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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 29, 2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655546

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted on mink farms between minks and humans in many countries. However, the systemic pathological features of SARS-CoV-2-infected minks are mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrated that minks were largely permissive to SARS-CoV-2, characterized by severe and diffuse alveolar damage, and lasted at least 14 days post inoculation (dpi). We first reported that infected minks displayed multiple organ-system lesions accompanied by an increased inflammatory response and widespread viral distribution in the cardiovascular, hepatobiliary, urinary, endocrine, digestive, and immune systems. The viral protein partially co-localized with activated Mac-2+ macrophages throughout the body. Moreover, we first found that the alterations in lipids and metabolites were correlated with the histological lesions in infected minks, especially at 6 dpi, and were similar to that of patients with severe and fatal COVID-19. Particularly, altered metabolic pathways, abnormal digestion, and absorption of vitamins, lipids, cholesterol, steroids, amino acids, and proteins, consistent with hepatic dysfunction, highlight metabolic and immune dysregulation. Enriched kynurenine in infected minks contributed to significant activation of the kynurenine pathway and was related to macrophage activation. Melatonin, which has significant anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects, was significantly downregulated at 6 dpi and displayed potential as a targeted medicine. Our data first illustrate systematic analyses of infected minks to recapitulate those observations in severe and fetal COVID-19 patients, delineating a useful animal model to mimic SARS-CoV-2-induced systematic and severe pathophysiological features and provide a reliable tool for the development of effective and targeted treatment strategies, vaccine research, and potential biomarkers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Metabolome , Mink/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Amino Acids/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macrophages, Alveolar/pathology , Macrophages, Alveolar/virology , Melatonin/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sterols/metabolism , Virulence , Virus Replication/genetics
2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0033821, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562285

ABSTRACT

The heterogeneity in severity and outcome of COVID-19 cases points out the urgent need for early molecular characterization of patients followed by risk-stratified care. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the fluctuations of serum metabolomic profiles of COVID-19 patients with severe illness during the different disease stages in a longitudinal manner. We demonstrate a distinct metabolomic signature in serum samples of 32 hospitalized patients at the acute phase compared to the recovery period, suggesting the tryptophan (tryptophan, kynurenine, and 3-hydroxy-DL-kynurenine) and arginine (citrulline and ornithine) metabolism as contributing pathways in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 with a potential link to the clinical severity of the disease. In addition, we suggest that glutamine deprivation may further result in inhibited M2 macrophage polarization as a complementary process, and highlight the contribution of phenylalanine and tyrosine in the molecular mechanisms underlying the severe course of the infection. In conclusion, our results provide several functional metabolic markers for disease progression and severe outcome with potential clinical application. IMPORTANCE Although the host defense mechanisms against SARS-CoV-2 infection are still poorly described, they are of central importance in shaping the course of the disease and the possible outcome. Metabolomic profiling may complement the lacking knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying clinical manifestations and pathogenesis of COVID-19. Moreover, early identification of metabolomics-based biomarker signatures is proved to serve as an effective approach for the prediction of disease outcome. Here we provide the list of metabolites describing the severe, acute phase of the infection and bring the evidence of crucial metabolic pathways linked to aggressive immune responses. Finally, we suggest metabolomic phenotyping as a promising method for developing personalized care strategies in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Hospitals , Metabolome , Severity of Illness Index , Amino Acids/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Kynurenine/analogs & derivatives , Metabolomics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Mol Model ; 27(11): 323, 2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525539

ABSTRACT

The world has face the COVID-19 pandemic which has already caused millions of death. Due to the urgency in fighting the virus, we study five residues of free amino acids present in the structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S). We investigated the spontaneous interaction between amino acids and silver ions (Ag+), considering these ions as a virucide chemical agent for SARS-CoV-2. The amino acid-Ag+ systems were investigated in a gaseous medium and a simulated water environment was described with a continuum model (PCM) the calculations were performed within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Calculations related to the occupied orbitals of higher energy showed that Ag+ has a tendency to interact with the nitrile groups (-NH). The negative values of the Gibbs free energies show that the interaction process between amino acids-Ag+ in both media occurs spontaneously. There is a decrease in Gibbs free energy from the amino acid-Ag+ interactions immersed in a water solvation simulator.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Density Functional Theory , Silver/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Amino Acids/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Binding Sites , Cations, Monovalent , Gene Expression , Humans , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Silver/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Static Electricity , Thermodynamics
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21068, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493208

