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1.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834918

ABSTRACT

The effect of treatment with favipiravir, an antiviral purine nucleoside analog, for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the production and duration of neutralizing antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 was explored. There were 17 age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched pairs of favipiravir treated versus control selected from a total of 99 patients recovered from moderate COVID-19. These subjects participated in the longitudinal (>6 months) analysis of (i) SARS-CoV-2 spike protein's receptor-binding domain IgG, (ii) virus neutralization assay using authentic virus, and (iii) neutralization potency against original (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and cross-neutralization against B.1.351 (beta) variant carrying triple mutations of K417N, E484K, and N501Y. The results demonstrate that the use of favipiravir: (1) significantly accelerated the elimination of SARS-CoV-2 in the case vs. control groups (p = 0.027), (2) preserved the generation and persistence of neutralizing antibodies in the host, and (3) did not interfere the maturation of neutralizing potency of anti-SARS-CoV-2 and neutralizing breadth against SARS-CoV-2 variants. In conclusion, treatment of COVID-19 with favipiravir accelerates viral clearance and does not interfere the generation or maturation of neutralizing potency against both WT SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Amides/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Neutralization Tests , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
2.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3184-3191, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748620

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir (FVP), lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV), and interferon-beta (INF-beta) are considered as potential treatments for COVID-19. We examined the efficacy and safety of FVP and INF-beta compared to LPV/RTV and INF-beta combinations for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. It was a single-center randomized clinical trial. Eligible patients were randomized to receive FVP plus INF-beta versus LPV/RTV plus INF-beta. The primary endpoint was the viral clearance after seven days of randomization. ICU admission, length of stay (LOS) in hospital, in-hospital mortality, and the incidence of adverse events were also measured. This trial was registered on the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT20200506047323N3). Patients were randomly allocated to the FVP (n = 33) and LPV/RTV (n = 33) groups. The viral clearance on Day seven was not significantly different between the FVP (31.1%) and the LPV/RTV groups (16.1%). The rate of ICU admission and likewise the in-hospital mortality in the FVP group (12.5% and 6.3%, respectively) were similar to the LPV/RTV groups (19.4% and 19.4%, respectively). The median LOS in the hospital was also not different (6.8 days [interquartile range; IQR = 5.0-11.0] in the FVP and (8.0 days [IQR = 5.5-12.5]) in LPV/RTV groups (p = 0.140). Adverse events were observed in 25.0% of FVP and 32.3% of LPV/RTV groups. The combination therapy with FVP did not exert a higher efficacy compared to the combination regimen of LPV/RTV. However, both treatment regimens demonstrated a mild profile of adverse events.


Subject(s)
Amides , COVID-19 , Interferon-beta , Lopinavir , Pyrazines , Ritonavir , Amides/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(3): 125, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712245

ABSTRACT

A novel electrochemical sensor is reported for the detection of the antiviral drug favipiravir based on the core-shell nanocomposite of flower-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanospheres and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). The MoS2@MIP core-shell nanocomposite was prepared via the electrodeposition of a MIP layer on the MoS2 modified electrode, using o-phenylenediamine as the monomer and favipiravir as the template. The selective binding of target favipiravir at the MoS2@MIP core-shell nanocomposite produced a redox signal in a concentration dependent manner, which was used for the quantitative analysis. The preparation process of the MoS2@MIP core-shell nanocomposite was optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor exhibited a wide linear response range of 0.01 ~ 100 nM (1.57*10-6 ~ 1.57*10-2 µg mL-1) and a low detection limit of 0.002 nM (3.14*10-7 µg mL-1). Application of the sensor was demonstrated by detecting favipiravir in a minimum amount of 10 µL biological samples (urine and plasma). Satisfied results in the recovery tests indicated a high potential of favipiravir monitoring in infectious COVID-19 samples.


Subject(s)
Amides/analysis , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Disulfides/chemistry , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers/chemistry , Molybdenum/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Nanospheres/chemistry , Pyrazines/analysis , Amides/blood , Amides/therapeutic use , Amides/urine , Antiviral Agents/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/urine , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Humans , Limit of Detection , Oxidation-Reduction , Pyrazines/blood , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/urine , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(4): 602-608, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether favipiravir reduces the time to viral clearance as documented by negative RT-PCR results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in mild cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared to placebo. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blinded, multicentre, and placebo-controlled trial, adults with PCR-confirmed mild COVID-19 were recruited in an outpatient setting at seven medical facilities across Saudi Arabia. Participants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either favipiravir 1800 mg by mouth twice daily on day 1 followed by 800 mg twice daily (n = 112) or a matching placebo (n = 119) for a total of 5 to 7 days. The primary outcome was the effect of favipiravir on reducing the time to viral clearance (by PCR test) within 15 days of starting the treatment compared to the placebo group. The trial included the following secondary outcomes: symptom resolution, hospitalization, intensive care unit admissions, adverse events, and 28-day mortality. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-one patients were randomized and began the study (median age, 37 years; interquartile range (IQR): 32-44 years; 155 [67%] male), and 112 (48.5%) were assigned to the treatment group and 119 (51.5%) into the placebo group. The data and safety monitoring board recommended stopping enrolment because of futility at the interim analysis. The median time to viral clearance was 10 days (IQR: 6-12 days) in the favipiravir group and 8 days (IQR: 6-12 days) in the placebo group, with a hazard ratio of 0.87 for the favipiravir group (95% CI 0.571-1.326; p = 0.51). The median time to clinical recovery was 7 days (IQR: 4-11 days) in the favipiravir group and 7 days (IQR: 5-10 days) in the placebo group. There was no difference between the two groups in the secondary outcome of hospital admission. There were no drug-related severe adverse events. CONCLUSION: In this clinical trial, favipiravir therapy in mild COVID-19 patients did not reduce the time to viral clearance within 15 days of starting the treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Amides/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Male , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
5.
Pharmacol Ther ; 235: 108121, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665376

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir, a broad-spectrum RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor, inhibits the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at significantly lower concentrations than the plasma trough levels achieved by the dosage adopted for influenza treatment and exhibits efficacy against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Although high doses of favipiravir are required due to the molecule being a purine analog, its conversion into the active form in infected cells with active viral RNA synthesis enhances the antiviral specificity and selectivity as a chain terminator with lethal mutagenesis. Another characteristic feature is the lack of generation of favipiravir-resistant virus. COVID-19 pneumonia is caused by strong cell-mediated immunity against virus-infected cells, and the inflammatory response induced by adaptive immunity continues to peak for 3 to 5 days despite antiviral treatment. This has also been observed in herpes zoster (HZ) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia. Inflammation due to an immune response may mask the effectiveness of favipiravir against COVID-19 pneumonia. Favipiravir significantly shortened the recovery time in patients with mild COVID-19 pneumonia by 3 days with the start of treatment by the 5th day of symptom onset. Since both CMV and COVID-19 pneumonia are caused by adaptive immunity and prevention of cytomegalovirus pneumonia is the standard treatment due to difficulties in treating refractory CMV pneumonia, COVID-19 pneumonia should be prevented with early treatment as well. In the present study, we have comprehensively reviewed the optimal antiviral therapy for COVID-19 based on clinical trials of favipiravir for the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia and the concurrently established therapies for other viral infections, particularly HZ and CMV pneumonia. Optimally, antivirals should be administered immediately after COVID-19 diagnosis, similar to that after influenza diagnosis, to prevent COVID-19 pneumonia and complications resulting from microangiopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Influenza, Human , Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Cytomegalovirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Pyrazines , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 147: 112700, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664683

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents an unmet clinical need, due to a high mortality rate, rapid mutation rate in the virus, increased chances of reinfection, lack of effectiveness of repurposed drugs and economic damage. COVID-19 pandemic has created an urgent need for effective molecules. Clinically proven efficacy and safety profiles have made favipiravir (FVP) and remdesivir (RDV) promising therapeutic options for use against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Even though both are prodrug molecules with an antiviral role based on a similar mechanism of action, differences in pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and pharmacotoxicological mechanisms have been identified. The present study aims to provide a comprehensive comparative assessment of FVP and RDV against SARS-CoV-2 infections, by centralizing medical data provided by significant literature and authorized clinical trials, focusing on the importance of a better understanding of the interactions between drug molecules and infectious agents in order to improve the global management of COVID-19 patients and to reduce the risk of antiviral resistance.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 63(1): 37-63, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620131

ABSTRACT

This review considers antiviral nucleoside analog drugs, including ribavirin, favipiravir, and molnupiravir, which induce genome error catastrophe in SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 via lethal mutagenesis as a mode of action. In vitro data indicate that molnupiravir may be 100 times more potent as an antiviral agent than ribavirin or favipiravir. Molnupiravir has recently demonstrated efficacy in a phase 3 clinical trial. Because of its anticipated global use, its relative potency, and the reported in vitro "host" cell mutagenicity of its active principle, ß-d-N4-hydroxycytidine, we have reviewed the development of molnupiravir and its genotoxicity safety evaluation, as well as the genotoxicity profiles of three congeners, that is, ribavirin, favipiravir, and 5-(2-chloroethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine. We consider the potential genetic risks of molnupiravir on the basis of all available information and focus on the need for additional human genotoxicity data and follow-up in patients treated with molnupiravir and similar drugs. Such human data are especially relevant for antiviral NAs that have the potential of permanently modifying the genomes of treated patients and/or causing human teratogenicity or embryotoxicity. We conclude that the results of preclinical genotoxicity studies and phase 1 human clinical safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics are critical components of drug safety assessments and sentinels of unanticipated adverse health effects. We provide our rationale for performing more thorough genotoxicity testing prior to and within phase 1 clinical trials, including human PIG-A and error corrected next generation sequencing (duplex sequencing) studies in DNA and mitochondrial DNA of patients treated with antiviral NAs that induce genome error catastrophe via lethal mutagenesis.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , DNA Damage/drug effects , Hydroxylamines/adverse effects , Nucleosides/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Amides/adverse effects , Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytidine/adverse effects , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Deoxyuridine/adverse effects , Deoxyuridine/analogs & derivatives , Deoxyuridine/therapeutic use , Genome, Human/drug effects , Humans , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Mutagenesis/drug effects , Nucleosides/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
9.
Rheumatol Int ; 42(1): 101-113, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620250

ABSTRACT

Initial case series of small number of patients at the beginning of the pandemic reported a rather guarded prognosis for Behçet's syndrome (BS) patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. In this prospective study, we describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, disease course, management, and outcome in a large cohort of BS patients with laboratory-confirmed infection of SARS-CoV-2. We defined a cohort of 1047 registered BS patients who were aged between 16 and 60 years and seen routinely before the pandemic at the multidisciplinary outpatient clinic. We followed prospectively this cohort from beginning of April 2020 until the end of April 2021. During 13 months of follow-up, of the 1047 (599 M/448 F) patients, 592 (56.5%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 PCR at least once and 215 (20.5%; 95% CI 0.18-0.23) were tested positive. We observed 2 peaks which took place in December 2020 and April 2021. Of the 215 PCR positive patients, complete information was available in 214. Of these 214, 14 (6.5%) were asymptomatic for COVID-19. In the remaining, the most common symptoms were anosmia, fatigue, fever, arthralgia, and headache. A total of 40 (18.7%) had lung involvement, 25 (11.7%) were hospitalized, 1 was admitted to the intensive care unit while none died. Favipiravir was the most prescribed drug (74.3%), followed by colchicine (40.2%), and hydroxychloroquine (20.1%) in the treatment of COVID-19. After COVID-19, 5 patients (2.3%) were given supplemental O2 and 31 (14.5%) antiaggregant or anticoagulants. During COVID-19, of the 214 PCR positive patients, 116 (54.2%) decreased the dose of their immunosuppressives or stopped taking completely; 36 (16.8%) experienced a BS flare which was mostly oral ulcers (10.3%). None of the patients reported a thrombotic event. A total of 93 (43.5%) patients reported BS flares after a median 45 days of COVID-19 infection and this was found to be significantly associated with immunosuppressive drug discontinuation. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and gender indicated that smoking and using interferon-alpha decreased the likelihood of getting COVID-19. The incidence and severity of COVID-19 did not differ between those who were using colchicine or not. The cumulative incidence of COVID-19 in this prospectively followed cohort of BS patients was almost two folds of that estimated for the general population living in Istanbul, Turkey, however, the clinical outcome of COVID-19 was not severe and there was no mortality. The protective effect of smoking and interferon deserves further investigation. On the other hand, colchicine did not have any positive or negative effect against COVID-19. Significant number of patients flared after COVID-19, however, this was significantly associated with immunosuppressive discontinuation during the infection. Contrary to our previous observations, COVID-19 did not seem to exacerbate thrombotic events during or after the infection.


