reduce inflammation and enhance immunity, patients should acquire good lifestyle practices. Walking, breathing exercises, and a nutritious diet all help in improving lung capacity and immunity. Future research into novel therapeutics for patients with metabolic syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, and COVID-19 inflammation and immunology is encouraged by this paper.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Metabolic Syndrome , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Obesity , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Neuromolecular Med ; 23(4): 561-571, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525619

ABSTRACT

The current SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, which causes COVID-19, is particularly devastating for individuals with chronic medical conditions, in particular those with Down Syndrome (DS) who often exhibit a higher prevalence of respiratory tract infections, immune dysregulation and potential complications. The incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is much higher in DS than in the general population, possibly increasing further the risk of COVID-19 infection and its complications. Here we provide a biological overview with regard to specific susceptibility of individuals with DS to SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as data from a recent survey on the prevalence of COVID-19 among them. We see an urgent need to protect people with DS, especially those with AD, from COVID-19 and future pandemics and focus on developing protective measures, which also include interventions by health systems worldwide for reducing the negative social effects of long-term isolation and increased periods of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Susceptibility , Down Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Comorbidity , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Down Syndrome/complications , Down Syndrome/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immune System/abnormalities , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Vaccination/methods
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(11)2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480869

ABSTRACT

There are a number of potential implications for the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) stemming from the global spread of "SARS-COV-2". Many studies that were conducted by Cleveland Clinic researchers identified a link between COVID-19 infection and brain abnormalities seen in people with AD. This article explains the association between COVID-19 and AD and how people with AD are affected by COVID-19, whether directly or indirectly. First, this article begins by explaining AD and its types, then giving an overview about COVID-19, its symptoms and the associated complications. Then, direct and indirect consequences of COVID-19 on people experiencing AD are discussed briefly. Some management strategies are recommended at the end of this article in addition to a future perspective on this topic. This article concludes by summarizing the main points mentioned about the association between COVID-19 and AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(12): 3389-3396, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic delayed diagnosis and care for some acute conditions and reduced monitoring for some chronic conditions. It is unclear whether new diagnoses of chronic conditions such as dementia were also affected. We compared the pattern of incident Alzheimer's disease and related dementia (ADRD) diagnosis codes from 2017 to 2019 through 2020, the first pandemic year. METHODS: Retrospective cohort design, leveraging 2015-2020 data on all members 65 years and older with no prior ADRD diagnosis, enrolled in a large integrated healthcare system for at least 2 years. Incident ADRD was defined as the first ICD-10 code at any encounter, including outpatient (face-to-face, video, or phone), hospital (emergency department, observation, or inpatient), or continuing care (home, skilled nursing facility, and long-term care). We also examined incident ADRD codes and use of telehealth by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and spoken language. RESULTS: Compared to overall annual incidence rates for ADRD codes in 2017-2019, 2020 incidence was slightly lower (1.30% vs. 1.40%), partially compensating later in the year for reduced rates during the early months of the pandemic. No racial or ethnic group differences were identified. Telehealth ADRD codes increased fourfold, making up for a 39% drop from face-to-face outpatient encounters. Older age (85+) was associated with higher odds of receiving telecare versus face-to-face care in 2020 (OR:1.50, 95%CI: 1.25-1.80) and a slightly lower incidence of new codes; no racial/ethnic, sex, or language differences were identified in the mode of care. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of incident ADRD codes dropped early in the first pandemic year but rose again to near pre-pandemic rates for the year as a whole, as clinicians rapidly pivoted to telehealth. With refinement of protocols for remote dementia detection and diagnosis, health systems could improve access to equitable detection and diagnosis of ADRD going forward.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Dementia/epidemiology , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/classification , COVID-19/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , International Classification of Diseases , Male , Pandemics , Quality of Health Care , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Skilled Nursing Facilities , United States
18.
Neuron ; 109(20): 3199-3202, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474921

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on neuroscientists, including those involved in translational research. In this NeuroView, we discuss the positive and negative effects of the pandemic on preclinical research and clinical studies in humans.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Neurology/methods , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/epidemiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/therapy , Neurology/trends
19.
Brain ; 144(12): 3727-3741, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455243

ABSTRACT

Recently, we reported oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) contributed to the risk of Alzheimer's disease, by its enrichment in transcriptional networks expressed by microglia. However, the function of OAS1 within microglia was not known. Using genotyping from 1313 individuals with sporadic Alzheimer's disease and 1234 control individuals, we confirm the OAS1 variant, rs1131454, is associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. The same OAS1 locus has been recently associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes, linking risk for both diseases. The single nucleotide polymorphisms rs1131454(A) and rs4766676(T) are associated with Alzheimer's disease, and rs10735079(A) and rs6489867(T) are associated with severe COVID-19, where the risk alleles are linked with decreased OAS1 expression. Analysing single-cell RNA-sequencing data of myeloid cells from Alzheimer's disease and COVID-19 patients, we identify co-expression networks containing interferon (IFN)-responsive genes, including OAS1, which are significantly upregulated with age and both diseases. In human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived microglia with lowered OAS1 expression, we show exaggerated production of TNF-α with IFN-γ stimulation, indicating OAS1 is required to limit the pro-inflammatory response of myeloid cells. Collectively, our data support a link between genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease and susceptibility to critical illness with COVID-19 centred on OAS1, a finding with potential implications for future treatments of Alzheimer's disease and COVID-19, and development of biomarkers to track disease progression.


Subject(s)
2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Linkage/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Patient Acuity , Adolescent , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cells, Cultured , Female , Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Young Adult
20.
Neurol Sci ; 42(12): 4913-4920, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432553

ABSTRACT

Advanced age correlates with higher morbidity and mortality among patients affected with the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Because systemic inflammation and neurological symptoms are also common in severe COVID-19 cases, there is concern that COVID-19 may lead to neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this review, we summarize possible mechanisms by which infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, may cause AD in elderly COVID-19 patients and describe preventive measures to mitigate risk. Potential mechanisms include NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1ß release, renin-angiotensin system hyperactivation, innate immune activation, oxidative stress, direct viral infection, and direct cytolytic ß-cell damage. Anti-inflammatory therapies, including TNF-α inhibitors and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antioxidants such as the vitamin E family, nutritional intervention, physical activity, blood glucose control, and vaccination are proposed as preventive measures to minimize AD risk in COVID-19 patients. Since several risk factors for AD may converge during severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, neurologists should be alert for potential symptoms of AD and actively implement preventive measures in patients presenting with neuropsychiatric symptoms and in high-risk patients such as the elderly.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2
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