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2.
Turk J Ophthalmol ; 52(2): 139-141, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818499

ABSTRACT

A 61-year-old woman presented to our clinic with complaints of decreased visual acuity, pain, and redness in her left eye. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 in the right eye and counting fingers at 3 meters in the left eye. On slit-lamp examination, 1+ cells were detected in the anterior chamber. Fundus examination revealed 1+ haze in the vitreous and multiple creamy-whitish lesions in the retina and vitreous. Her history included a diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) one month earlier, for which she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit for 20 days and received systemic corticosteroid treatment. Vitreous culture yielded Candida albicans. The patient's nasopharyngeal swab sample was positive for COVID-19 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test. BCVA was improved to 20/40 after amphotericin therapy (via intravitreal injection and intravenous routes), and the vitritis and chorioretinitis lesion regressed after 2 weeks of treatment. Two weeks later, intravenous amphotericin was discontinued and oral fluconazole treatment was started at a dose of 400 mg/day. At 3-month follow-up, her BCVA was 20/25 and no inflammatory reaction was observed in the anterior chamber and vitreous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endophthalmitis , Eye Infections, Fungal , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Critical Care , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Steroids
3.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(3): 103465, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777939

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Second wave of COVID-19 pandemic was associated with an unprecedented rise in cases of mucormycosis, treatment of which has been challenging owing to the availability and side effects associated with amphotericin. METHODS: All patients presenting with rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) following COVID-19 infection between April 2021 to June 2021 were included in this retrospective interventional study. Primary objective was to assess the clinical response with combination of intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (4-5 mg/kg/day) and saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI) given orally along with surgical debridement. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients of ROCM were treated with the regimen. Mean age and fasting blood sugar levels were 53.48 years and 239.64 mg/dL respectively. All patients had history of intake of steroids with a mean daily dose of 86.39 mg of prednisolone equivalent. 88% of patients had a "proven" diagnosis of mucormycosis. Cultures were positive in 52% of patients with Rhizopus arrhizus as the predominant species. The mean daily dose of amphotericin received was 268 mg/day with a mean duration of 9.52 days. Mean daily dose of SSKI was 2.57 g. 21 patients (84%) had stabilization of disease at week 8 and achieved cure at the end of treatment whereas the mortality rate was 16%. Factors that significantly affected outcome were eye and central nervous system (CNS) involvement on presentation. CONCLUSION: SSKI, with its remarkably low cost and safety profile, makes it a potential adjuvant drug that may help achieve the twin benefits of shortened duration and dose of LAMB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Fungal , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Pandemics , Potassium Iodide/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(3)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769847

ABSTRACT

We aim to highlight the role of transcutaneous retrobulbar amphotericin-B (TRAMB) in cases of rhino-orbital mucormycosis. With the COVID-19 pandemic a rapid surge in the number of cases of rhino-orbital mucormycosis has been noted. The gold standard treatment for the progressive orbital disease is exenteration; however, organ salvage should be attempted, when possible. Here comes the role of TRAMB injection. We present a case of a man in his 70s, a known diabetic, who recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia but developed left-sided axial proptosis with orbital apex syndrome and ophthalmic artery occlusion secondary to rhino-orbital mucormycosis. The patient underwent debridement of paranasal sinuses and received intravenous liposomal amphotericin-B and three TRAMB injections. After three TRAMB injections significant improvement in extraocular movements, proptosis and ptosis was noted. An early intervention in orbital disease can avert a more radical procedure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Pandemics
5.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(3): 1019-1024, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715917

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To assess the outcome and response of transcutaneous retrobulbar injection of amphotericin B (TRAMB) in post-coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) and to establish a scoring system in guiding treatment modalities. Methods: An interventional, prospective study was done on 82 eyes of post-COVID-19 ROCM from May 2021 to July 2021. A comprehensive multi-departmental evaluation along with detailed ophthalmic examination, laboratory investigations, and radiological examination was done. Scoring points were given to each symptom, sign, and radiological features of orbit and the total score was taken. Based on these scores, severity of disease was grouped into A, B, and C corresponding to mild, moderate, and severe orbital ROCM. One milliliter of reconstituted liposomal amphotericin B was given to all patients every alternate day as three doses. Efficacy of these injections was assessed in all groups, even though other treatment modalities like orbital debridement and exenteration were considered for moderate and severe cases. Patients were followed up for a period of 8 weeks. Results: Out of 82 eyes, symptomatic improvement was seen in a major proportion (72%) of patients. A statistically significant improvement in scores was noted in group A (93% improved) with a P value of 0.002, while 68.4% showed improvement in group B (P-value- 0.0001). Group C with severe disease showed minimal improvement in post-injection scores of 41% (P-value 0.086), necessitating surgical intervention. No serious adverse effect of the drug or procedure was noted. Conclusion: Significant improvement in scores of groups A and B highlights TRAMB as an effective and safe treatment modality in mild to moderate ROCM. It is an effective adjunct in severe cases, along with other interventions. Also, the scoring system helps in assessing the severity and guiding in management strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Fungal , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Appl Microbiol ; 132(6): 4042-4057, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685334

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is a rare but serious fungal infection caused by a group of moulds called mucormycetes. More attention has recently been paid to it due to its association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Thus, it is important to review the progress of studies on mucormycosis and highlight the important findings in relation to epidemiology, clinical manifestation, major risk factors, diagnostic strategies and management. An electronic literature search was performed in PubMed using the keywords: Rhizopus, Mucorales, mucormycosis, zygomycosis, zygomycetes, COVID-19, the drugs (azoles, posaconazole, isavuconazole, amphotericin B pharmaceutical preparations and caspofungin), combination therapy, diagnosis and clinical manifestations. Studies written in the English language from January 1960 to 2021 were considered for this review article. All search results were reviewed, and the relevance of each article was determined by the authors independently. The review emphasized the fact that the diagnosis of mucormycosis is difficult, it is necessary to have a high index of suspicion to identify it, surgical debridement should be done prior to the dissemination of infection to improve clinical outcomes and identifying underlying risk factors is important for proper treatment. Moreover, antifungal therapeutic options are few with polyenes and their combinations should be appropriate for empirical therapy while posaconazole and isavuconazole are best reserved for de-escalation, refractory cases or patients intolerant to amphotericin B.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Debridement , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology
8.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 279(6): 3201-3210, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669788

ABSTRACT

AIM: During the second wave of COVID-19, cases of mucormycosis were increased suddenly over a period of 3 months in Maharashtra, India. An attempt was made to study the clinical profile and risk factors associated with mucormycosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was carried out at a tertiary hospital during May 2021-July 2021. After obtaining informed written consent from the participants, various details of all participants, such as diabetes mellitus, use of steroids in COVID-19 treatment, use of immunosuppressant drugs, oxygen therapy, use of ventilators, complications that occurred during treatment, etc., were noted. All mucormycosis patients were treated with amphotericin B and aggressive surgical treatment. RESULTS: In the present study, 74.7% of mucormycosis patients were male. 77.4% of mucormycosis patients were above 40 years of age. 6.7% of mucormycosis patients were partially vaccinated. Among risk factors, 86.6% had diabetes mellitus, 84% had COVID-19 infection, 44% had received steroids, and 54.7% had received oxygen. 80% of patients were present during and within 1 month of COVID-19 infection. 52% of patients were presented in stage III and 41.3% were presented in stage II. Despite aggressive surgical debridement along with amphotericin B, mortality was 25.33%. 5.3% of patients had brain abscesses, 8% of patients had cavernous sinus thrombosis, 4% of patients had facial nerve palsy and 1.3% of patients had meningitis. CONCLUSION: Mucormycosis was predominantly seen in male above the age of 40 years COVID-19 infection and diabetes mellitus was common risk factor for mucormycosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Adult , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/therapy , Orbital Diseases/therapy , Oxygen , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Steroids/therapeutic use , Tertiary Care Centers
9.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(6): 499-510, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Till now, no meta-analysis is available to address the clinical profile, risk factors, different interventions, and outcomes among COVID-19-associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (C-ROCM) cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight literature databases were screened using appropriate keywords from November 1, 2019, to June 30, 2021. The objectives were to analyze the clinical and microbiological profile, risk factor/comorbidity, intervention, and outcome. "R-metafor package" was used for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 23 studies were included. The mean age of presentation of C-ROCM was 54.6 years. The most common presentation was ptosis (72.7%), lid edema (60.6%), proptosis (60.6%), ophthalmoplegia (57.3%), loss of vision (53.7%), facial edema (34.7%), and nasal-blockage (11.8%). Evidence of intracranial spread was seen in 42.8% of cases. Rhizopus was the most common fungus (57.1%) isolated in fungal culture. Among C-ROCM patients, diabetes was the commonest comorbid condition, and the use of corticosteroids related to COVID-19 treatment was the most common risk factor (85.75%). Compared to controlled diabetics, C-ROCM was significantly higher among uncontrolled diabetics (odds ratio [OR] 0.15, 95% confidence interval [C.I.] 0.041-0.544, P = 0.0010). However, no significant association was seen between C-ROCM and COVID-19 severity (OR 0.930, 95% C.I. 0.212-4.087, P = 0.923). For treatment, amphotericin-B was the most common antifungal drug used which was followed by surgical options. However, mortality was high (prevalence 0.344, 95% C.I. 0.205-0.403) despite treatment. CONCLUSION: Although local rhino-orbito symptoms were the first to appear, rapid intracranial extension was seen in a significant number of C-ROCM cases. Uncontrolled diabetes and excessive use of corticosteroid were the most common risk factors present among the C-ROCM cases. High index clinical suspicion is imperative (specifically among COVID-19 patients with diabetes), and routine screening may be helpful.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/complications , COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/complications , Nose Diseases/complications , Orbital Diseases/complications , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
Chest ; 161(1): e5-e11, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595933

