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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 660624, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771097

ABSTRACT

Physical activity decreases the risk of long-term health consequences including cardiac diseases. According to the American Health Association (AHA), adults should perform at least 75 min of vigorous physical activity (PA) or 150 min of moderate PA per week to impact long-term health. Results of previous studies are varied and have yet to integrate perceived access to facilities with AHA PA guidelines. We investigated whether access to free or low-cost recreational facilities was associated with meeting the AHA PA guidelines. Methodology: This cross-sectional study utilized data extracted from the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) database collected in 2017 (n = 1,750). The main exposure variable was access to free or low-cost recreational facilities. The main outcome variable was meeting the AHA guidelines of 150 min moderate PA or 75 min vigorous PA per week. Covariates included age, sex, level of education, overall health, BMI, ethnicity, hours of work per week, income, and time living at current address. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analysis were used to calculate measures of odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Of the 1,750 included participants, 61.7% (n = 1,079) reported to have access to recreational facilities. Of those with access to facilities, 69.9% met AHA PA guidelines while 30.4% did not. After adjusting for covariates, participants who reported access to recreational facilities were 42% more likely to meet AHA PA guidelines compared with participants who did not (adjusted OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.14-1.76). Secondary results suggest that healthier individuals were more likely to have met AHA PA guidelines. Conclusions: Having access to free or low-cost recreational facilities such as parks, walking trails, bike paths and courts was associated with meeting the AHA PA guidelines. Increasing prevalence and awareness of neighborhood recreational facilities could assist in access to these facilities and increase the ability of individuals to meet AHA PA guidelines. Future research should determine which types of recreational facilities impact physical activity strongest and discover methods of increasing their awareness.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Guideline Adherence , Sports and Recreational Facilities , Adult , American Heart Association , Cross-Sectional Studies , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Residence Characteristics , Sports and Recreational Facilities/statistics & numerical data , United States
3.
Stroke ; 53(3): 1043-1050, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714486

ABSTRACT

For more than a year, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had a devastating effect on global health. High-, low, and middle-income countries are struggling to cope with the spread of newer mutant strains of the virus. Delivery of acute stroke care remains a priority despite the pandemic. In order to maintain the time-dependent processes required to optimize delivery of intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy, most countries have reorganized infrastructure to optimize human resources and critical services. Low-and-middle income countries (LMIC) have strained medical resources at baseline and often face challenges in the delivery of stroke systems of care (SSOC). This position statement aims to produce pragmatic recommendations on methods to preserve the existing SSOC during COVID-19 in LMIC and propose best stroke practices that may be low cost but high impact and commonly shared across the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Global Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke , American Heart Association , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , United States/epidemiology
4.
Nursing ; 52(3): 28-33, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708402

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The American Heart Association released an updated Basic and Advanced Cardiac Life Support guidance that incorporates the latest knowledge regarding COVID-19 and its transmissibility. This article details the new guidance, including strategies for reducing provider risk and exposure and for special patient-care situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Advanced Cardiac Life Support , American Heart Association , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
5.
Circulation ; 144(23): e461-e471, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666518

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had worldwide repercussions for health care and research. In spring 2020, most non-COVID-19 research was halted, hindering research across the spectrum from laboratory-based experimental science to clinical research. Through the second half of 2020 and the first half of 2021, biomedical research, including cardiovascular science, only gradually restarted, with many restrictions on onsite activities, limited clinical research participation, and the challenges associated with working from home and caregiver responsibilities. Compounding these impediments, much of the global biomedical research infrastructure was redirected toward vaccine testing and deployment. This redirection of supply chains, personnel, and equipment has additionally hampered restoration of normal research activity. Transition to virtual interactions offset some of these limitations but did not adequately replace the need for scientific exchange and collaboration. Here, we outline key steps to reinvigorate biomedical research, including a call for increased support from the National Institutes of Health. We also call on academic institutions, publishers, reviewers, and supervisors to consider the impact of COVID-19 when assessing productivity, recognizing that the pandemic did not affect all equally. We identify trainees and junior investigators, especially those with caregiving roles, as most at risk of being lost from the biomedical workforce and identify steps to reduce the loss of these key investigators. Although the global pandemic highlighted the power of biomedical science to define, treat, and protect against threats to human health, significant investment in the biomedical workforce is required to maintain and promote well-being.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19 , Cardiology/trends , Research Design/trends , Research Personnel/trends , Advisory Committees , American Heart Association , Biomedical Research/education , Cardiology/education , Diffusion of Innovation , Education, Professional/trends , Forecasting , Humans , Public Opinion , Research Personnel/education , Time Factors , United States
6.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 24(1): 61-72, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653753

