Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 93
Filter
1.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834926

ABSTRACT

The H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been circulating in China for more than 20 years, attracting more and more attention due to the potential threat of them. At present, vaccination is a common prevention and control strategy in poultry farms, but as virus antigenicity evolves, the immune protection efficiency of vaccines has constantly been challenged. In this study, we downloaded the hemagglutinin (HA) protein sequences of the H9N2 subtype AIVs from 1994 to 2019 in China-with a total of 5138 sequences. The above sequences were analyzed in terms of time and space, and it was found that h9.4.2.5 was the most popular in various regions of China. Furthermore, the prevalence of H9N2 subtype AIVs in China around 2006 was different. The domestic epidemic branch was relatively diversified from 1994 to 2006. After 2006, the epidemic branch each year was h9.4.2.5. We compared the sequences around 2006 as a whole and screened out 15 different amino acid positions. Based on the HA protein of A/chicken/Guangxi/55/2005 (GX55), the abovementioned amino acid mutations were completed. According to the 12-plasmid reverse genetic system, the rescue of the mutant virus was completed using A/PuertoRico/8/1934 (H1N1) (PR8) as the backbone. The cross hemagglutination inhibition test showed that these mutant sites could transform the parental strain from the old to the new antigenic region. Animal experiments indicated that the mutant virus provided significant protection against the virus from the new antigenic region. This study revealed the antigenic evolution of H9N2 subtype AIVs in China. At the same time, it provided an experimental basis for the development of new vaccines.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , Chickens , China/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Hemagglutinins/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/genetics , Phylogeny
2.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 50, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza B virus can cause epidemics with high pathogenicity, so it poses a serious threat to public health. A feature representation algorithm is proposed in this paper to identify the pathogenicity phenotype of influenza B virus. METHODS: The dataset included all 11 influenza virus proteins encoded in eight genome segments of 1724 strains. Two types of features were hierarchically used to build the prediction model. Amino acid features were directly delivered from 67 feature descriptors and input into the random forest classifier to output informative features about the class label and probabilistic prediction. The sequential forward search strategy was used to optimize the informative features. The final features for each strain had low dimensions and included knowledge from different perspectives, which were used to build the machine learning model for pathogenicity identification. RESULTS: The 40 signature positions were achieved by entropy screening. Mutations at position 135 of the hemagglutinin protein had the highest entropy value (1.06). After the informative features were directly generated from the 67 random forest models, the dimensions for class and probabilistic features were optimized as 4 and 3, respectively. The optimal class features had a maximum accuracy of 94.2% and a maximum Matthews correlation coefficient of 88.4%, while the optimal probabilistic features had a maximum accuracy of 94.1% and a maximum Matthews correlation coefficient of 88.2%. The optimized features outperformed the original informative features and amino acid features from individual descriptors. The sequential forward search strategy had better performance than the classical ensemble method. CONCLUSIONS: The optimized informative features had the best performance and were used to build a predictive model so as to identify the phenotype of influenza B virus with high pathogenicity and provide early risk warning for disease control.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Influenza B virus , Algorithms , Amino Acids/genetics , Influenza B virus/genetics , Machine Learning , Virulence
3.
Brief Bioinform ; 23(3)2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831016