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in late 2019, the diffusion of SARS-CoV-2 is associated with the evolution of its viral genome. The co-occurrence of specific amino acid changes, collectively named 'virus variant', requires scrutiny (as variants may hugely impact the agent's transmission, pathogenesis, or antigenicity); variant evolution is studied using phylogenetics. Yet, never has this problem been tackled by digging into data with ad hoc analysis techniques. Here we show that the emergence of variants can in fact be traced through data-driven methods, further capitalizing on the value of large collections of SARS-CoV-2 sequences. For all countries with sufficient data, we compute weekly counts of amino acid changes, unveil time-varying clusters of changes with similar-rapidly growing-dynamics, and then follow their evolution. Our method succeeds in timely associating clusters to variants of interest/concern, provided their change composition is well characterized. This allows us to detect variants' emergence, rise, peak, and eventual decline under competitive pressure of another variant. Our early warning system, exclusively relying on deposited sequences, shows the power of big data in this context, and concurs to calling for the wide spreading of public SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing for improved surveillance and control of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Amino Acids/metabolism , Cluster Analysis , Computational Biology/methods , Data Mining , Europe/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480800

ABSTRACT

Plenty of research has revealed virus induced alternations in metabolic pathways, which is known as metabolic reprogramming. Studies focusing on COVID-19 have uncovered significant changes in metabolism, resulting in the perspective that COVID-19 is a metabolic disease. Reprogramming of amino acid, glucose, cholesterol and fatty acid is distinctive characteristic of COVID-19 infection. These metabolic changes in COVID-19 have a critical role not only in producing energy and virus constituent elements, but also in regulating immune response, offering new insights into COVID-19 pathophysiology. Remarkably, metabolic reprogramming provides great opportunities for developing novel biomarkers and therapeutic agents for COVID-19 infection. Such novel agents are expected to be effective adjuvant therapies. In this review, we integrate present studies about major metabolic reprogramming in COVID-19, as well as the possibility of targeting reprogrammed metabolism to combat virus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Amino Acids/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/metabolism
6.
J Mol Model ; 27(11): 323, 2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1465873

ABSTRACT

The world has face the COVID-19 pandemic which has already caused millions of death. Due to the urgency in fighting the virus, we study five residues of free amino acids present in the structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S). We investigated the spontaneous interaction between amino acids and silver ions (Ag+), considering these ions as a virucide chemical agent for SARS-CoV-2. The amino acid-Ag+ systems were investigated in a gaseous medium and a simulated water environment was described with a continuum model (PCM) the calculations were performed within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Calculations related to the occupied orbitals of higher energy showed that Ag+ has a tendency to interact with the nitrile groups (-NH). The negative values of the Gibbs free energies show that the interaction process between amino acids-Ag+ in both media occurs spontaneously. There is a decrease in Gibbs free energy from the amino acid-Ag+ interactions immersed in a water solvation simulator.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Density Functional Theory , Silver/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Amino Acids/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Binding Sites , Cations, Monovalent , Gene Expression , Humans , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Silver/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Static Electricity , Thermodynamics
7.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 574: 14-19, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446453

ABSTRACT

Following the initial surges of the Alpha (B.1.1.7) and the Beta (B.1.351) variants, a more infectious Delta variant (B.1.617.2) is now surging, further deepening the health crises caused by the pandemic. The sharp rise in cases attributed to the Delta variant has made it especially disturbing and is a variant of concern. Fortunately, current vaccines offer protection against known variants of concern, including the Delta variant. However, the Delta variant has exhibited some ability to dodge the immune system as it is found that neutralizing antibodies from prior infections or vaccines are less receptive to binding with the Delta spike protein. Here, we investigated the structural changes caused by the mutations in the Delta variant's receptor-binding interface and explored the effects on binding with the ACE2 receptor as well as with neutralizing antibodies. We find that the receptor-binding ß-loop-ß motif adopts an altered but stable conformation causing separation in some of the antibody binding epitopes. Our study shows reduced binding of neutralizing antibodies and provides a possible mechanism for the immune evasion exhibited by the Delta variant.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immune Evasion/immunology , Mutation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Amino Acids/genetics , Amino Acids/immunology , Amino Acids/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites/genetics , Binding Sites/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation/genetics , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390657