Subject(s)
Behcet Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
10.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 1, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quantitative evaluation of radiographic images has been developed and suggested for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are limited opportunities to use these image-based diagnostic indices in clinical practice. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the utility of a novel visually-based classification of pulmonary findings from computed tomography (CT) images of COVID-19 patients with the following three patterns defined: peripheral, multifocal, and diffuse findings of pneumonia. We also evaluated the prognostic value of this classification to predict the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between January 1st and September 30th, 2020, who presented with suspicious findings on CT lung images at admission (n = 69). We compared the association between the three predefined patterns (peripheral, multifocal, and diffuse), admission to the intensive care unit, tracheal intubation, and death. We tested quantitative CT analysis as an outcome predictor for COVID-19. Quantitative CT analysis was performed using a semi-automated method (Thoracic Volume Computer-Assisted Reading software, GE Health care, United States). Lungs were divided by Hounsfield unit intervals. Compromised lung (%CL) volume was the sum of poorly and non-aerated volumes (- 500, 100 HU). We collected patient clinical data, including demographic and clinical variables at the time of admission. RESULTS: Patients with a diffuse pattern were intubated more frequently and for a longer duration than patients with a peripheral or multifocal pattern. The following clinical variables were significantly different between the diffuse pattern and peripheral and multifocal groups: body temperature (p = 0.04), lymphocyte count (p = 0.01), neutrophil count (p = 0.02), c-reactive protein (p < 0.01), lactate dehydrogenase (p < 0.01), Krebs von den Lungen-6 antigen (p < 0.01), D-dimer (p < 0.01), and steroid (p = 0.01) and favipiravir (p = 0.03) administration. CONCLUSIONS: Our simple visual assessment of CT images can predict the severity of illness, a resulting decrease in respiratory function, and the need for supplemental respiratory ventilation among patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/classification , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Body Temperature , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Mucin-1/blood , Neutrophils , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids/therapeutic use
11.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(6): 2827-2834, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580295

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Due to the importance of early outpatient treatment to prevent hospitalization and disease progression, we examined the effects of hydroxychloroquine and favipiravir, which were initiated in early period, on the clinical course of COVID-19 outpatients. Materials and methods: Data of confirmed COVID-19 outpatients over a 4-month period were analyzed retrospectively. Public Health Management System (HSYS) was used for the case-based follow-up. Patients on antiviral therapy for at least five days, including hydroxychloroquine and / or favipiravir and patients who were followed-up for 30 days were included in this analysis. Results: We enrolled 1489 patients in this study. Overall, 775 (52%) patients were male and a mean age of patients was 38.9 ± 11.1 years. Of these patients, 537 of them were received favipiravir, 545 of them were received hydroxychloroquine and 407 of them were received both favipiravir and hydroxychloroquine. Symptoms improvement on the 14th day of follow-up was 1.8 times higher in the group of patients receiving hydroxychloroquine compared to patients who received favipiravir (p = 0.003). On the 3rd day of follow- up, PCR negativity rate was higher in patients who received hydroxychloroquine (p = 0.004). Hospitalization rates were similar in patients receiving favipiravir and hydroxychloroquine (p = 0.144). However, in the presence of pneumonia at the time of diagnosis, the hospitalization rate was 6.6 times higher in patients who received favipiravir than those who received hydroxychloroquine. Conclusion: The subgroups of patients treated with hydroxychloroquine and/or favipiravir did not have similar disease severities in our study. Therefore, further studies with homogeneous patient groups to be arranged prospectively are needed.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 291-297, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544344