ABSTRACT

Host-pathogen protein interactions (HPPIs) play vital roles in many biological processes and are directly involved in infectious diseases. With the outbreak of more frequent pandemics in the last couple of decades, such as the recent outburst of Covid-19 causing millions of deaths, it has become more critical to develop advanced methods to accurately predict pathogen interactions with their respective hosts. During the last decade, experimental methods to identify HPIs have been used to decipher host-pathogen systems with the caveat that those techniques are labor-intensive, expensive and time-consuming. Alternatively, accurate prediction of HPIs can be performed by the use of data-driven machine learning. To provide a more robust and accurate solution for the HPI prediction problem, we have developed a deepHPI tool based on deep learning. The web server delivers four host-pathogen model types: plant-pathogen, human-bacteria, human-virus and animal-pathogen, leveraging its operability to a wide range of analyses and cases of use. The deepHPI web tool is the first to use convolutional neural network models for HPI prediction. These models have been selected based on a comprehensive evaluation of protein features and neural network architectures. The best prediction models have been tested on independent validation datasets, which achieved an overall Matthews correlation coefficient value of 0.87 for animal-pathogen using the combined pseudo-amino acid composition and conjoint triad (PAAC_CT) features, 0.75 for human-bacteria using the combined pseudo-amino acid composition, conjoint triad and normalized Moreau-Broto feature (PAAC_CT_NMBroto), 0.96 for human-virus using PAAC_CT_NMBroto and 0.94 values for plant-pathogen interactions using the combined pseudo-amino acid composition, composition and transition feature (PAAC_CTDC_CTDT). Our server running deepHPI is deployed on a high-performance computing cluster that enables large and multiple user requests, and it provides more information about interactions discovered. It presents an enriched visualization of the resulting host-pathogen networks that is augmented with external links to various protein annotation resources. We believe that the deepHPI web server will be very useful to researchers, particularly those working on infectious diseases. Additionally, many novel and known host-pathogen systems can be further investigated to significantly advance our understanding of complex disease-causing agents. The developed models are established on a web server, which is freely accessible at http://bioinfo.usu.edu/deepHPI/.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Deep Learning , Amino Acids , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Machine Learning
4.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 34(29)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830918

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a computational investigation of the binding affinity of dexamethasone, betamethasone, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine to SARS-CoV-2 main protease using molecular and quantum mechanics as well as molecular docking methodologies. We aim to provide information on the anti-COVID-19 mechanism of the abovementioned potential drugs against SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Hence, the 6w63 structure of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease was selected as potential target site for the docking analysis. The study includes an initial conformational analysis of dexamethasone, betamethasone, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. For the most stable conformers, a spectroscopic analysis has been carried out. In addition, global and local reactivity indexes have been calculated to predict the chemical reactivity of these molecules. The molecular docking results indicate that dexamethasone and betamethasone have a higher affinity than chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for their theoretical 6w63 target. Additionally, dexamethasone and betamethasone show a hydrogen bond with the His41 residue of the 6w63 protein, while the interaction between chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine with this amino acid is weak. Thus, we confirm the importance of His41 amino acid as a target to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Amino Acids , Betamethasone , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/chemistry , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/chemistry , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology
5.
Proteins ; 90(5): 1054-1080, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826109

ABSTRACT

Understanding the molecular evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 virus as it continues to spread in communities around the globe is important for mitigation and future pandemic preparedness. Three-dimensional structures of SARS-CoV-2 proteins and those of other coronavirusess archived in the Protein Data Bank were used to analyze viral proteome evolution during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Analyses of spatial locations, chemical properties, and structural and energetic impacts of the observed amino acid changes in >48 000 viral isolates revealed how each one of 29 viral proteins have undergone amino acid changes. Catalytic residues in active sites and binding residues in protein-protein interfaces showed modest, but significant, numbers of substitutions, highlighting the mutational robustness of the viral proteome. Energetics calculations showed that the impact of substitutions on the thermodynamic stability of the proteome follows a universal bi-Gaussian distribution. Detailed results are presented for potential drug discovery targets and the four structural proteins that comprise the virion, highlighting substitutions with the potential to impact protein structure, enzyme activity, and protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interfaces. Characterizing the evolution of the virus in three dimensions provides testable insights into viral protein function and should aid in structure-based drug discovery efforts as well as the prospective identification of amino acid substitutions with potential for drug resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Amino Acids , Humans , Prospective Studies , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 138, 2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815515