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights major studies across a broad array of topics presented at the virtual 2021 American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions. RECENT FINDINGS: Assessed studies examine a remotely delivered hypertension and lipid program in 10,000 patients across a diverse healthcare network; a cluster-randomized trial of a village doctor-led intervention for hypertension control; empagliflozin in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (EMPEROR-Preserved); efficacy and safety of empagliflozin in hospitalized heart failure patients (EMPULSE); icosapent ethyl versus placebo in outpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (PREPARE-IT 2); clinical safety, pharmacokinetics, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering efficacy of MK-0161, an oral proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor; and effects of aspirin on dementia and cognitive impairment in the ASCEND trial. Research presented at the 2021 AHA Scientific Sessions emphasized the importance of interventions for cardiovascular disease prevention.


Subject(s)
Anticholesteremic Agents , Cardiovascular Diseases , American Heart Association , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Proprotein Convertase 9 , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , United States/epidemiology
8.
Stroke ; 53(3): 800-807, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be associated with increased risk for ischemic stroke. We present prevalence and characteristics of strokes in patients with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection enrolled in the American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry. METHODS: In this quality improvement registry study, we examined demographic, baseline clinical characteristics, and in-hospital outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The primary outcomes were ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and in-hospital death. RESULTS: Among 21 073 patients with COVID-19 admitted at 107 hospitals between January 29, 2020, and November 23, 2020, 160 (0.75%) experienced acute ischemic stroke/TIA (55.3% of all acute strokes) and 129 (0.61%) had other types of stroke. Among nonischemic strokes, there were 44 (15.2%) intracerebral hemorrhages, 33 (11.4%) subarachnoid hemorrhages, 21 (7.3%) epidural/subdural hemorrhages, 2 (0.7%) cerebral venous sinus thromboses, and 24 (8.3%) strokes not otherwise classified. Asians and non-Hispanic Blacks were overrepresented among ischemic stroke/TIA patients compared with their overall representation in the registry, but adjusted odds of stroke did not vary by race. Median time from COVID-19 symptom onset to ischemic stroke was 11.5 days (interquartile range, 17.8); median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 11 (interquartile range, 17). COVID-19 patients with acute ischemic stroke/TIA had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and atrial fibrillation compared with those without stroke. Intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation were associated with higher odds of acute ischemic stroke/TIA, but older age was not a predictor. In adjusted models, acute ischemic stroke/TIA was not associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic stroke risk did not vary by race. In contrast to the association between older age and death from COVID-19, ischemic stroke risk was the highest among middle-aged adults after adjusting for comorbidities and illness severity, suggesting a potential mechanism for ischemic stroke in COVID-19 independent of age-related atherosclerotic pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Ischemic Stroke , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , American Heart Association , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/mortality , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology
9.
Int J Stroke ; 17(1): 9-17, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488374

