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1.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 87(1): 305-315, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793085

ABSTRACT

Wang et al. analyze Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment accuracy as screening tests for detecting dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Such tests are at the center of controversy regarding recognition and treatment of AD. The continued widespread use of tools such as MMSE (1975) underscores the failure of advancing cognitive screening and assessment, which has hampered the development and evaluation of AD treatments. It is time to employ readily available, efficient computerized measures for population/mass screening, clinical assessment of dementia progression, and accurate determination of approaches for prevention and treatment of AD and related conditions.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Humans , Mass Screening , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Neuropsychological Tests
2.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 14(1): 36, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An aging society has increased rates of late onset Alzheimer disease dementia (ADD), the most common form of age-related dementia. This neurodegenerative disease disproportionately affects women. METHODS: We use data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) to examine sex differences in cortical thickness (CT) and memory performance. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) models were used to examine effects of sex and diagnosis (DX) on CT and verbal memory. For regions demonstrating significant interaction effects of sex and DX, we tested whether sex moderated cognition-thickness relationships. We used machine learning as a complementary method to explore multivariate CT differences between women and men. RESULTS: Women demonstrated greater CT in many brain regions. More specifically, men showed relatively consistent CT declines in all stages, from normal control (NC) to ADD in the bilateral cingulate cortex, bilateral temporal regions, and left precuneus; women had more stable CT in these regions between NC and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stages, but sharper declines from MCI to ADD. Similarly, for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), ANCOVA analyses showed that women had significantly better immediate and delayed recall scores than men, at NC and MCI stages, but greater differences, cross-sectionally, from MCI to ADD than men. We found significant sex moderation effects between RAVLT-immediate scores and CT of right isthmus-cingulate for all subjects across DX. Partial correlation analyses revealed that increased CT of right isthmus-cingulate was associated with better verbal learning in women, driven by positron emission tomography defined amyloid positive (Aß+) subjects. Significant sex-moderation effects in cognition-thickness relationships were further found in the right middle-temporal, left precuneus, and left superior temporal regions in Aß+ subjects. Using a machine learning approach, we investigated multivariate CT differences between women and men, showing an accuracy in classification of 75% for Aß+ cognitively NC participants. CONCLUSIONS: Sex differences in memory and CT can play a key role in the different vulnerability and progression of ADD in women compared to men. Machine learning indicates sex differences in CT are most relevant early in the ADD neurodegeneration.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Alzheimer Disease/diagnostic imaging , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Positron-Emission Tomography , Sex Characteristics
3.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 7(4): 294-298, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389817

ABSTRACT

Individuals experiencing brain aging, cognitive decline, and dementia are currently confronted with several more complex challenges due to the current Sars-Cov-2 pandemic as compared to younger and cognitively healthy people. During the first six months of the pandemic, we are experiencing critical issues related to the management of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. The evolving, highly contagious global viral spread has created a pressure test of unprecedented proportions for the existing brain health care infrastructure and related services for management, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Social distancing and lock-down measures are catalyzing and accelerating a technological paradigm shift, away from a traditional model of brain healthcare focused on late symptomatic disease stages and towards optimized preventive strategies to slow brain aging and increase resilience at preclinical asymptomatic stages. Digital technologies transform global healthcare for accessible equality of opportunities in order to generate better outcomes for brain aging aligned with the paradigm of preventive medicine.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Cognitive Dysfunction/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections , Interpersonal Relations , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Social Isolation/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Disease Progression , Humans , Male , Quarantine/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 81(4): 1375-1379, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270983

ABSTRACT

We assessed depression in 72 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) who live in retirement homes during the COVID-19-related lockdown. We invited caregivers of 72 patients with AD who live in retirement homes to rate depression in the patients both before and during the lockdown. Analysis demonstrated increased depression in the patients during the lockdown. We attribute this increased depression to the restrictive measures on activities, visits, and physical contact between patients with AD and family members during the lockdown.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Behavior Observation Techniques , COVID-19 , Depression , Family Relations/psychology , Infection Control/methods , Social Isolation/psychology , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Behavior Observation Techniques/methods , Behavior Observation Techniques/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Leisure Activities/psychology , Male , Physical Distancing , Residential Facilities/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Visitors to Patients/psychology , Visitors to Patients/statistics & numerical data
5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(3): 883-898, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259331