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of COVID-19 is fueled by more infectious emergent Omicron variants. Ongoing concerns of emergent variants include possible recombinants, as genome recombination is an important evolutionary mechanism for the emergence and re-emergence of human viral pathogens. In this study, we identified diverse recombination events between two Omicron major subvariants (BA.1 and BA.2) and other variants of concern (VOCs) and variants of interest (VOIs), suggesting that co-infection and subsequent genome recombination play important roles in the ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2. Through scanning high-quality completed Omicron spike gene sequences, 18 core mutations of BA.1 (frequency >99%) and 27 core mutations of BA.2 (nine more than BA.1) were identified, of which 15 are specific to Omicron. BA.1 subvariants share nine common amino acid mutations (three more than BA.2) in the spike protein with most VOCs, suggesting a possible recombination origin of Omicron from these VOCs. There are three more Alpha-related mutations in BA.1 than BA.2, and BA.1 is phylogenetically closer to Alpha than other variants. Revertant mutations are found in some dominant mutations (frequency >95%) in the BA.1. Most notably, multiple characteristic amino acid mutations in the Delta spike protein have been also identified in the "Deltacron"-like Omicron Variants isolated since November 11, 2021 in South Africa, which implies the recombination events occurring between the Omicron and Delta variants. Monitoring the evolving SARS-CoV-2 genomes especially for recombination is critically important for recognition of abrupt changes to viral attributes including its epitopes which may call for vaccine modifications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Amino Acids , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Mutation/genetics , Recombination, Genetic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
7.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810314

ABSTRACT

The chicken astrovirus (CAstV) is a ubiquitous enteric RNA virus that has been associated mainly with conditions, such as the runting-stunting syndrome, severe kidney disease, visceral gout, and white chick syndrome, in broiler-type chickens worldwide. Sequence analysis of the capsid genes' amino acids of the strains involved in these conditions reveals a genetic relationship and diversity between and within the CAstV genogroups and subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis, genetic distance (p-dist), and pathogenicity. While the two genogroups (A and B) are demarcated phylogenetically, their pairwise amino acid sequence identity is 39% to 42% at a p-dist of 0.59 to 0.62. Group-A consists of three subgroups (Ai, Aii, and Aiii) with an inter- and intra-subgroup amino acid identity of 78% to 82% and 92% to 100%, respectively, and a p-dist of 0.18 to 0.22. On the other hand, the six subgroups (Bi, Bii, Biii, Biv, Bv, and Bvi) in Group-B, with a p-dist of 0.07 to 0.18, have an inter- and intra-subgroup amino acid identity of 82% to 93% and 93% to 100%, respectively. However, these groupings have little to no effect on determining the type of CAstV-associated pathology in chickens.


Subject(s)
Astroviridae Infections , Avastrovirus , Poultry Diseases , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , Astroviridae Infections/veterinary , Chickens , Phylogeny
8.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810312