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global threat that has spread since the end of 2019, causing severe clinical sequelae and deaths, in the context of a world pandemic. The infection of the highly pathogenetic and infectious SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has been proven to exert systemic effects impacting the metabolism. Yet, the metabolic pathways involved in the pathophysiology and progression of COVID-19 are still unclear. Here, we present the results of a mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomic analysis on a cohort of 52 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, classified according to disease severity as mild, moderate, and severe. Our analysis defines a clear signature of COVID-19 that includes increased serum levels of lactic acid in all the forms of the disease. Pathway analysis revealed dysregulation of energy production and amino acid metabolism. Globally, the variations found in the serum metabolome of COVID-19 patients may reflect a more complex systemic perturbation induced by SARS-CoV-2, possibly affecting carbon and nitrogen liver metabolism.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Carbon/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Metabolome , Nitrogen/metabolism , Amino Acids/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Discriminant Analysis , Humans , Least-Squares Analysis , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Metabolomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(12): 1891-1905, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334799

ABSTRACT

Human Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection activates a complex interaction host/virus, leading to the reprogramming of the host metabolism aimed at the energy supply for viral replication. Alterations of the host metabolic homeostasis strongly influence the immune response to SARS-CoV-2, forming the basis of a wide range of outcomes, from the asymptomatic infection to the onset of COVID-19 and up to life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome, vascular dysfunction, multiple organ failure, and death. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms associated with the individual susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection calls for a system biology approach; this strategy can address multiple goals, including which patients will respond effectively to the therapeutic treatment. The power of metabolomics lies in the ability to recognize endogenous and exogenous metabolites within a biological sample, measuring their concentration, and identifying perturbations of biochemical pathways associated with qualitative and quantitative metabolic changes. Over the last year, a limited number of metabolomics- and lipidomics-based clinical studies in COVID-19 patients have been published and are discussed in this review. Remarkable alterations in the lipid and amino acid metabolism depict the molecular phenotype of subjects infected by SARS-CoV-2; notably, structural and functional data on the lipids-virus interaction may open new perspectives on targeted therapeutic interventions. Several limitations affect most metabolomics-based studies, slowing the routine application of metabolomics. However, moving metabolomics from bench to bedside cannot imply the mere determination of a given metabolite panel; rather, slotting metabolomics into clinical practice requires the conversion of metabolic patient-specific data into actionable clinical applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Metabolomics/methods , Amino Acids/analysis , Amino Acids/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/analysis , Eicosanoids/blood , Humans , Lipids/blood , Pandemics , Phenylalanine/analysis , Phenylalanine/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
Nutr Diabetes ; 11(1): 20, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281688

ABSTRACT

Defences to pathogens such as SarCoV2 in mammals involves interactions between immune functions and metabolic pathways to eradicate infection while preventing hyperinflammation. Amino acid metabolic pathways represent with other antimicrobial agent potential targets for therapeutic strategies. iNOS-mediated production of NO from Arg is involved in the innate inflammatory response to pathogens and NO overproduction can induce hyperinflammation. The two Arg-catabolising enzymes Arg1 and IDO1 reduce the hyperinflammation by an immunosuppressive effect via either Arg starvation (for Arg1) or via the immunoregulatory activity of the Arg-derived metabolites Kyn (for IDO1). In response to amino acid abundance mTOR activates the host protein translation and Coronaviruses use this machinery for their own protein synthesis and replication. In contrast GCN2, the sensor of amino acid starvation, activates pathways that restrict inflammation and viral replication. Gln depletion alters the immune response that become more suppressive, by favouring a regulatory T phenotype rather than a Th1 phenotype. Proliferating activated immune cells are highly dependent on Ser, activation and differentiation of T cells need enough Ser and dietary Ser restriction can inhibit their proliferation. Cys is strictly required for T-cell proliferation because they cannot convert Met to Cys. Restricting Met inhibits both viral RNA cap methylation and replication, and the proliferation of infected cells with an increased requirement for Met. Phe catabolism produces antimicrobial metabolites resulting in the inhibition of microbial growth and an immunosuppressive activity towards T lymphocytes.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/metabolism , Immunity, Innate , Infections/therapy , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Arginine/metabolism , Humans , Infections/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Virus Replication
11.
Biosci Rep ; 41(3)2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180288

