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1.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522913

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a recently emerged virus that causes coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, like SARS-CoV-1, uses the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a cellular receptor to initiate infection. Compounds that interfere with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain protein (RBD)-ACE2 receptor interaction may function as entry inhibitors. Here, we used a dual strategy of molecular docking and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) screening of compound libraries to identify those that bind to human ACE2 or the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD). Molecular modeling screening interrogated 57,641 compounds and focused on the region of ACE2 that is engaged by RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and vice versa. SPR screening used immobilized human ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein to evaluate the binding of these proteins to a library of 3,141 compounds. These combined screens identified compounds from these libraries that bind at KD (equilibrium dissociation constant) <3 µM affinity to their respective targets, 17 for ACE2 and 6 for SARS-CoV-2 RBD. Twelve ACE2 binders and six of the RBD binders compete with the RBD-ACE2 interaction in an SPR-based competition assay. These compounds included registered drugs and dyes used in biomedical applications. A Vero-E6 cell-based SARS-CoV-2 infection assay was used to evaluate infection blockade by candidate entry inhibitors. Three compounds demonstrated dose-dependent antiviral in vitro potency-Evans blue, sodium lifitegrast, and lumacaftor. This study has identified potential drugs for repurposing as SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors or as chemical scaffolds for drug development.IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has caused more than 60 million cases worldwide with almost 1.5 million deaths as of November 2020. Repurposing existing drugs is the most rapid path to clinical intervention for emerging diseases. Using an in silico screen of 57,641 compounds and a biophysical screen of 3,141 compounds, we identified 22 compounds that bound to either the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and/or the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (SARS-CoV-2 spike protein RBD). Nine of these drugs were identified by both screening methods. Three of the identified compounds, Evans blue, sodium lifitegrast, and lumacaftor, were found to inhibit viral replication in a Vero-E6 cell-based SARS-CoV-2 infection assay and may have utility as repurposed therapeutics. All 22 identified compounds provide scaffolds for the development of new chemical entities for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Aminopyridines/pharmacology , Animals , Benzodioxoles/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Repositioning , Evans Blue/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phenylalanine/analogs & derivatives , Phenylalanine/pharmacology , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sulfones/pharmacology , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Vero Cells
2.
Cell Rep ; 36(5): 109479, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328702

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses rely on host membranes for entry, establishment of replication centers, and egress. Compounds targeting cellular membrane biology and lipid biosynthetic pathways have previously shown promise as antivirals and are actively being pursued as treatments for other conditions. Here, we test small molecule inhibitors that target the PI3 kinase VPS34 or fatty acid metabolism for anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) activity. Our studies determine that compounds targeting VPS34 are potent SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors. Mechanistic studies with compounds targeting multiple steps up- and downstream of fatty acid synthase (FASN) identify the importance of triacylglycerol production and protein palmitoylation as requirements for efficient viral RNA synthesis and infectious virus production. Further, FASN knockout results in significantly impaired SARS-CoV-2 replication that can be rescued with fatty acid supplementation. Together, these studies clarify roles for VPS34 and fatty acid metabolism in SARS-CoV-2 replication and identify promising avenues for the development of countermeasures against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Class III Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Aminopyridines/pharmacology , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Class III Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Fatty Acid Synthases/drug effects , Fatty Acid Synthases/genetics , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Lipoylation/drug effects , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Triglycerides/metabolism , Vero Cells
3.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159341

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a recently emerged virus that causes coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, like SARS-CoV-1, uses the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a cellular receptor to initiate infection. Compounds that interfere with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain protein (RBD)-ACE2 receptor interaction may function as entry inhibitors. Here, we used a dual strategy of molecular docking and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) screening of compound libraries to identify those that bind to human ACE2 or the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD). Molecular modeling screening interrogated 57,641 compounds and focused on the region of ACE2 that is engaged by RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and vice versa. SPR screening used immobilized human ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein to evaluate the binding of these proteins to a library of 3,141 compounds. These combined screens identified compounds from these libraries that bind at KD (equilibrium dissociation constant) <3 µM affinity to their respective targets, 17 for ACE2 and 6 for SARS-CoV-2 RBD. Twelve ACE2 binders and six of the RBD binders compete with the RBD-ACE2 interaction in an SPR-based competition assay. These compounds included registered drugs and dyes used in biomedical applications. A Vero-E6 cell-based SARS-CoV-2 infection assay was used to evaluate infection blockade by candidate entry inhibitors. Three compounds demonstrated dose-dependent antiviral in vitro potency-Evans blue, sodium lifitegrast, and lumacaftor. This study has identified potential drugs for repurposing as SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors or as chemical scaffolds for drug development.IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has caused more than 60 million cases worldwide with almost 1.5 million deaths as of November 2020. Repurposing existing drugs is the most rapid path to clinical intervention for emerging diseases. Using an in silico screen of 57,641 compounds and a biophysical screen of 3,141 compounds, we identified 22 compounds that bound to either the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and/or the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (SARS-CoV-2 spike protein RBD). Nine of these drugs were identified by both screening methods. Three of the identified compounds, Evans blue, sodium lifitegrast, and lumacaftor, were found to inhibit viral replication in a Vero-E6 cell-based SARS-CoV-2 infection assay and may have utility as repurposed therapeutics. All 22 identified compounds provide scaffolds for the development of new chemical entities for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Aminopyridines/pharmacology , Animals , Benzodioxoles/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Repositioning , Evans Blue/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phenylalanine/analogs & derivatives , Phenylalanine/pharmacology , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sulfones/pharmacology , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Vero Cells
4.
Cell Calcium ; 94: 102360, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064903