ABSTRACT

The complete nucleotide sequence of the S1 glycoprotein gene of the Japanese infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains was determined and genetically analyzed. A total of 61 Japanese IBV strains were classified into seven genotypes, namely GI-1, 3, 7, 13, 18, 19, and GVI-1 using the classification scheme that was proposed by Valastro et al, with three exceptions. These genotypes practically corresponded to those defined in Japan, namely Mass, Gray, JP-II, 4/91, JP-I, JP-III, and JP-IV, which have been identified through their partial nucleotide sequences containing hypervariable regions 1 and 2. In addition, three exceptive strains were considered to be derived from recombination within the S1 gene of IBV strains G1-13 and GI-19. By analyzing the amino acid polymorphism of the S1 glycoprotein among Japanese genotypes, a diversity was observed based on the genotype-specific amino acid residue, the proteolytic cleavage motif at the S1/S2 cleavage site, and the position of the potential N-glycosylation sites.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Glycoproteins/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Japan , Phylogeny
9.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 305, 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measles caused by measles virus (MeV) is a highly contagious viral disease which has also been associated with complications including pneumonia, myocarditis, encephalitis, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The current study isolated 33 strains belonging to 2 groups, outbreak and sporadic strains, in 13 cities of Shandong province, China from 2013 to 2019. Comparison of genetic characterization among 15 outbreak strains and 18 sporadic strains was performed by analyzing nucleotide sequences of the C-terminal region of N protein gene (N-450). RESULTS: All 33 stains belonged to genotype H1. The outbreak strains and sporadic strains distributed crossly in phylogenetic tree. Sequences alignment revealed some interesting G to A transversion which changed the amino acids on genomic sites 1317, 1422, and 1543. The nucleotide and amino acid similarities among outbreak isolates were 98-100% (0-10 nucleotide variations) and 97.7-100%, respectively; They were 97.3-100% and 96.6-100%, respectively for sporadic isolates. Evolutionary genetics analysis revealed that the mean evolution rates of outbreak and sporadic isolates were 1.26 N 10- 3 and 1.48 N 10- 3 substitutions per site per year separately, which were similar with corresponding data before 2012. Local transmission analysis suggested that there were three transmission chains in this study, two of them originated from Japan. Outbreak cases and sporadic cases emerged alternatively and were reciprocal causation on the transmission chains. CONCLUSIONS: Our study investigated the phylogeny and evolutional genetics of MeV during a 7-year surveillance, and compared epidemic and genetic characteristics of outbreak strains and sporadic strains. These results underscore the importance of evolutionary study alongside with sporadic cases in discovering and tracing possible outbreaks, especially in the stage of measles elimination.


Subject(s)
Measles , Amino Acids/genetics , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Genotype , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles virus/genetics , Molecular Epidemiology , Nucleotides , Phylogeny
10.
Microb Pathog ; 166: 105548, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799780

ABSTRACT

Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is generally thought of as a mild, but highly contagious, enteritis of young dogs. This study was to investigate the molecular detection and characteristics of CCoV in Chengdu city, Southwest China. 218 canine fecal samples were collected from four animal hospitals and one animal shelter from 2020 to 2021. Fifty-nine CCoV-positive samples were detected by RT-PCR, including 40 CCoV-I, 25 CCoV-IIa, one CCoV-IIb and 10 untyped. To further analyze the genetic diversity of CCoV, we amplified ten complete spike (S) genes, including four CCoV-I and six CCoV-II strains. The amino acid sequence obtained in this study revealed 85.95% ± 12.55% homology with the reference strains. Moreover, in the N-terminal structural domain, there were two amino acid insertions (17QQ18) in two strains of CCoV-I and four amino acid insertions (95IGTN98) in CCoV-IIb strain. Interestingly, we identified that the S1/S2 cleavage site of the S protein of CCoV strains (SWU-SSX3 and SWU-SSX10) were consistent with feline coronavirus (FCoV). In the evolutionary tree, a strain of CCoV-I (SWU-SSX10) was found to be more closely related to FCoV, while SWU-SSX7 of CCoV-IIb was more closely related to coronavirus from the Chinese ferret badger. In addition, for the first time, recombination in a CCoV-IIb strain was found to occur between two subtypes occurring in the C domain of the S1 subunit, with a breakpoint starting at 2141 nt. The results enriched the epidemiological information of CCoV and provided an important reference for the prevention of CCoV in Chengdu city, Southwest China.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Canine , Dog Diseases , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , Coronavirus, Canine/classification , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Phylogeny
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6410, 2022 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799568