ABSTRACT

Due to current advances and growing experience in the management of coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the outcome of COVID-19 patients with severe/critical illness would be expected to be better in the second wave compared with the first wave. As our hospitalization criteria changed in the second wave, we aimed to investigate whether a favorable outcome occurred in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with only severe/critical illness. Among 642 laboratory-confirmed hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the first wave and 1121 in the second wave, those who met World Health Organization (WHO) definitions for severe or critical illness on admission or during follow-up were surveyed. Data on demographics, comorbidities, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on admission, and outcomes were obtained from an electronic hospital database. Univariate analysis was performed to compare the characteristics of patients in the first and second waves. There were 228 (35.5%) patients with severe/critical illness in the first wave and 681 (60.7%) in the second wave. Both groups were similar in terms of age, gender, and comorbidities, other than chronic kidney disease. Median serum CRP levels were significantly higher in patients in the second wave compared with those in the first wave [109 mg/L (interquartile range [IQR]: 65-157) vs. 87 mg/L (IQR: 39-140); p < 0.001]. However, intensive care unit admission and mortality rates were similar among the waves. Even though a lower mortality rate in the second wave has been reported in previous studies, including all hospitalized COVID-19 patients, we found similar demographics and outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with severe/critical illness in the first and second wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Amides/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Comorbidity , Drug Combinations , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Turkey/epidemiology
15.
Semin Oncol ; 48(4-6): 279-282, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection increases mortality in hematological malignancies. In a large meta-analysis, patients aged 60 years and older had a significantly higher risk of death than patients under 60 years of age [1]. Furthermore, a high risk of death and reduced survival in patients receiving B cell depletion therapy with prolonged COVID-19 infection was reported in a recent study [2]. High-grade B-cell lymphomas are classified as morphologically aggressive lymphomas with the presence of a high mitotic index and Ki-67 proliferation rates. They demonstrate aggressive behavior clinically as well as morphologically, and COVID-19 infection is an important factor that increases mortality in these patients. Herein, we present an elderly patient with a diagnosis of high-grade B-cell lymphoma, in whom a complete response was observed after prolonged COVID-19 infection. CASE SUMMARY: An 81-year-old female patient received her first cycle of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone) treatment after being diagnosed with high- grade B-cell lymphoma. After being discharged from the hospital, the patient was referred to the emergency department with complaints of fever and fatigue when she came for the second cycle of chemotherapy. Her COVID-19 PCR test was found positive. She was admitted to the infectious diseases service and favipiravir treatment was started. On the 24th day of hospitalization, it was decided to perform interim FDG-PET/CT (Fluorodeoxyglucose - Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography) scan at a time that her PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) test was still positive. A complete metabolic response was detected in her imaging. On the 26th day, the PCR test became negative and the patient was transferred to the oncology service and received the second cycle of R-CHOP treatment. CONCLUSION: Our case emphasizes that antitumor effect could be seen in a patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection and a hematologic malignancy. It also highlights being alert to prolonged COVID-19 infection in patients receiving B-cell depletion therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Frail Elderly , Lymphoma, B-Cell/complications , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Vincristine/therapeutic use , Aged, 80 and over , Amides/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480798

ABSTRACT

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a severe condition characterized by the systemic formation of microthrombi complicated with bleeding tendency and organ dysfunction. In the last years, it represents one of the most frequent consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The pathogenesis of DIC is complex, with cross-talk between the coagulant and inflammatory pathways. The objective of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory action of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced DIC model in rats. Experimental DIC was induced by continual infusion of LPS (30 mg/kg) for 4 h through the tail vein. Um-PEA (30 mg/kg) was given orally 30 min before and 1 h after the start of intravenous infusion of LPS. Results showed that um-PEA reduced alteration of coagulation markers, as well as proinflammatory cytokine release in plasma and lung samples, induced by LPS infusion. Furthermore, um-PEA also has the effect of preventing the formation of fibrin deposition and lung damage. Moreover, um-PEA was able to reduce the number of mast cells (MCs) and the release of its serine proteases, which are also necessary for SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results suggest that um-PEA could be considered as a potential therapeutic approach in the management of DIC and in clinical implications associated to coagulopathy and lung dysfunction, such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Ethanolamines/therapeutic use , Palmitic Acids/therapeutic use , Sepsis/complications , Amides/chemistry , Amides/pharmacology , Animals , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Ethanolamines/chemistry , Ethanolamines/pharmacology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Mast Cells/cytology , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/metabolism , Palmitic Acids/chemistry , Palmitic Acids/pharmacology , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/pathology , Serine Proteases/metabolism
17.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 141(11): 989-993, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of Covid-19 infection on nasal mucociliary clearance (MCC) is unknown. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between Covid-19 and nasal MCC in terms of smoking, Covid-19 symptoms and treatment. METHODS: Thirty-six patients who were hospitalized in the pandemic ward due to Covid-19 and 36 volunteers (Covid-19 negative test result) who presented to the otolaryngology outpatient clinic with non-nasal symptoms were included in this study. The Saccharin test was performed in both groups to evaluate nasal MCC. RESULTS: The patients and control groups were not significantly different in terms of age and gender. The nasal MCC time was significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group (19.18 ± 10.84 min and 13.78 ± 8.18 min, p = .003). CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, we found that Covid-19 prolonged nasal MCC time regardless of age. We suggest that corticosteroids should be included in the treatment of Covid-19, both with its symptom reduction and its positive effect on MCC duration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Mucociliary Clearance/physiology , Nasal Mucosa/physiopathology , Smoking/physiopathology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/pharmacology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Mucociliary Clearance/drug effects , Pyrazines/therapeutic use
18.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1273-1276, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478140

