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1.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288957

ABSTRACT

In the current work, a simple, economical, accurate, and precise HPLC method with UV detection was developed to quantify Favipiravir (FVIR) in spiked human plasma using acyclovir (ACVR) as an internal standard in the COVID-19 pandemic time. Both FVIR and ACVR were well separated and resolved on the C18 column using the mobile phase blend of methanol:acetonitrile:20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.1) in an isocratic mode flow rate of 1 mL/min with a proportion of 30:10:60 %, v/v/v. The detector wavelength was set at 242 nm. Maximum recovery of FVIR and ACVR from plasma was obtained with dichloromethane (DCM) as extracting solvent. The calibration curve was found to be linear in the range of 3.1-60.0 µg/mL with regression coefficient (r2) = 0.9976. However, with acceptable r2, the calibration data's heteroscedasticity was observed, which was further reduced using weighted linear regression with weighting factor 1/x. Finally, the method was validated concerning sensitivity, accuracy (Inter and Intraday's % RE and RSD were 0.28, 0.65 and 1.00, 0.12 respectively), precision, recovery (89.99%, 89.09%, and 90.81% for LQC, MQC, and HQC, respectively), stability (% RSD for 30-day were 3.04 and 1.71 for LQC and HQC, respectively at -20 °C), and carry-over US-FDA guidance for Bioanalytical Method Validation for researchers in the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. Furthermore, there was no significant difference for selectivity when evaluated at LLOQ concentration of 3 µg/mL of FVIR and relative to the blank.


Subject(s)
Amides/analysis , Amides/blood , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/blood , Biological Assay/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Liquid-Liquid Extraction/methods , Pyrazines/analysis , Pyrazines/blood , Acyclovir/analysis , Acyclovir/blood , COVID-19/blood , Calibration , Drug Stability , Freezing , Humans , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , Solvents/chemistry
2.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1176: 122768, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240421

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA polymerase. It is currently used as a possible treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Pre-clinical or clinical trials of favipiravir require robust, sensitive, and accurate bioanalytical methods for quantitation of favipiravir levels. Recently, several studies have been reported about developing a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for measuring favipiravir levels. However, these methods were validated predominantly for plasma samples, electrospray ionization was operated only in negative or positive mode, and clinical application of these methods has not been applied for patients with COVID-19. This study aimed was to develop a validated LC-MS/MS method for the measurement of favipiravir levels in positive and negative electrospray ionization mode and to perform a pilot study in patients with COVID-19 receiving favipiravir to demonstrate the applicability of this method in biological samples. Simple protein precipitation was used for the extraction of favipiravir from the desired matrix. Favipiravir levels were quantitated using MS / MS with an electrospray ionization source in positive and negative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The chromatographic detection was performed on a reverse-phase Phenomenex C18 column (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm, 100 Å) with gradient elution using 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in methanol as mobile phase. The method was linear over the concentration ranges of 0.048-50 µg/mL (in negative ionization mode) and 0.062-50 µg/mL (in positive ionization mode) with a correlation coefficient (r2) better than 0.998. The total run time was 3.5 min. The intra-assay and inter-assay %CV values were less than 7.2% and 8.0%, respectively. A simple, rapid and robust LC-MS / MS method was developed for the measurement of favipiravir and validation studies were performed. The validated method was successfully applied for drug level measurement in COVID-19 patients receiving favipiravir.


Subject(s)
Amides/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Pyrazines/blood , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , Drug Stability , Humans , Limit of Detection , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization/methods
3.
Anal Sci ; 37(9): 1301-1304, 2021 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094104

ABSTRACT

An in-hospital rapid method for quantifying the serum level of favipiravir (FPV) in the pharmacological treatment of COVID-19 was developed by an appropriate combination of a solid-phase extraction treatment and a reversed-phase HPLC/UV detection system. The quantification method was well-validated and applied to measuring the serum FPV level in a clinical practice at a general hospital that accepts COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, an analysis of data from our preliminary interaction analysis revealed, for the first time, that FPV selectively forms complexes with ferric (Fe3+) and cupric (Cu2+) ions.


Subject(s)
Amides/blood , Blood Chemical Analysis/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitals , Pyrazines/blood , Amides/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Humans , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Time Factors
4.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 249: 119241, 2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065570

ABSTRACT

The present work describes development of rapid, robust, sensitive and green spectrofluorimetric method for determination of favipiravir (FAV). Different factors affecting fluorescence were carefully studied and Box Behnken Design was applied to optimize experimental parameters. The proposed method is based on measuring native fluorescence of FAV in 0.2 M borate buffer (pH 8.0) at 432 nm after excitation at 361 nm. There was a linear relationship between FAV concentration and relative fluorescence intensity over the range 40-280 ng/mL with limit of detection of 9.44 ng/mL and quantitation limit of 28.60 ng/mL. The method was successfully implemented for determination of FAV in its pharmaceutical formulation with mean % recovery of 99.26 ± 0.87. Moreover, the high sensitivity of the method allowed determination of FAV in spiked human plasma over a range of 48-192 ng/mL. The proposed spectrofluorimetric method was proved to be eco-friendly according to analytical eco-scale.