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the greatest threat to global health at the present time, and considerable public and private effort is being devoted to fighting this recently emerged disease. Despite the undoubted advances in the development of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, uncertainty remains about their future efficacy and the duration of the immunity induced. It is therefore prudent to continue designing and testing vaccines against this pathogen. In this article we computationally designed two candidate vaccines, one monopeptide and one multipeptide, using a technique involving optimizing lambda-superstrings, which was introduced and developed by our research group. We tested the monopeptide vaccine, thus establishing a proof of concept for the validity of the technique. We synthesized a peptide of 22 amino acids in length, corresponding to one of the candidate vaccines, and prepared a dendritic cell (DC) vaccine vector loaded with the 22 amino acids SARS-CoV-2 peptide (positions 50-71) contained in the NTD domain (DC-CoVPSA) of the Spike protein. Next, we tested the immunogenicity, the type of immune response elicited, and the cytokine profile induced by the vaccine, using a non-related bacterial peptide as negative control. Our results indicated that the CoVPSA peptide of the Spike protein elicits noticeable immunogenicity in vivo using a DC vaccine vector and remarkable cellular and humoral immune responses. This DC vaccine vector loaded with the NTD peptide of the Spike protein elicited a predominant Th1-Th17 cytokine profile, indicative of an effective anti-viral response. Finally, we performed a proof of concept experiment in humans that included the following groups: asymptomatic non-active COVID-19 patients, vaccinated volunteers, and control donors that tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. The positive control was the current receptor binding domain epitope of COVID-19 RNA-vaccines. We successfully developed a vaccine candidate technique involving optimizing lambda-superstrings and provided proof of concept in human subjects. We conclude that it is a valid method to decipher the best epitopes of the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 to prepare peptide-based vaccines for different vector platforms, including DC vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Amino Acids , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytokines , Epitopes , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vaccines, Subunit
12.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792421

ABSTRACT

Focusing on the transmembrane domains (TMDs) of viral fusion and channel-forming proteins (VCPs), experimentally available and newly generated peptides in an ideal conformation of the S and E proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and SARS-CoV, gp41 and Vpu, both of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), haemagglutinin and M2 of influenza A, as well as gB of herpes simplex virus (HSV), are embedded in a fully hydrated lipid bilayer and used in multi-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations. It is aimed to identify differences in the dynamics of the individual TMDs of the two types of viral membrane proteins. The assumption is made that the dynamics of the individual TMDs are decoupled from their extra-membrane domains, and that the mechanics of the TMDs are distinct from each other due to the different mechanism of function of the two types of proteins. The diffusivity coefficient (DC) of the translational and rotational diffusion is decreased in the oligomeric state of the TMDs compared to those values when calculated from simulations in their monomeric state. When comparing the calculations for two different lengths of the TMD, a longer full peptide and a shorter purely TMD stretch, (i) the difference of the calculated DCs begins to level out when the difference exceeds approximately 15 amino acids per peptide chain, and (ii) the channel protein rotational DC is the most affected diffusion parameter. The rotational dynamics of the individual amino acids within the middle section of the TMDs of the fusion peptides remain high upon oligomerization, but decrease for the channel peptides, with an increasing number of monomers forming the oligomeric state, suggesting an entropic penalty on oligomerization for the latter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ion Channels , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Viral Fusion Proteins , Amino Acids , Humans , Ion Channels/ultrastructure , Peptides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Fusion Proteins/ultrastructure
13.
J Virol ; 96(6): e0205921, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788916

