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PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281097, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276478


BACKGROUND: Updated World Health Organization (WHO) treatment guidelines prioritize all-oral drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) regimens. Several poorly tolerated drugs, such as amikacin and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), remain treatment options for DR-TB in WHO-recommended longer regimens as Group C drugs. Incomplete treatment with anti-TB drugs increases the risk of treatment failure, relapse, and death. We determined whether missed doses of individual anti-TB drugs, and reasons for their discontinuation, varied in closely monitored hospital settings prior to the 2020 WHO DR-TB treatment guideline updates. METHODS: We collected retrospective data on adult patients with microbiologically confirmed DR-TB between 2008 and 2015 who were selected for a study of acquired drug resistance in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Medical records through mid-2017 were reviewed. Patients received directly observed treatment during hospitalization at specialized DR-TB hospitals. Incomplete treatment with individual anti-TB drugs, defined as the failure to take medication as prescribed, regardless of reason, was determined by comparing percent missed doses, stratified by HIV status and DR-TB regimen. We applied a generalized mixed effects model. RESULTS: Among 242 patients, 131 (54%) were male, 97 (40%) were living with HIV, 175 (72%) received second-line treatment prior to first hospitalization, and 191 (79%) died during the study period. At initial hospitalization, 134 (55%) patients had Mycobacterium tuberculosis with resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid (multidrug-resistant TB [MDR-TB]) without resistance to ofloxacin or amikacin, and 102 (42%) had resistance to ofloxacin and/or amikacin. Most patients (129 [53%]) had multiple hospitalizations and DST changes occurred in 146 (60%) by the end of their last hospital discharge. Incomplete treatment was significantly higher for amikacin (18%), capreomycin (18%), PAS (17%) and kanamycin (16%) than other DR-TB drugs (P<0.001), including ethionamide (8%), moxifloxacin (7%), terizidone (7%), ethambutol (7%), and pyrazinamide (6%). Among the most frequently prescribed drugs, second-line injectables had the highest rates of discontinuation for adverse events (range 0.56-1.02 events per year follow-up), while amikacin, PAS and ethionamide had the highest rates of discontinuation for patient refusal (range 0.51-0.68 events per year follow-up). Missed doses did not differ according to HIV status or anti-TB drug combinations. CONCLUSION: We found that incomplete treatment for second-line injectables and PAS during hospitalization was higher than for other anti-TB drugs. To maximize treatment success, interventions to improve person-centered care and mitigate adverse events may be necessary in cases when PAS or amikacin (2020 WHO recommended Group C drugs) are needed.

Aminosalicylic Acid , HIV Infections , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Adult , Humans , Male , Female , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Retrospective Studies , Ethionamide/therapeutic use , South Africa/epidemiology , Amikacin/therapeutic use , Amikacin/pharmacology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Aminosalicylic Acid/therapeutic use , Ofloxacin/pharmacology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2216326


Host-directed therapies are emerging as a promising tool in the curing of difficult-to-treat infections, such as those caused by drug-resistant bacteria. In this study, we aim to test the potential activity of the FDA- and EMA-approved drugs cysteamine and cystamine against Mycobacterium abscessus. In human macrophages (differentiated THP-1 cells), these drugs restricted M. abscessus growth similar to that achieved by amikacin. Here, we use the human ex vivo granuloma-like structures (GLS) model of infection with the M. abscessus rough (MAB-R) and smooth (MAB-S) variants to study the activity of new therapies against M. abscessus. We demonstrate that cysteamine and cystamine show a decrease in the number of total GLSs per well in the MAB-S and MAB-R infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Furthermore, combined administration of cysteamine or cystamine with amikacin resulted in enhanced activity against the two M. abscessus morpho variants compared to treatment with amikacin only. Treatment with cysteamine and cystamine was more effective in reducing GLS size and bacterial load during MAB-S infection compared with MAB-R infection. Moreover, treatment with these two drugs drastically quenched the exuberant proinflammatory response triggered by the MAB-R variant. These findings showing the activity of cysteamine and cystamine against the R and S M. abscessus morphotypes support the use of these drugs as novel host-directed therapies against M. abscessus infections.

Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous , Mycobacterium abscessus , Humans , Amikacin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cysteamine/pharmacology , Cysteamine/therapeutic use , Cystamine/pharmacology , Cystamine/therapeutic use , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/drug therapy , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(12): 230, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048467


Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used in drug-resistant bacterial infections. The spread of bacterial infections has become a severe concern for the treatment system because of the simultaneous drug resistance bacteria and SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized patients. One of the most common bacteria in the development of drug resistance is Klebsiella strains, which is a severe threat due to the possibility of biofilm production. In this regard, recent nanotechnology studies have proposed using nanocarriers as a practical proposal to improve the performance of antibiotics and combat drug resistance. Among drug nanocarriers, niosomes are considered for their absorption mechanism, drug coverage, and biocompatibility. In this study, niosomal formulations were synthesized by the thin-layer method. After optimizing the synthesized niosomes, their properties were evaluated in terms of stability and drug release rate. The toxicity of the optimal formulation was then analyzed. The effect of free amikacin and amikacin encapsulated in niosome on biofilm inhibition were compared in multi-drug resistant isolated Klebsiella strains, and the mrkD gene expression was calculated. The MIC and MBC were measured for the free drug and amikacin loaded in the noisome. The particle size of synthesized amikacin-loaded niosomes ranged from 175.2 to 248.3 nm. The results showed that the amount of lipid and the molar ratio of tween 60 to span 60 has a positive effect on particle size, while the molar ratio of surfactant to cholesterol has a negative effect. The highest release rate in amikacin-loaded niosomes is visible in the first 8 h, and then a slower release occurs up to 72 h. The cytotoxicity induced by amikacin-loaded niosome is significantly less than the cytotoxicity of free amikacin in HFF cells (***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01). The mrkD mRNA expression level in the studied strains was significantly reduced after treatment with niosome-containing amikacin compared to free amikacin (***p < 0.001). It was confirmed that in the presence of the niosome, the amikacin antibacterial activity increased while the concentration of the drug used decreased, the formation of biofilm inhibited, and reduced antibiotics resistance in MDR Klebsiella strains.

Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Amikacin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cholesterol , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Lipids , Liposomes/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polysorbates/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology