INTRODUCTION: Bortezomib is proteasome inhibitor used in multiple myeloma treatment. The reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) during bortezomib-based therapy is a well-known adverse event. Antiviral prophylaxis is mandatory. Nevertheless, reports of herpesviral encephalitis are scarce. CASE REPORT: A 57-year-old multiple myeloma patient who during CyBorD protocol (Bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone), after a transient suspension of antiviral prophylaxis presented progressive headaches unresponsive to conventional analgesics, asthenia, fever, episodic visual hallucinations, and vesicular lesions in the right supraorbital and frontal region. Herpetic encephalitis was diagnosed after detecting herpes zoster in cerebrospinal fluid. MANAGEMENT & OUTCOME: The patient was treated with acyclovir 500mg every 6 hours for 21 days, and subsequent valacyclovir prophylaxis achieving an excellent clinical evolution. Anti-myeloma treatment was changed to lenalidomide and dexamethasone achieving a durable complete response. Herpesviral encephalitis is a rare but severe complication associated with the use of Bortezomib, especially when patients did not receive acyclovir prophylaxis. However, a rapid detection based on the clinical suspicion, and the prompt start of treatment, may lead to overcome this adverse event.
Subject(s)Amyloidosis , Antineoplastic Agents , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex , Multiple Myeloma , Acyclovir/adverse effects , Amyloidosis/chemically induced , Amyloidosis/complications , Amyloidosis/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Boronic Acids/adverse effects , Bortezomib/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/chemically induced , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/complications , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 3, Human/physiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Pyrazines
Amyloidosis is described by the deposition of misfolded proteins in the tissues. Amyloidoses are classified into two as systemic and localized. Out of the systemic forms, AL (light chain) amyloidosis is the most prevalent type; however, amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is more frequently encountered in the rheumatology practice. AA amyloidosis stands out as a major complication of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Splenic and renal involvement is more likely in FMF-associated systemic amyloidosis. The involvement of thyroid and adrenal glands has also been described, although infrequently. Amyloidoses have a heterogeneous plethora of clinical manifestations, with certain phenotypes associated with specific amyloid forms. Gynecological amyloidosis is a rare condition. Uterine involvement may occur in a localized fashion or may also arise as a part of systemic involvement, albeit at a lesser ratio. Several cases of uterine AL amyloidosis have been documented so far as an organ involvement in systemic AL amyloidosis. On the other hand, uterine amyloidosis associated with AA amyloidosis has been described merely in one case with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we presented a 40-year-old female patient with FMF known for 38 years who underwent splenectomy and hysterectomy due to massive splenomegaly, deep anemia, and persistent menometrorrhagia. Histological examinations of materials revealed uterine and splenic AA amyloidosis. This case report is first-of-its-kind to describe FMF-associated uterine AA amyloidosis and also provides a discussion of possible mechanisms of amyloidosis-induced uterine bleeding.