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has induced an ongoing global health crisis. Here we utilized a combination of targeted amino acids (AAs) and clinical biochemical profiling to analyze the plasma of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) subjects at the hospitalization stage and 1-month post-infection convalescent stage, respectively, to investigate the systematic injury during COVID-19 disease progress. We found the virus-induced inflammatory status and reduced liver synthesis capacity in hospitalized patients, which manifested with increased branched-chain AAs (BCAAs), aromatic AAs (AAAs), one-carbon related metabolites, and decreased methionine. Most of these disturbances during infection recover except for the increased levels of medium-chain acylcarnitines (ACs) in the convalescent subjects, implying the existence of incomplete fatty acids oxidation during recovery periods. Our results suggested that the imbalance of the AA profiling in COVID-19 patients. The majority of disturbed AAs recovered in 1 month. The incomplete fatty acid oxidation products suggested it might take longer time for convalescent patients to get complete recovery.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amino Acids/blood , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Metabolomics/methods , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6350, 2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142464

ABSTRACT

We identified the main changes in serum metabolites associated with severe (n = 46) and mild (n = 19) COVID-19 patients by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The modified metabolic profiles were associated to an altered amino acid catabolism in hypoxic conditions. Noteworthy, three α-hydroxyl acids of amino acid origin increased with disease severity and correlated with altered oxygen saturation levels and clinical markers of lung damage. We hypothesize that the enzymatic conversion of α-keto-acids to α- hydroxyl-acids helps to maintain NAD recycling in patients with altered oxygen levels, highlighting the potential relevance of amino acid supplementation during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Female , Homeostasis , Humans , Male , Metabolomics , Middle Aged , Mitochondria/metabolism
13.
J Infect Dis ; 223(8): 1313-1321, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091239

ABSTRACT

Domestic cats, an important companion animal, can be infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This has aroused concern regarding the ability of domestic cats to spread the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019. We systematically demonstrated the pathogenesis and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in cats. Serial passaging of the virus between cats dramatically attenuated the viral transmissibility, likely owing to variations of the amino acids in the receptor-binding domain sites of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 between humans and cats. These findings provide insight into the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in cats and information for protecting the health of humans and cats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Amino Acids/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Cats , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Male , Vero Cells
14.
Obes Rev ; 22(4): e13221, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079006

ABSTRACT

Obesity and obesogenic comorbidities have been associated with COVID-19 susceptibility and mortality. However, the mechanism of such correlations requires an in-depth understanding. Overnutrition/excess serum amino acid profile during obesity has been linked with inflammation and reprogramming of translational machinery through hyperactivation of amino acid sensor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is exploited by SARS-CoV-2 for its replication. Conversely, we have shown that the activation of general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2)-dependent amino acid starvation sensing pathway suppresses intestinal inflammation by inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß). While activation of GCN2 has shown to mitigate susceptibility to dengue infection, GCN2 deficiency increases viremia and inflammation-associated pathologies. These findings reveal that the amino acid sensing pathway plays a significant role in controlling inflammation and viral infections. The current fact is that obesity/excess amino acids/mTOR activation aggravates COVID-19, and it might be possible that activation of amino acid starvation sensor GCN2 has an opposite effect. This article focuses on the amino acid sensing pathways through which host cells sense the availability of amino acids and reprogram the host translation machinery to mount an effective antiviral response. Besides, how SARS-CoV-2 hijack and exploit amino acid sensing pathway for its replication and pathogenesis is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , N-Acetylhexosaminyltransferases/physiology , Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Humans , Inflammation , Obesity/physiopathology , Protein Biosynthesis/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology
15.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(12): 4557-4564, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064547

ABSTRACT

Collagenous colitis (CC) is associated with non-bloody, watery diarrhea, which is pathophysiologically reasonable because normal colonic absorption (or excretion) of water and electrolytes can be blocked by the abnormally thick collagen layer in CC. However, CC has also been associated with six previous cases of protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), with no pathophysiologic explanation. The colon does not normally absorb (or excrete) amino acids/proteins, which is primarily the function of the small bowel. Collagenous duodenitis (CD) has not been associated with PLE. This work reports a novel case of CD (and CC) associated with PLE; a pathophysiologically reasonable mechanism for CD causing PLE (by the thick collagen layer of CD blocking normal intestinal amino acid absorption); and a novel association of PLE with severe COVID-19 infection (attributed to relative immunosuppression from hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and malnutrition from PLE).