Subject(s)
Amides/blood , Antiviral Agents/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/blood , Spectrometry, Fluorescence/methods , Amides/analysis , Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Chemical Analysis/methods , Blood Chemical Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Limit of Detection , Pyrazines/analysis , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spectrometry, Fluorescence/statistics & numerical data
5.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 196: 113935, 2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The present COVID-19 pandemic has prompted worldwide repurposing of drugs. The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a two-dimensional isotope-dilution liquid chromatrography tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) method for accurate quantification of remdesivir and its active metabolite GS-441524, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, favipiravir and azithromycin in serum; drugs that have gained attention for repurposing in the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: Following protein precipitation, samples were separated with a two-dimensional ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (2D-UHPLC) setup, consisting of an online solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to an analytical column. For quantification, stable isotope-labelled analogues were used as internal standards for all analytes. The method was validated on the basis of the European Medicines Agency bioanalytical method validation protocol. RESULTS: Detuning of lopinavir and ritonavir allowed simultaneous quantification of all analytes with different concentration ranges and sensitivity with a uniform injection volume of 5 µL. The method provided robust validation results with inaccuracy and imprecision values of ≤ 9.59 % and ≤ 11.1 % for all quality controls. CONCLUSION: The presented method is suitable for accurate and simultaneous quantification of remdesivir, its metabolite GS-441525, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, favipiravir and azithromycin in human serum. The quantitative assay may be an efficient tool for the therapeutic drug monitoring of these potential drug candidates in COVID-19 patients in order to increase treatment efficacy and safety.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Isotopes/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/blood , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/blood , Amides/blood , Azithromycin/blood , Chloroquine/blood , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Furans/blood , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/blood , Lopinavir/blood , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pyrazines/blood , Pyrroles/blood , Ritonavir/blood , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Triazines/blood
6.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 157: 105631, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective antiviral drugs for COVID-19 are still lacking. This study aims to evaluate the clinical outcomes and plasma concentrations of baloxavir acid and favipiravir in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Favipiravir and baloxavir acid were evaluated for their antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro before the trial initiation. We conducted an exploratory trial with 3 arms involving hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19. Patients were randomized assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio into baloxavir marboxil group, favipiravir group, and control group. The primary outcome was the percentage of subjects with viral negative by Day 14 and the time from randomization to clinical improvement. Virus load reduction, blood drug concentration and clinical presentation were also observed. The trial was registered with Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR 2000029544). RESULTS: Baloxavir acid showed antiviral activity in vitro with the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 5.48 µM comparable to arbidol and lopinavir, but favipiravir didn't demonstrate significant antiviral activity up to 100 µM. Thirty patients were enrolled. The percentage of patients who turned viral negative after 14-day treatment was 70%, 77%, and 100% in the baloxavir marboxil, favipiravir, and control group respectively, with the medians of time from randomization to clinical improvement was 14, 14 and 15 days, respectively. One reason for the lack of virological effect and clinical benefits may be due to insufficient concentrations of these drugs relative to their antiviral activities. One of the limitations of this study is the time from symptom onset to randomization, especially in the baloxavir marboxil and control groups, which is higher than the favipiravir group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings could not prove a benefit of addition of either baloxavir marboxil or favipiravir under the trial dosages to the existing standard treatment.


Subject(s)
Amides , COVID-19 , Dibenzothiepins , Morpholines , Pyrazines , Pyridones , Triazines , Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/blood , Amides/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/blood , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dibenzothiepins/administration & dosage , Dibenzothiepins/blood , Dibenzothiepins/pharmacokinetics , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Male , Middle Aged , Morpholines/administration & dosage , Morpholines/blood , Morpholines/pharmacokinetics , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/blood , Pyrazines/pharmacokinetics , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Pyridones/blood , Pyridones/pharmacokinetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome , Triazines/administration & dosage , Triazines/blood , Triazines/pharmacokinetics , Viral Load/drug effects
8.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 108(2): 242-247, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-30729

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of 2019-nCoV infection has spread across the world. No specific antiviral drugs have been approved for the treatment of COVID-2019. In addition to the recommended antiviral drugs, such as interferon-ɑ, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, and chloroquine phosphate, some clinical trials focusing on virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitors have been registered and initiated. Favipiravir, a purine nucleic acid analog and potent RdRp inhibitor approved for use in influenza, is also considered in several clinical trials. Herein, we summarized the pharmacokinetic characteristics of favipiravir and possible drug-drug interactions from the view of drug metabolism. We hope this will be helpful for the design of clinical trials for favipiravir in COVID-2019, as data regarding in vitro virus inhibition and efficacy in preclinical animal studies are still not available.


Subject(s)
Amides/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Pyrazines/pharmacokinetics , Acetaminophen/pharmacokinetics , Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/blood , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Interactions , Humans , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/blood
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