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment following SARS-CoV-2 infection is being increasingly recognized as an acute and possibly also long-term sequela of the disease. Direct viral entry as well as systemic mechanisms such as cytokine storm are thought to contribute to neuroinflammation in these patients. Biomarkers of COVID-19-induced cognitive impairment are currently lacking, but there is some limited evidence that SARS-CoV-2 could preferentially target the frontal lobes, as suggested by behavioral and dysexecutive symptoms, fronto-temporal hypoperfusion on MRI, EEG slowing in frontal regions, and frontal hypometabolism on 18F-FDG-PET. Possible confounders include cognitive impairment due to hypoxia and mechanical ventilation and post-traumatic stress disorder. Conversely, patients already suffering from dementia, as well as their caregivers, have been greatly impacted by the disruption of their care caused by COVID-19. Patients with dementia have experienced worsening of cognitive, behavioral, and psychological symptoms, and the rate of COVID-19-related deaths is disproportionately high among cognitively impaired people. Multiple factors, such as difficulties in remembering and executing safeguarding procedures, age, comorbidities, residing in care homes, and poorer access to hospital standard of care play a role in the increased morbidity and mortality. Non-pharmacological interventions and new technologies have shown a potential for the management of patients with dementia, and for the support of their caregivers.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Brain , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Biomarkers/analysis , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/metabolism , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/immunology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Comorbidity , Humans , Neuroimaging/methods , Neuroimmunomodulation/immunology , Patient Care , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 80(2): 865-875, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting the physical and emotional health of older adults living with dementia and their care partners. OBJECTIVE: Using a patient-centered approach, we explored the experiences and needs of people living with dementia and their care partners during the COVID-19 pandemic as part of an ongoing evaluation of dementia support services in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: A survey instrument was developed around the priorities identified in the context of the COVID-19 and Dementia Task Force convened by the Alzheimer Society of Canada. RESULTS: A total of 417 surveys were analyzed. Overall, respondents were able to access information that was helpful for maintaining their own health and managing a period of social distancing. Care partners reported a number of serious concerns, including the inability to visit the person that they care for in long-term or palliative care. Participants also reported that the pandemic increased their levels of stress overall and that they felt lonelier and more isolated than they did before the pandemic. The use of technology was reported as a way to connect socially with their loved ones, with the majority of participants connecting with others at least twice per week. CONCLUSION: Looking at the complex effects of a global pandemic through the experiences of people living with dementia and their care partners is vital to inform healthcare priorities to restore their quality of life and health and better prepare for the future.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Disabled Persons/psychology , Aged , British Columbia , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Needs Assessment , Psychosocial Support Systems , Social Isolation/psychology , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 80(2): 533-537, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073321

ABSTRACT

We explored the experience from caregivers of people with dementia (PwD) during mandatory confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain. An online survey, which studied the perceptions of the main problems and consequences experienced during confinement, was answered by 106 family caregivers of PwD. Results showed that family caregivers of PwD experienced psychological problems, like anxiety, mood, sleep, or eating disorders during confinement and felt less supported when they had to handle challenging behaviors or offer meaningful activities. An innovative multi-tiered supportive approach is needed which considers a post-pandemic reality and ensures the continuity of quality care for PwD and their family careers.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Needs Assessment , Adaptation, Psychological , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mood Disorders/psychology , Mood Disorders/therapy , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology , Sleep Wake Disorders/therapy , Social Isolation , Social Support , Spain
9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(3): 1015-1021, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060642

ABSTRACT

We explored the impact of the Spanish COVID-19 strict home confinement on mental health and cognition in non-infected subjects (N = 16, 60-80 years) diagnosed with subjective cognitive decline and APOEɛ3/ɛ4 carriers. Mental health was monitored for 2 months on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis, and compared to pre-confinement values. Emotional distress, anxiety, and depression scores increased to pathological threshold values during and after confinement. Those with lower mood during confinement experienced a decline in their mood after confinement. Cognition did not change. These preliminary results suggest that mental health consequences of corona measures in preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease should be further evaluated.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Mental Health , Quarantine/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/genetics , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Apolipoprotein E3/genetics , Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Cognition Disorders/genetics , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/genetics , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/genetics , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Psychological Distress , Risk , Spain
10.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(1): 31-36, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949040

ABSTRACT

Patients admitted with COVID-19 can develop delirium due to predisposing factors, isolation, and the illness itself. Standard delirium prevention methods focus on interaction and stimulation. It can be challenging to deliver these methods of care in COVID settings where it is necessary to increase patient isolation. This paper presents a typical clinical vignette of representative patients in a tertiary care hospital and how a medical team modified an evidence-based delirium prevention model to deliver high-quality care to COVID-19 patients. The implemented model focuses on four areas of delirium-prevention: Mobility, Sleep, Cognitive Stimulation, and Nutrition. Future studies will be needed to track quantitative outcome measures.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delirium/prevention & control , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/psychology , Humans , Male
11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(1): 9-14, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949039