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/metabolism , COVID-19/etiology , Colitis, Collagenous/complications , Duodenitis/complications , Duodenum/physiopathology , Intestinal Absorption , Intestinal Mucosa/physiopathology , Protein-Losing Enteropathies/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Colitis, Collagenous/diagnosis , Colitis, Collagenous/physiopathology , Colitis, Collagenous/therapy , Duodenitis/diagnosis , Duodenitis/physiopathology , Duodenitis/therapy , Duodenum/metabolism , Female , Fluid Therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Nutritional Status , Parenteral Nutrition, Total , Protein-Losing Enteropathies/diagnosis , Protein-Losing Enteropathies/physiopathology , Protein-Losing Enteropathies/therapy , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Life Sci ; 269: 119046, 2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has brought a global public health crisis. However, the pathogenesis underlying COVID-19 are barely understood. METHODS: In this study, we performed proteomic analyses of airway mucus obtained by bronchoscopy from severe COVID-19 patients. In total, 2351 and 2073 proteins were identified and quantified in COVID-19 patients and healthy controls, respectively. RESULTS: Among them, 92 differentiated expressed proteins (DEPs) (46 up-regulated and 46 down-regulated) were found with a fold change >1.5 or <0.67 and a p-value <0.05, and 375 proteins were uniquely present in airway mucus from COVID-19 patients. Pathway and network enrichment analyses revealed that the 92 DEPs were mostly associated with metabolic, complement and coagulation cascades, lysosome, and cholesterol metabolism pathways, and the 375 COVID-19 only proteins were mainly enriched in amino acid degradation (Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine degradation), amino acid metabolism (beta-Alanine, Tryptophan, Cysteine and Methionine metabolism), oxidative phosphorylation, phagosome, and cholesterol metabolism pathways. CONCLUSIONS: This study aims to provide fundamental data for elucidating proteomic changes of COVID-19, which may implicate further investigation of molecular targets directing at specific therapy.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Mucus/virology , Proteins/metabolism , Aged , Bronchoscopy , Case-Control Studies , Cholesterol/metabolism , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proteomics , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Interdiscip Sci ; 13(1): 44-60, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023356

ABSTRACT

The new type of corona virus (SARS-COV-2) emerging in Wuhan, China has spread rapidly to the world and has become a pandemic. In addition to having a significant impact on daily life, it also shows its effect in different areas, including public health and economy. Currently, there is no vaccine or antiviral drug available to prevent the COVID-19 disease. Therefore, determination of protein interactions of new types of corona virus is vital in clinical studies, drug therapy, identification of preclinical compounds and protein functions. Protein-protein interactions are important to examine protein functions and pathways involved in various biological processes and to determine the cause and progression of diseases. Various high-throughput experimental methods have been used to identify protein-protein interactions in organisms, yet, there is still a huge gap in specifying all possible protein interactions in an organism. In addition, since the experimental methods used include cloning, labeling, affinity purification mass spectrometry, the processes take a long time. Determining these interactions with artificial intelligence-based methods rather than experimental approaches may help to identify protein functions faster. Thus, protein-protein interaction prediction using deep-learning algorithms has been employed in conjunction with experimental method to explore new protein interactions. However, to predict protein interactions with artificial intelligence techniques, protein sequences need to be mapped. There are various types and numbers of protein-mapping methods in the literature. In this study, we wanted to contribute to the literature by proposing a novel protein-mapping method based on the AVL tree. The proposed method was inspired by the fast search performance on the dictionary structure of AVL tree and was used to verify the protein interactions between SARS-COV-2 virus and human. First, protein sequences were mapped by both the proposed method and various protein-mapping methods. Then, the mapped protein sequences were normalized and classified by bidirectional recurrent neural networks. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated with accuracy, f1-score, precision, recall, and AUC scores. Our results indicated that our mapping method predicts the protein interactions between SARS-COV-2 virus proteins and human proteins at an accuracy of 97.76%, precision of 97.60%, recall of 98.33%, f1-score of 79.42%, and with AUC 89% in average.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Deep Learning , Protein Interaction Mapping/methods , Algorithms , Amino Acids/metabolism , Genome, Viral , Humans , Protein Binding , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
18.
J Biol Chem ; 295(35): 12353-12354, 2020 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990137

ABSTRACT

Sheddases are specialized proteases that control the abundance and function of membrane proteins by cleaving their substrate's extracellular domain (ectodomain), a process known as shedding. Hundreds of shedding substrates have been identified, but little is known about the mechanisms that govern ectodomain shedding. Iwagishi et al. now report that negatively charged amino acids in the membrane-proximal juxtamembrane domain of substrates make them resistant to shedding by the metalloprotease ADAM17. These findings will help researchers better understand the regulation of shedding and may aid in the development of drugs targeting sheddases.