ABSTRACT

For more than a year, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had a devastating effect on global health. High-, low-, and middle-income countries are struggling to cope with the spread of newer mutant strains of the virus. Delivery of acute stroke care remains a priority despite the pandemic. In order to maintain the time-dependent processes required to optimize delivery of intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy, most countries have reorganized infrastructure to optimize human resources and critical services. Low-and-middle income countries (LMIC) have strained medical resources at baseline and often face challenges in the delivery of stroke systems of care (SSOC). This position statement aims to produce pragmatic recommendations on methods to preserve the existing SSOC during COVID-19 in LMIC and propose best stroke practices that may be low cost but high impact and commonly shared across the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , American Heart Association , Developing Countries , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , United States/epidemiology
10.
Hong Kong Med J ; 26(5): 367-369, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468762
12.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254635, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Statins have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects that may reduce the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in which organ dysfunction is mediated by severe inflammation. Large studies with diverse populations evaluating statin use and outcomes in COVID-19 are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used data from 10,541 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 through September 2020 at 104 US hospitals enrolled in the American Heart Association's COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Registry to evaluate the associations between statin use and outcomes. Prior to admission, 42% of subjects (n = 4,449) used statins (7% on statins alone, 35% on statins plus anti-hypertensives). Death (or discharge to hospice) occurred in 2,212 subjects (21%). Outpatient use of statins, either alone or with anti-hypertensives, was associated with a reduced risk of death (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.59, 95% CI 0.50-0.69), adjusting for demographic characteristics, insurance status, hospital site, and concurrent medications by logistic regression. In propensity-matched analyses, use of statins and/or anti-hypertensives was associated with a reduced risk of death among those with a history of CVD and/or hypertension (aOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.58-0.81). An observed 16% reduction in odds of death among those without CVD and/or hypertension was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Patients taking statins prior to hospitalization for COVID-19 had substantially lower odds of death, primarily among individuals with a history of CVD and/or hypertension. These observations support the continuation and aggressive initiation of statin and anti-hypertensive therapies among patients at risk for COVID-19, if these treatments are indicated based upon underlying medical conditions.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , American Heart Association , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Population Groups/statistics & numerical data , United States
13.
Circulation ; 143(24): 2332-2342, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed longstanding racial and ethnic inequities in health risks and outcomes in the United States. We aimed to identify racial and ethnic differences in presentation and outcomes for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: The American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry is a retrospective observational registry capturing consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We present data on the first 7868 patients by race/ethnicity treated at 88 hospitals across the United States between January 17, 2020, and July 22, 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure) and COVID-19 cardiorespiratory ordinal severity score (worst to best: death, cardiac arrest, mechanical ventilation with mechanical circulatory support, mechanical ventilation with vasopressors/inotrope support, mechanical ventilation without hemodynamic support, and hospitalization alone. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between race/ethnicity and each outcome adjusting for differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and presentation features, and accounting for clustering by hospital. RESULTS: Among 7868 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 33.0% were Hispanic, 25.5% were non-Hispanic Black, 6.3% were Asian, and 35.2% were non-Hispanic White. Hispanic and Black patients were younger than non-Hispanic White and Asian patients and were more likely to be uninsured. Black patients had the highest prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Black patients also had the highest rates of mechanical ventilation (23.2%) and renal replacement therapy (6.6%) but the lowest rates of remdesivir use (6.1%). Overall mortality was 18.4% with 53% of all deaths occurring in Black and Hispanic patients. The adjusted odds ratios for mortality were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.76-1.14) for Black patients, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.73-1.11) for Hispanic patients, and 1.31 (95% CI, 0.96-1.80) for Asian patients compared with non-Hispanic White patients. The median odds ratio across hospitals was 1.99 (95% CI, 1.74-2.48). Results were similar for major adverse cardiovascular events. Asian patients had the highest COVID-19 cardiorespiratory severity at presentation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.16-1.90]). CONCLUSIONS: Although in-hospital mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events did not differ by race/ethnicity after adjustment, Black and Hispanic patients bore a greater burden of mortality and morbidity because of their disproportionate representation among COVID-19 hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , American Heart Association , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Race Factors , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , United States
16.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 8, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285507

ABSTRACT

Although the attention of the world and the global health community specifically is deservedly focused on the COVID-19 pandemic, other determinants of health continue to have large impacts and may also interact with COVID-19. Air pollution is one crucial example. Established evidence from other respiratory viruses and emerging evidence for COVID-19 specifically indicates that air pollution alters respiratory defense mechanisms leading to worsened infection severity. Air pollution also contributes to co-morbidities that are known to worsen outcomes amongst those infected with COVID-19, and air pollution may also enhance infection transmission due to its impact on more frequent coughing. Yet despite the massive disruption of the COVID-19 pandemic, there are reasons for optimism: broad societal lockdowns have shown us a glimpse of what a future with strong air pollution measures could yield. Thus, the urgency to combat air pollution is not diminished, but instead heightened in the context of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Global Health , Acute Disease , American Heart Association , COVID-19 , Cardiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Chronic Disease , Environmental Health , Europe , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Inflammation , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , United States
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