ABSTRACT

Generalized lockdown caused by COVID-19, necessary yesterday, can no longer be that of tomorrow. It will no longer be possible to cram the humblest into cramped areas, but priority must be given to prevention (certainly with physical barriers, hydro-alcoholic gel, face masks), biological diagnosis, isolation, and also the care of any infected person. COVID-19 has hit the most vulnerable first in terms of biological inequality, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Those with AD can have sensorial deficits and perception troubles, including visual difficulties and the inability to recognize faces and emotions. Face masks and physical distancing can disrupt facial familiarity and make it more difficult to recognize emotional facial expressions. It can provoke distress, which the visitor can perceive and feel obligated to take off the face mask. This gesture should not be considered as an act of indiscipline, but an act of empathy. Transparent face masks could improve the suffering of AD patients, distraught in the presence of their loved ones whose masks hide their faces. Wearing a mask should not be due to fear of punishment, but as an understanding of the responsibility of each individual in the control of the current pandemic. It may be necessary to convince more citizens of this civic duty, using clear and attractive messaging in order to standardize the wearing of face masks for the general public and to adapt them to the needs of patients.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Masks/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Emotions/physiology , Facial Expression , Humans , Masks/adverse effects
12.
Kennedy Inst Ethics J ; 30(2): vii-x, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-821839
13.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(15): 2145-2148, 2020 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646274

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown that the calcium ion (Ca2+) plays important roles both in Alzheimer's dementia and SARS-CoV S-mediated fusion to host cell entry. An elevated level of intracellular calcium causes neuronal dysfunction, cell death, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of calcium has also been shown to increase the production of amyloid beta (Aß) protein, the hallmark of Alzheimer's dementia. Reversely, deposition of Aß is also responsible for calcium dysregulation. On the other hand, it has been well investigated that viruses can disturb host cell Ca2+ homeostasis as well as modulate signal transduction mechanisms. Viruses can also hijack the host cell calcium channels and pumps to release more intracellular Ca2+ to utilize for their life cycle. Even though evidence has not been reported on SARS-CoV-2 concerning Ca2+ regulation, however, it has been well established that Ca2+ is essential for viral entry, viral gene replication, and virion maturation and release. Recent reports suggest that SARS-CoV needs two Ca2+ ions to fuse with the host cell at the entry step. Furthermore, some calcium channel blockers (CCBs), such as nimodipine, memantine, etc., have been reported to be effective in the treatment of dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as have shown inhibition in various virus infections.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , COVID-19 , Calcium/metabolism , Calcium Channel Blockers/chemistry , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 291: 113294, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640985

ABSTRACT

To cope with Covid-19 and limits its spread among residents, retirement homes have prohibited physical contact between residents and families and friend and, in some cases, even between residents or between residents and caregivers. We investigated the effects of measures against Covid-19 on the mental health of participants with Alzheimer's disease (AD) who live in retirement homes in France. We instructed on-site caregivers to assess depression and anxiety in participants with mild AD who live in retirement homes. Fifty-eight participants consented to participate in the study. The participants rated their depression and anxiety during and before the Covid-19 crisis. Participants reported higher depression (p = .005) and anxiety (p = .004) during than before the Covid-19 crisis. These increases can be attributed to the isolation of the residents and/or to the drastic changes in their daily life and care they receive. While, in their effort to prevent infections, retirement homes are forced to physically separate residents from the outside world and to drastically reduce residents' activities, these decisions are likely to come at a cost to residents with AD and their mental health.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/complications , Anxiety/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections , Depression/diagnosis , Homes for the Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Caregivers , Depression/complications , Depression/psychology , Female , France , Humans , Male , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
15.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 77(2): 539-541, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760838