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old obese man (BMI 38.0) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic atrial fibrillation, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia stage II, stable for 8 years after chemotherapy, and a history of smoking presented to the ED with progressive dyspnea and fever due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. He was admitted to a general ward and treated with dexamethasone (6 mg IV once daily) and oxygen. On day 3 of hospital admission, he became progressively hypoxemic and was admitted to the ICU for invasive mechanical ventilation. Dexamethasone treatment was continued, and a single dose of tocilizumab (800 mg) was administered. On day 9 of ICU admission, voriconazole treatment was initiated after tracheal white plaques at bronchoscopy, suggestive of invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, were noticed. However, his medical situation dramatically deteriorated.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aged , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Bronchoscopy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Male , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Obesity/complications , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
13.
Mycoses ; 64(10): 1238-1252, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314088

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to report clinical features, contributing factors and outcome of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated mucormycosis (CAM). METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive multicentre study was conducted on patients with biopsy-proven mucormycosis with RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 from April to September 2020. Demographics, the time interval between COVID-19 and mucormycosis, underlying systemic diseases, clinical features, course of disease and outcomes were collected and analysed. RESULTS: Fifteen patients with COVID-19 and rhino-orbital mucormycosis were observed. The median age of patients was 52 years (range 14-71), and 66% were male. The median interval time between COVID-19 disease and diagnosis of mucormycosis was seven (range: 1-37) days. Among all, 13 patients (86%) had diabetes mellitus, while 7 (46.6%) previously received intravenous corticosteroid therapy. Five patients (33%) underwent orbital exenteration, while seven (47%) patients died from mucormycosis. Six patients (40%) received combined antifungal therapy and none that received combined antifungal therapy died. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be aware that mucormycosis may be complication of COVID-19 in high-risk patients. Poor control of diabetes mellitus is an important predisposing factor for CAM. Systematic surveillance for control of diabetes mellitus and educating physician about the early diagnosis of CAM are suggested.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Caspofungin/therapeutic use , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Complications/microbiology , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/microbiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Young Adult
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206018

ABSTRACT

A middle-aged woman with diabetes presented with left-sided facial pain, complete ptosis and fever of short duration. On presentation, she had hyperglycaemia without ketosis. There was total ophthalmoplegia of the left eye with a visual acuity of 6/36. She incidentally tested positive for COVID-19. CT paranasal sinus and MRI brain revealed left-sided pansinusitis with acute infarct in the left parieto-occipital region without angioinvasion. An emergency functional endoscopic sinus procedure was done, which confirmed mucormycosis on histopathological examination. After 1 week of conventional amphotericin B and antibiotics, repeat CT brain showed improvement in mucosal thickening and sinusitis. This case is a rare presentation of mucormycosis associated with rapid progression to orbital apex syndrome with brain infarction in a patient with non-ketotic diabetes and COVID-19. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent further end-organ damage. It is also interesting that there was no angioinvasion and transient periarterial inflammation was attributed to brain infarction.