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has occurred in different parts of the world. Although a large piece of information regarding the epidemiology, clinical features, and management of COVID-19 has been reported in the general population, there is very limited data regarding organ transplant recipients, particularly regarding the management of maintenance immunosuppressive agents during infection. METHODOLOGY: We described a case of kidney transplant recipient from Thailand who had COVID-19 pneumonia and severe acute kidney injury. RESULTS: The patient's serum creatinine peaked at 7.0 mg/dL on day 15 of illness and returned to baseline value of 2.0 mg/dL on day 26 of illness. We have shown how we modified tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and steroids in the patient who had received favipiravir and lopinavir/ritonavir for COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: In this case, successful modification of this immunosuppressive regimen was accomplished to reduce drug interaction complications, aiming to avoid calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity while maintaining appropriate levels of immunosuppression to prevent organ rejection and to promote the patient's recovery from infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Adult , Amides/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Mycophenolic Acid/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Steroids/administration & dosage , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Thailand , Transplant Recipients
19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(16): 1635-1654, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454219

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with systemic inflammation, endothelial activation, and multiorgan manifestations. Lipid-modulating agents may be useful in treating patients with COVID-19. These agents may inhibit viral entry by lipid raft disruption or ameliorate the inflammatory response and endothelial activation. In addition, dyslipidemia with lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels portend worse outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Upon a systematic search, 40 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with lipid-modulating agents were identified, including 17 statin trials, 14 omega-3 fatty acids RCTs, 3 fibrate RCTs, 5 niacin RCTs, and 1 dalcetrapib RCT for the management or prevention of COVID-19. From these 40 RCTs, only 2 have reported preliminary results, and most others are ongoing. This paper summarizes the ongoing or completed RCTs of lipid-modulating agents in COVID-19 and the implications of these trials for patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Fibric Acids/therapeutic use , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Niacin/therapeutic use , Amides/pharmacology , Amides/therapeutic use , Esters/pharmacology , Esters/therapeutic use , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology , Fibric Acids/pharmacology , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipid Regulating Agents/pharmacology , Lipid Regulating Agents/therapeutic use , Niacin/pharmacology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Sulfhydryl Compounds/pharmacology , Sulfhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use
20.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(12): e14938, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450550

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The safety profile of favipiravir in patients with severe renal impairment has not been investigated and available data are insufficient. The study aimed to compare the incidence of favipiravir-associated adverse events amongst patients with varying renal function statuses. METHODS: Records of 921 patients who were hospitalised for COVID-19 and had received at least 5 days of favipiravir treatment were retrospectively evaluated and 228 patients were included in the study. Patients' age, sex, comorbidities, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and haematological and biochemical values were recorded. The incidence of adverse events was compared with the age, sex, comorbidities and eGFR of the patients. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 59.3 ± 15.6 years, and 38.2% of the patients were women. One hundred and thirty-one (57.5%) patients had experienced adverse events. These adverse effects consisted of ALT elevation (35.5%), AST elevation (21.5%), anaemia (16.2%), hyperuricaemia (10.5%), hepatocellular injury (9.2%), neutropenia (3.5%) and thrombocytopenia (2.6%). The incidence of adverse events was not significantly different when patients had eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or eGFR 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P > .05), but significantly increased when the eGFR dropped to <30 (P < .05). The differences seen with hyperuricaemia and anaemia were significant (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Even though favipiravir appeared to be well tolerated in the individuals with renal failure in this study, its use in this population remains a challenge that requires more research and analysis.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency , Adult , Aged , Amides/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
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