Subject(s)
ADAM Proteins , Membrane Proteins , ADAM Proteins/metabolism , ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , Amino Acids/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Proteolysis
19.
Talanta ; 223(Pt 2): 121872, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943621

ABSTRACT

Metabolic phenotyping using mass spectrometry (MS) is being applied to ever increasing sample numbers in clinical and epidemiology studies. High-throughput and robust methods are being developed for the accurate measurement of metabolites associated with disease. Traditionally, quantitative assays have utilized triple quadrupole (QQQ) MS based methods; however, the use of such focused methods removes the ability to perform discovery-based metabolic phenotyping. An integrated workflow for the hybrid simultaneous quantification of 34 biogenic amines in combination with full scan high-resolution accurate mass (HRAM) exploratory metabolic phenotyping is presented. Primary and secondary amines are derivatized with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate prior to revered-phase liquid chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric detection. Using the HRAM-MS data, retrospective phenotypic data mining could be performed, demonstrating the versatility of HRAM-MS instrumentation in a clinical and molecular epidemiological environment. Quantitative performance was assessed using two MS detector platforms: Waters TQ-XS (QQQ; n = 3) and Bruker Impact II QToF (HRAMS-MS; n = 2) and three human biofluids (plasma, serum and urine). Finally, each platform was assessed using a certified external reference sample (NIST SRM 1950 plasma). Intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were comparable between the QQQ and QToF instruments (<15%), with excellent linearity (R2 > 0.99) over the quantification range of 1-400 µmol L-1. Quantitative values were comparable across all instruments for human plasma, serum and urine samples, and calculated concentrations were verified against certified reference values for NIST SRM 1950 plasma as an external reference. As a real-life biological exemplar, the method was applied to plasma samples obtained from SARS-CoV-2 positive patients versus healthy controls. Both the QQQ and QToF approaches were equivalent in being able to correctly classify SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Critically, the use of HRAM full scan data was also assessed for retrospective exploratory mining of data to extract additional biogenic amines of biomarker interest beyond the 34 quantified targets.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/metabolism , Biogenic Amines/metabolism , Amino Acids/blood , Biogenic Amines/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/urine , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Metabolomics , Phenotype , Quality Control , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1265: 57-70, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712830

ABSTRACT

Lung diseases affect millions of individuals all over the world. Various environmental factors, such as toxins, chemical pollutants, detergents, viruses, bacteria, microbial dysbiosis, and allergens, contribute to the development of respiratory disorders. Exposure to these factors activates stress responses in host cells and disrupt lung homeostasis, therefore leading to dysfunctional epithelial barriers. Despite significant advances in therapeutic treatments for lung diseases in the last two decades, novel interventional targets are imperative, considering the side effects and limited efficacy in patients treated with currently available drugs. Nutrients, such as amino acids (e.g., arginine, glutamine, glycine, proline, taurine, and tryptophan), peptides, and bioactive molecules, have attracted more and more attention due to their abilities to reduce oxidative stress, inhibit apoptosis, and regulate immune responses, thereby improving epithelial barriers. In this review, we summarize recent advances in amino acid metabolism in the lungs, as well as multifaceted functions of amino acids in attenuating inflammatory lung diseases based on data from studies with both human patients and animal models. The underlying mechanisms for the effects of physiological amino acids are likely complex and involve cell signaling, gene expression, and anti-oxidative reactions. The beneficial effects of amino acids are expected to improve the respiratory health and well-being of humans and other animals. Because viruses (e.g., coronavirus) and environmental pollutants (e.g., PM2.5 particles) induce severe damage to the lungs, it is important to determine whether dietary supplementation or intravenous administration of individual functional amino acids (e.g., arginine-HCl, citrulline, N-acetylcysteine, glutamine, glycine, proline and tryptophan) or their combinations to affected subjects may alleviate injury and dysfunction in this vital organ.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Lung Diseases/pathology , Animals , Humans , Lung Diseases/physiopathology
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