ABSTRACT

The Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious global pathogen prevalent in all types of poultry flocks. IBV is responsible for economic losses and welfare issues in domestic poultry, resulting in a significant risk to food security. IBV vaccines are currently generated by serial passage of virulent IBV field isolates through embryonated hens' eggs. The different patterns of genomic variation accumulated during this process means that the exact mechanism of attenuation is unknown and presents a risk of reversion to virulence. Additionally, the passaging process adapts the virus to replicate in chicken embryos, increasing embryo lethality. Vaccines produced in this manner are therefore unsuitable for in ovo application. We have developed a reverse genetics system, based on the pathogenic IBV strain M41, to identify genes which can be targeted for rational attenuation. During the development of this reverse genetics system, we identified four amino acids, located in nonstructural proteins (nsps) 10, 14, 15, and 16, which resulted in attenuation both in vivo and in ovo. Further investigation highlighted a role of amino acid changes, Pro85Leu in nsp 10 and Val393Leu in nsp 14, in the attenuated in vivo phenotype observed. This study provides evidence that mutations in nsps offer a promising mechanism for the development of rationally attenuated live vaccines against IBV, which have the potential for in ovo application. IMPORTANCE The Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the etiological agent of infectious bronchitis, an acute, highly contagious, economically important disease of poultry. Vaccination is achieved using a mixture of live attenuated vaccines for young chicks and inactivated vaccines as boosters for laying hens. Live attenuated vaccines are generated through serial passage in embryonated hens' eggs, an empirical process which achieves attenuation but retains immunogenicity. However, these vaccines have a risk of reversion to virulence, and they are lethal to the embryo. In this study, we identified amino acids in the replicase gene which attenuated IBV strain M41, both in vivo and in ovo. Stability assays indicate that the attenuating amino acids are stable and unlikely to revert. The data in this study provide evidence that specific modifications in the replicase gene offer a promising direction for IBV live attenuated vaccine development, with the potential for in ovo application.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Viral Vaccines , Amino Acids/chemistry , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , Chick Embryo , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Poultry Diseases/virology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics
14.
Comput Biol Med ; 145: 105455, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757245

ABSTRACT

There are 7 known human pathogenic coronaviruses, which are HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. While SARS-CoV-2 is currently caused a severe epidemic, experts believe that new pathogenic coronavirus would emerge in the future. Therefore, developing broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus drugs is of great significance. In this study, we performed protein sequence and three-dimensional structure analyses for all the 20 virus-encoded proteins across all the 7 coronaviruses, with the purpose to identify highly conserved proteins and binding sites for developing pan-coronavirus drugs. We found that nsp5, nsp10, nsp12, nsp13, nsp14, and nsp16 are highly conserved both in protein sequences (with average identity percentage higher than 52%, average amino acid conservation scores higher than 5.2) and binding pockets (with average amino acid conservation scores higher than 5.8). We also performed the similarity comparison between these 6 proteins and all the human proteins, and found that all the 6 proteins have similarity less than 25%, indicating that the drugs targeting the 6 proteins should have little interference of human protein function. Accordingly, we suggest that nsp5, nsp10, nsp12, nsp13, nsp14, and nsp16 are potential targets for pan-coronavirus drug development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus OC43, Human , SARS Virus , Amino Acids , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732071

ABSTRACT

Nanobodies provide important advantages over traditional antibodies, including their smaller size and robust biochemical properties such as high thermal stability, high solubility, and the ability to be bioengineered into novel multivalent, multi-specific, and high-affinity molecules, making them a class of emerging powerful therapies against SARS-CoV-2. Recent research efforts on the design, protein engineering, and structure-functional characterization of nanobodies and their binding with SARS-CoV-2 S proteins reflected a growing realization that nanobody combinations can exploit distinct binding epitopes and leverage the intrinsic plasticity of the conformational landscape for the SARS-CoV-2 S protein to produce efficient neutralizing and mutation resistant characteristics. Structural and computational studies have also been instrumental in quantifying the structure, dynamics, and energetics of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding with nanobodies. In this review, a comprehensive analysis of the current structural, biophysical, and computational biology investigations of SARS-CoV-2 S proteins and their complexes with distinct classes of nanobodies targeting different binding sites is presented. The analysis of computational studies is supplemented by an in-depth examination of mutational scanning simulations and identification of binding energy hotspots for distinct nanobody classes. The review is focused on the analysis of mechanisms underlying synergistic binding of multivalent nanobodies that can be superior to single nanobodies and conventional nanobody cocktails in combating escape mutations by effectively leveraging binding avidity and allosteric cooperativity. We discuss how structural insights and protein engineering approaches together with computational biology tools can aid in the rational design of synergistic combinations that exhibit superior binding and neutralization characteristics owing to avidity-mediated mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Binding Sites , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Single-Domain Antibodies/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Amino Acids , Antibody Affinity , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/metabolism , Humans , Multiprotein Complexes/chemistry , Mutagenesis , Protein Binding , Protein Engineering , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Single-Domain Antibodies/genetics , Single-Domain Antibodies/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
16.
mBio ; 13(2): e0361721, 2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714362