Subject(s)
Blepharoptosis/complications , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Ophthalmoplegia/complications , Orbital Diseases/complications , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/complications , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Diseases/etiology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
16.
J Mycol Med ; 31(2): 101124, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096172

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus infection is a well-known complication of severe influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and these infections have been related with significant morbidity and mortality even when appropriately diagnosed and treated. Recent studies have indicated that SARS-CoV-2 might increase the risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Here, we report the first case of Aspergillus ochraceus in a SARS-CoV-2 positive immunocompetent patient, which is complicated by pulmonary and brain infections. Proven IPA is supported by the positive Galactomannan test, culture-positive, and histopathological evidence. The patient did not respond to voriconazole, and liposomal amphotericin B was added to his anti-fungal regimen. Further studies are needed to evaluate the prevalence of IPA in immunocompetent patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Consequently, testing for the incidence of Aspergillus species in lower respiratory secretions and Galactomannan test of COVID-19 patients with appropriate therapy and targeted anti-fungal therapy based on the primary clinical suspicion of IPA are highly recommended.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis/complications , Aspergillus ochraceus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , Invasive Fungal Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillosis/diagnostic imaging , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Biomarkers , Brain Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Brain Abscess/etiology , Brain Abscess/microbiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Fatal Outcome , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Immunocompetence , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnostic imaging , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/microbiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/complications , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Male , Mannans/blood , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
17.
Mycoses ; 64(8): 798-808, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085281

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a common complication of severe viral pneumonia, such as influenza and COVID-19, that requires critical care including ventilatory support, use of corticosteroids and other adjunctive therapies to arrest the attendant massive airways inflammation. Although recommended for the treatment of viral pneumonia, steroid therapy appears to be a double-edged sword, predisposing patients to secondary bacterial and invasive fungal infections (IFIs) whereby impacting morbidity and mortality. Mucormycosis is a fungal emergency with a highly aggressive tendency for contiguous spread, associated with a poor prognosis if not promptly diagnosed and managed. Classically, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) and other immunosuppressive conditions including corticosteroid therapy are known risk factors for mucormycosis. Upon the background lung pathology, immune dysfunction and corticosteroid therapy, patients with severe viral pneumonia are likely to develop IFIs like aspergillosis and mucormycosis. Notably, the combination of steroid therapy and DM can augment immunosuppression and hyperglycaemia, increasing the risk of mucormycosis in a susceptible individual. Here, we report a case of sinonasal mucormycosis in a 44-year-old woman with hyperglycaemia secondary to poorly controlled diabetes following dexamethasone therapy on a background of influenza pneumonia and review 15 available literatures on reported cases of influenza and COVID-19 associated mucormycosis.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Influenza, Human/complications , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Diabetes Complications , Female , Humans , Liposomes/therapeutic use , Triazoles/therapeutic use
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(5)2020 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-822228

ABSTRACT

Critically ill patients are at risk of developing both acute kidney injury (AKI) and invasive fungal infections (IFIs). Prompt and efficient treatment of the IFI is essential for the survival of the patient. This article examines three distinct clinical situations where liposomal amphotericin B, a broad-spectrum antifungal agent, was successfully used in the setting of AKI. The first was Aspergillus infection in a 63-year-old man with bleeding oesophageal varices related to advanced liver disease. The second was gastrointestinal mucormycosis in a 74-year-old man who developed a small bowel obstruction following an autologous stem cell transplant for mantle cell lymphoma. The third was a Fusarium infection in a 32-year-old woman on immunosuppression for a bilateral lung transplant for cystic fibrosis. In all three cases, liposomal amphotericin B was required for urgent management of the patient's IFI. We discuss the rationale for treatment with a potentially nephrotoxic agent in this setting.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/microbiology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
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