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has substantially affected patients with dementia and their caregivers. However, we found not all Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients were afraid of COVID-19 infection. Therefore, we investigated the association between rate of awareness of COVID-19 and depressive tendency in AD. 126 consecutive outpatients with AD were enrolled in this study from May 25, on the day when the declaration of emergency was lifted in Japan, through June 30, 2020. In addition to routine psychological tests, the participants were asked the following two questions: "Do you know COVID-19?" and "Why are you wearing a face mask?". Moderate to severe AD patients were found to have a low COVID-19 recognition rate and did not fully understand why they were wearing face masks. In addition, because they did not understand the seriousness of the COVID-19 outbreak, their Geriatric Depression Scale scores were also substantially lower. These results may appear to simply indicate that people with severe dementia are unaware of current events. However, these results provide insights into how to care for patients with dementia and how to allocate the time and support of our limited staff during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Awareness , Coronavirus Infections , Mental Competency , Pandemics , Patient Care , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Alzheimer Disease/virology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Caregivers/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care/methods , Patient Care/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychosocial Support Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
17.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 77(1): 67-73, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Facing the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), most vulnerable individuals are seniors, especially those with comorbidities. More attention needs to been paid to the COVID-19 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is the top age-related neurodegenerative disease. OBJECTIVE: Since it is unclear whether AD patients are prone to COVID-19 infection and progression to severe stages, we report for the first time a retrospective analysis of the clinical characteristics of AD patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of the clinical data of 19 AD patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, compared with 23 non-AD COVID-19 patients admitted at the same time to our hospital. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Between AD patients and non-AD patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, the pneumonia severity was not significantly different. AD patients had a higher clustering onset than non-AD patients. The median duration from symptom onset to hospitalization were shorter in AD patients than non-AD patients, indicating the former were sent to the hospital by their family or from nursing home earlier than the later. The median duration from hospitalization to discharge seemed shorter in AD patients than non-AD patients. Dementia patients seemed less likely to report fatigue. It is noticed that more AD patients might have pericardial effusion than the non-AD patients. CONCLUSION: AD patients with COVID-19 were in milder conditions with a better prognosis than non-AD patients. AD patients who had adequate access to healthcare showed resilience to COVID-19 with shorter hospital stays.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/complications , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cluster Analysis , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/psychology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pleural Effusion/epidemiology , Pleural Effusion/etiology , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/therapy , Prognosis
19.
Eur J Neurol ; 27(9): 1744-1747, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614138

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The COVID-19 epidemic is affecting almost all individuals worldwide, and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are particularly at risk due to their characteristics and age. We analysed the impact of the pandemic on these patients' neuropsychiatric symptoms and their quality of life after 5 weeks of lockdown in Spain. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with a diagnosis of MCI (n = 20) or mild AD (n = 20) from the Cognitive Stimulation Program of the Cognitive Disorders Unit were evaluated. All patients had undergone a previous evaluation during the month before the lockdown, and were re-evaluated after 5 weeks of lockdown. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and EuroQol-5D questionnaire (EQ-5D) were used to assess neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients and the quality of life in patients as well in caregivers. RESULTS: The mean (SD) total baseline NPI score was 33.75 (22.28), compared with 39.05 (27.96) after confinement (P = 0.028). The most frequently affected neuropsychiatric symptoms were apathy [4.15 (3.78) vs. 5.75 (4.02); P = 0.002] and anxiety [3.95 (3.73) vs. 5.30 (4.01); P = 0.006] in patients with MCI, and apathy [2.35 (2.70) vs. 3.75 (3.78); P = 0.036], agitation [0.45 (1.14) vs. 1.50 (2.66); P = 0.029] and aberrant motor behaviour [1.25 (2.86) vs. 2.00 (2.93); P = 0.044] in patients with AD. We did not observe differences in EQ-5D scores during the re-evaluation. The 30% of patients and 40% of caregivers reported a worsening of the patients' health status during confinement. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show the worsening of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with AD and MCI during 5 weeks of lockdown, with agitation, apathy and aberrant motor activity being the most affected symptoms.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Apathy/physiology , COVID-19/psychology , Psychomotor Agitation/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Anxiety/complications , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Neuropsychological Tests , Pandemics , Psychomotor Agitation/complications , Spain , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 76(1): 41-47, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, apathy, agitation, and hallucinations, are frequent in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their prevalence tends to increase with external stressors. OBJECTIVE: We offer the first investigation of the effects of confinement during the COVID-19 crisis on neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with AD. METHODS: We contacted caregivers of 38 patients with AD who were confined to their homes for nearly two months and asked them to report whether patients experienced any change in neuropsychiatric symptoms during, compared to before, the confinement and rate its severity and impact on themselves using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire. RESULTS: Among the 38 patients, only 10 demonstrated neuropsychiatric changes during the confinement. Cognitive function of these 10 patients, assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, was worse than that of patients who did not demonstrate neuropsychiatric changes. Interestingly, among the 10 patients with neuropsychiatric changes, the duration of confinement significantly correlated with the severity of symptoms as well as with their caregivers' distress. DISCUSSION: The confinement seems to impact neuropsychiatric symptomatology in AD patients with low baseline cognitive function.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/trends , SARS-CoV-2
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