ABSTRACT

There is a growing concern that ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2 could lead to variants of concern (VOC) that are capable of avoiding some or all of the multifaceted immune response generated by both prior infection or vaccination, with the recently described B.1.1.529 (Omicron) VOC being of particular interest. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from PCR-confirmed, recovered COVID-19 convalescent individuals (n = 30) infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the United States collected in April and May 2020 who possessed at least one or more of six different HLA haplotypes were selected for examination of their anti-SARS-CoV-2 CD8+ T-cell responses using a multiplexed peptide-major histocompatibility complex tetramer staining approach. This analysis examined if the previously identified viral epitopes targeted by CD8+ T cells in these individuals (n = 52 distinct epitopes) are mutated in the newly described Omicron VOC (n = 50 mutations). Within this population, only one low-prevalence epitope from the Spike protein, restricted to two HLA alleles and found in 2/30 (7%) individuals, contained a single amino acid change associated with the Omicron VOC. These data suggest that virtually all individuals with existing anti-SARS-CoV-2 CD8+ T-cell responses should recognize the Omicron VOC and that SARS-CoV-2 has not evolved extensive T-cell escape mutations at this time. IMPORTANCE The newly identified Omicron variant of concern contains more mutations than any of the previous variants described to date. In addition, many of the mutations associated with the Omicron variant are found in areas that are likely bound by neutralizing antibodies, suggesting that the first line of immunological defense against COVID-19 is compromised. However, both natural infection and vaccination develop T-cell-based responses in addition to antibodies. This study examined if the parts of the virus, or epitopes, targeted by the CD8+ T-cell response in 30 individuals who recovered from COVID-19 in 2020 were mutated in the Omicron variant. Only one of 52 epitopes identified in this population contained an amino acid that was mutated in Omicron. These data suggest that the T-cell immune response in previously infected, and most likely vaccinated, individuals should still be effective against Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Amino Acids , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686809

ABSTRACT

Recently, the studies on developing sensors and biosensors-with an obvious interdisciplinary character-have drawn the attention of many researchers specializing in various fundamental, but also complex domains such as chemistry, biochemistry, physics, biophysics, biology, bio-pharma-medicine, and bioengineering. Along these lines, the present paper is structured into three parts, and is aimed at synthesizing the most relevant studies on the construction and functioning of versatile devices, of electrochemical sensors and biosensors, respectively. The first part presents examples of the most representative scientific research focusing on the role and the importance of the phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan amino acids, selected depending on their chemical structure and their impact on the central nervous system. The second part is dedicated to presenting and exemplifying conductor polymers and molecularly imprinted polymers used as sensitive materials in achieving electrochemical sensors and biosensors. The last part of the review analyzes the sensors and biosensors developed so far to detect amino acids with the aid of conductor polymers and molecularly imprinted polymers from the point of view of the performances obtained, with emphasis on the detection methods, on the electrochemical reactions that take place upon detection, and on the electroanalytical performances. The present study was carried out with a view to highlighting, for the benefit of specialists in medicine and pharmacy, the possibility of achieving and purchasing efficient devices that might be used in the quality control of medicines, as well as in studying and monitoring diseases associated with these amino acids.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Molecular Imprinting/methods , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers/chemistry , Phenylalanine/analysis , Tryptophan/analysis , Tyrosine/analysis , Amino Acids/analysis , Polymers/chemistry
18.
Br J Nutr ; 127(3): 398-402, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665641