ABSTRACT

Ion channels are necessary for correct lysosomal function including degradation of cargoes originating from endocytosis. Almost all enveloped viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs), enter host cells via endocytosis, and do not escape endosomal compartments into the cytoplasm (via fusion with the endolysosomal membrane) unless the virus-encoded envelope proteins are cleaved by lysosomal proteases. With the ongoing outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2, endolysosomal two-pore channels represent an exciting and emerging target for antiviral therapies. This review focuses on the latest knowledge of the effects of lysosomal ion channels on the cellular entry and uncoating of enveloped viruses, which may aid in development of novel therapies against emerging infectious diseases such as SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Ion Channels/physiology , Lysosomes/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Envelope/physiology , Virus Internalization , Virus Uncoating , Aminopyridines/pharmacology , Aminopyridines/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Design , Endocytosis , Endosomes/metabolism , Endosomes/virology , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/pharmacology , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrazones/pharmacology , Hydrazones/therapeutic use , Ion Channels/classification , Lysosomes/enzymology , Lysosomes/metabolism , Models, Biological , Morpholines/pharmacology , Morpholines/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Uncoating/drug effects
5.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 66: 101978, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947382

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents an extraordinary challenge to identify effective drugs for prevention and treatment. The pathogenesis implicate acute respiratory disorder (ARD) which is attributed to significantly triggered "cytokine storm" and compromised immune system. This article summarizes the likely benefits of roflumilast, a Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) inhibitor as a comprehensive support COVID-19 pathogenesis. Roflumilast, a well-known anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory drug, is protective against respiratory models of chemical and smoke induced lung damage. There is significant data which demonstrate the protective effect of PDE-4 inhibitor in respiratory viral models and is likely to be beneficial in combating COVID-19 pathogenesis. Roflumilast is effective in patients with severe COPD by reducing the rate of exacerbations with the improvement of the lung function, which might further be beneficial for better clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. However, further clinical trials are warranted to examine this conjecture.


Subject(s)
Aminopyridines/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Benzamides/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aminopyridines/adverse effects , Aminopyridines/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Benzamides/adverse effects , Benzamides/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Cyclopropanes/adverse effects , Cyclopropanes/pharmacology , Cyclopropanes/therapeutic use , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Pandemics , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/pharmacology
6.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 889: 173615, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808499

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents the most serious inflammatory respiratory disease worldwide. Despite many proposed therapies, no effective medication has yet been approved. Neutrophils appear to be the key mediator for COVID-19-associated inflammatory immunopathologic, thromboembolic and fibrotic complications. Thus, for any therapeutic agent to be effective, it should greatly block the neutrophilic component of COVID-19. One of the effective therapeutic approaches investigated to reduce neutrophil-associated inflammatory lung diseases with few adverse effects was roflumilast. Being a highly selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors (PDE4i), roflumilast acts by enhancing the level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), that probably potentiates its anti-inflammatory action via increasing neprilysin (NEP) activity. Because activating NEP was previously reported to mitigate several airway inflammatory ailments; this review thoroughly discusses the proposed NEP-based therapeutic properties of roflumilast, which may be of great importance in curing COVID-19. However, further clinical studies are required to confirm this strategy and to evaluate its in vivo preventive and therapeutic efficacy against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aminopyridines/pharmacology , Aminopyridines/therapeutic use , Benzamides/pharmacology , Benzamides/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Neprilysin/drug effects , Cyclopropanes/pharmacology , Cyclopropanes/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13866, 2020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720849

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus has rapidly spread in humans, causing the ongoing Coronavirus pandemic. Recent studies have shown that, similarly to SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 utilises the Spike glycoprotein on the envelope to recognise and bind the human receptor ACE2. This event initiates the fusion of viral and host cell membranes and then the viral entry into the host cell. Despite several ongoing clinical studies, there are currently no approved vaccines or drugs that specifically target SARS-CoV-2. Until an effective vaccine is available, repurposing FDA approved drugs could significantly shorten the time and reduce the cost compared to de novo drug discovery. In this study we attempted to overcome the limitation of in silico virtual screening by applying a robust in silico drug repurposing strategy. We combined and integrated docking simulations, with molecular dynamics (MD), Supervised MD (SuMD) and Steered MD (SMD) simulations to identify a Spike protein - ACE2 interaction inhibitor. Our data showed that Simeprevir and Lumacaftor bind the receptor-binding domain of the Spike protein with high affinity and prevent ACE2 interaction.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Drug Discovery/methods , Drug Repositioning/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Aminopyridines/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Benzodioxoles/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains/drug effects , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Simeprevir/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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