ABSTRACT

This commentary highlighted the background, take-home messages, and impacts of our 2007 British Journal of Nutrition paper entitled "Amino acids and immune function". In 2003-2004, there was an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS coronavirus-1 (CoV-1) in Asian countries. By the mid-2000's, clinical and experimental evidence indicated important roles for amino acids (AA) in improving innate and adaptive immunities in humans and animals. Based on our long-standing interest in AA metabolism and nutritional immunology, we decided to critically analyze advances in this nutritional field. Furthermore, we proposed a unified mechanism responsible for beneficial effects of AA and their products (including nitric oxide, glutathione, antibodies, and cytokines) on immune responses. We hoped that such integrated knowledge would be helpful for designing AA-based nutritional methods (e.g., supplementation with glutathione, arginine and glutamine) to prevent and treat SARS-like infectious diseases in the future. Our paper laid a framework for subsequent studies to quantify AA metabolism in intestinal bacteria, determine the effects of functional AA on cell-mediated and humoral immunities, and establish a much-needed database of AA composition in foodstuffs. Unexpectedly, COVID-19 (caused by SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 2019 and has become one of the deadliest pandemics in history. Notably, glutathione, arginine and glutamine have now been exploited to effectively relieve severe respiratory symptoms of COVID-19 in affected patients. Functional AA (e.g., arginine, cysteine, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, taurine and tryptophan) and glutathione, which are all abundant in animal-sourced foodstuffs, are crucial for optimum immunity and health in humans and animals.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Immunity , Amino Acids/physiology , Animals , COVID-19 , Humans
19.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 29, 2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655546

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted on mink farms between minks and humans in many countries. However, the systemic pathological features of SARS-CoV-2-infected minks are mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrated that minks were largely permissive to SARS-CoV-2, characterized by severe and diffuse alveolar damage, and lasted at least 14 days post inoculation (dpi). We first reported that infected minks displayed multiple organ-system lesions accompanied by an increased inflammatory response and widespread viral distribution in the cardiovascular, hepatobiliary, urinary, endocrine, digestive, and immune systems. The viral protein partially co-localized with activated Mac-2+ macrophages throughout the body. Moreover, we first found that the alterations in lipids and metabolites were correlated with the histological lesions in infected minks, especially at 6 dpi, and were similar to that of patients with severe and fatal COVID-19. Particularly, altered metabolic pathways, abnormal digestion, and absorption of vitamins, lipids, cholesterol, steroids, amino acids, and proteins, consistent with hepatic dysfunction, highlight metabolic and immune dysregulation. Enriched kynurenine in infected minks contributed to significant activation of the kynurenine pathway and was related to macrophage activation. Melatonin, which has significant anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects, was significantly downregulated at 6 dpi and displayed potential as a targeted medicine. Our data first illustrate systematic analyses of infected minks to recapitulate those observations in severe and fetal COVID-19 patients, delineating a useful animal model to mimic SARS-CoV-2-induced systematic and severe pathophysiological features and provide a reliable tool for the development of effective and targeted treatment strategies, vaccine research, and potential biomarkers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Metabolome , Mink/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Amino Acids/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macrophages, Alveolar/pathology , Macrophages, Alveolar/virology , Melatonin/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sterols/metabolism , Virulence , Virus Replication/genetics
20.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(2): 635-650, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621653

ABSTRACT

Coronaviral methyltransferases (MTases), nsp10/16 and nsp14, catalyze the last two steps of viral RNA-cap creation that takes place in cytoplasm. This cap is essential for the stability of viral RNA and, most importantly, for the evasion of innate immune system. Non-capped RNA is recognized by innate immunity which leads to its degradation and the activation of antiviral immunity. As a result, both coronaviral MTases are in the center of scientific scrutiny. Recently, X-ray and cryo-EM structures of both enzymes were solved even in complex with other parts of the viral replication complex. High-throughput screening as well as structure-guided inhibitor design have led to the discovery of their potent inhibitors. Here, we critically summarize the tremendous advancement of the coronaviral MTase field since the beginning of COVID pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/enzymology , Methyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Methyltransferases/chemistry , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acids/chemistry , Binding Sites , Coronavirus/genetics , Drug Discovery , Humans , Methylation , Models, Molecular , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Structure , Protein Binding , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL