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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(12): 4535-4544, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924924

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues, and SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to emerge. In addition to typical fever and respiratory symptoms, many patients with COVID-19 experience a variety of neurological complications. In this review, we analyzed and reviewed the current status and possible mechanisms between COVID-19 and several typical neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, hoping to propose the potential direction of further research and concern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic literature search of the databases (Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar). The keywords used were COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, neurodegenerative disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The retrieved relevant articles were reviewed and critically analyzed. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 is a highly neuroinvasive neurotropic virus that invades cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor-driven pathway. SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion, neuroinflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Some patients with neurodegenerative diseases have already shown more susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and significantly higher mortality due to the elderly population with underlying diseases. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 could cause damage to the central nervous system (CNS) that may substantially increase the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases and accelerate the progression of them.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Aged , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; Vol. 32(4): 87-100, 2022 Mar 09.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834966

ABSTRACT

The COVID epidemic has changed the way monitoring and management of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is organized. Teleconsultations (TLC) have become essential to maintain medical surveillance. The practice of TLC required adapting the computer system to the patients’ disability and the intervention of a TLC assistant professional with the ALS patient. When the confinement was lifted, many patients asked to maintain this monitoring modality. Nevertheless, the experience raised several ethical questions. This article raises four sets of questions based on the analysis of a clinical case. These questions concern the relevance of TLC in the ALS patient’s care pathway and the quality of information provided to the patient about it, the respect of patients’ rights during TLC, the quality of the caregiver-patient relationship and finally the impact of TLC on the healthcare system.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Remote Consultation , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Quality of Life
3.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 140, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are at high risk for severe outcomes from Covid-19 infection. Researchers exploring ALS and Covid-19 have focused primarily on system response and adaptation. Using Protection Motivation Theory, we investigated how people with ALS and family caregivers appraised and responded to Covid-19 threat, the 'costs' associated with pandemic response, and how health professionals and systems can better support people affected by ALS who are facing public health emergencies. METHODS: Data were drawn from the 'ALS Talk Project,' an asynchronous, moderated focus group study. Participants were recruited from regions across Canada. Seven groups met online over 14 weeks between January and July 2020. Fifty-three participants contributed to Covid-19 discussions. Data were qualitatively analyzed using directed content analysis and the constant-comparative approach. RESULTS: Participants learned about the Covid-19 pandemic from the media. They rapidly assessed their vulnerability and responded to Covid-19 threat by following recommendations from health authorities, information monitoring, and preparing for worst-case scenarios. Adopting protective behaviors had substantial response costs, including adaptations for medical care and home support workers, threatened access to advance care, and increased caregiver burden. Participants expressed need for ALS-specific, pandemic information from trusted health professionals and/or ALS health charities. Telemedicine introduced both conveniences and costs. Prior experience with ALS provided tools for coping with Covid-19. Threat and coping appraisal was a dynamic process involving ongoing vigilance and adaptation. Findings draw attention to the lack of emergency preparedness among participants and within health systems. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should engage ALS patients and families in ongoing discussions about pandemic coping, strategies to mitigate response costs, care pathways in the event of Covid-19 infection, and changing information about Covid-19 variants and vaccines. Healthcare systems should incorporate flexible approaches for medical care, leveraging the benefits of telemedicine and facilitating in-person interaction as needed and where possible. Research is needed to identify strategies to mitigate response costs and to further explore the interaction between prior experience and coping. Further study is also needed to determine how communication about emergency preparedness might be effectively incorporated into clinical care for those with ALS and other medically vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/epidemiology , Humans , Motivation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Protein Cell ; 13(8): 602-614, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777862

ABSTRACT

The nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2 has been reported to have a high ability of liquid-liquid phase separation, which enables its incorporation into stress granules (SGs) of host cells. However, whether SG invasion by N protein occurs in the scenario of SARS-CoV-2 infection is unknow, neither do we know its consequence. Here, we used SARS-CoV-2 to infect mammalian cells and observed the incorporation of N protein into SGs, which resulted in markedly impaired self-disassembly but stimulated cell cellular clearance of SGs. NMR experiments further showed that N protein binds to the SG-related amyloid proteins via non-specific transient interactions, which not only expedites the phase transition of these proteins to aberrant amyloid aggregation in vitro, but also promotes the aggregation of FUS with ALS-associated P525L mutation in cells. In addition, we found that ACE2 is not necessary for the infection of SARS-CoV-2 to mammalian cells. Our work indicates that SARS-CoV-2 infection can impair the disassembly of host SGs and promote the aggregation of SG-related amyloid proteins, which may lead to an increased risk of neurodegeneration.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Amyloidogenic Proteins/metabolism , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics , Animals , Cytoplasmic Granules/metabolism , Mammals , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Granules
5.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 9(2): 257-259, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection among neuromuscular diseases with respiratory involvement, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is still to be elucidated. OBJECTIVES: We aim to characterize the clinical outcome of ALS patients non-invasive ventilated (NIV), following SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively our patients followed regularly at our ALS clinic, from the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic (middle March 2020) to March 2021. We included patients on NIV with a documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. We recorded demographic and clinical data, including from the acute infectious illness. RESULTS: Three men with spinal-onset ALS are described, mean age of onset was 55±9.1 years (45-61), and mean disease duration was 17.5±15.9 months (6.1-41). All of them were wheelchair-bounded, with a mean ALSFRS-R of 15.3±0.6 (15-16). One patient used NIV 15 hours/day, 2 between 4 to 7 hours/day, and all used assisted coughing twice daily. None had coexistent comorbidities. They were managed for SARS-CoV-2 infection as outpatients with fluticasone, bronchodilators, azithromycin and increasing frequency of assisted coughing. Supplemental oxygen (mean of 2 liters per minute) was needed in two patients, and one required NIV also during the daytime. Total recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed in all, despite being in an advanced stage of their disease, with severe respiratory involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Prompt medical treatment is recommended for ALS patients with severe disease infected by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/complications , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/epidemiology , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Neurol ; 269(6): 2910-2921, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640843

ABSTRACT

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease, is characterized by the degeneration of both upper and lower motor neurons, which leads to muscle weakness and subsequently paralysis. It begins subtly with focal weakness but spreads relentlessly to involve most muscles, thus proving to be effectively incurable. Typically, death due to respiratory paralysis occurs in 3-5 years. To date, it has been shown that the management of ALS patients is best achieved with a multidisciplinary approach, and with the help of emerging technologies ranging from multidisciplinary teleconsults (for monitoring the dysphagia, respiratory function, and nutritional status) to brain-computer interfaces and eye tracking for alternative augmentative communication, until robotics, it may increase effectiveness. The COVID-19 pandemic created a spasmodic need to accelerate the development and implementation of such technologies in clinical practice, to improve the daily lives of both ALS patients and caregivers. However, despite the remarkable strides that have been made in the field, there are still issues to be addressed. This review will be discussed on the eureka moment of emerging technologies for ALS, used as a blueprint not only for neurodegenerative diseases, examining the current technologies already in place or being evaluated, highlighting the pros and cons for future clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/therapy , Humans , Motor Neurons , Pandemics
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488705

ABSTRACT

Adopting telemonitoring services during the pandemic for people affected by chronic disease is fundamental to ensure access to health care services avoiding the risk of COVID-19 infection. Among chronic diseases, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of adulthood, caused by the loss of spinal, bulbar and cortical motor neurons, which leads to paralysis of the voluntary muscles and, also, involves respiratory ones. Therefore, remote monitoring and teleconsulting are essential services for ALS patients with limited mobility, as the disease progresses, and for those living far from ALS centres and hospitals. In addition, the COVID 19 pandemic has increased the need to remotely provide the best care to patients, avoiding infection during ALS centre visits. The paper illustrates an innovative, secure medical monitoring and teleconsultation mobile cloud-based system for disabled people, such as those with ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis). The design aims to remotely monitor biosignals, such as ECG (electrocardiographic) and EMG (electromyographic) signals of ALS patients in order to prevent complications related to the pathology.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Adult , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/diagnosis , Cloud Computing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(10): 821-831, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent unmet need for new therapies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In a clinical study with healthy volunteers, levosimendan, a calcium sensitiser, was shown to improve neuromechanical efficiency and contractile function of the human diaphragm. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral levosimendan in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, with a focus on respiratory function. METHODS: The REFALS study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial at 99 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis specialist centres in 14 countries worldwide. People with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were eligible for participation if they were at least 18 years of age and had a sitting slow vital capacity (SVC) of 60-90% predicted. Participants were randomly assigned (2:1) by interactive web-response system to receive either levosimendan or placebo. The capsules for oral administration were identical in appearance to maintain blinding of participants and investigators. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in supine SVC at 12 weeks, assessed as the percentage of predicted normal sitting SVC. The key secondary endpoint was the combined assessment of function and survival (CAFS) up to 48 weeks. Analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population, comprising all participants who were randomly assigned. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03505021) and has been completed. An extension study (REFALS-ES; NCT03948178) has also been completed, but will be reported separately. FINDINGS: Between June 21, 2018, and June 28, 2019, 871 people were screened for the study, of whom 496 were randomly assigned either levosimendan (n=329) or placebo (n=167). Participants were followed up between June 27, 2018 and June 26, 2020, for a median duration of 50·1 (IQR 37·5-51·1) weeks. The median duration of treatment was 47·9 (IQR 26·4-48·1) weeks. Change from baseline in supine SVC at 12 weeks was -6·73% with levosimendan and -6·99% with placebo, with no significant difference between the treatments (estimated treatment difference 0·26%, 95% CI -2·03 to 2·55, p=0·83). Similarly, at week 48, CAFS did not differ between treatment groups (least squares mean change from baseline 10·69, 95% CI -15·74 to 37·12; nominal p value=0·43). The most frequent adverse events were increased heart rate (106 [33%] of 326 receiving levosimendan vs 12 [7%] of 166 receiving placebo), fall (85 [26%] vs 48 [29%]), headache (93 [29%] vs 36 [22%]), and dyspnoea (59 [18%] vs 32 [19%]). 33 (10%) participants allocated levosimendan and 20 (12%) assigned placebo died during the trial, mainly due to respiratory failure or progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. INTERPRETATION: Levosimendan was not superior to placebo in maintaining respiratory function in a broad population with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Although levosimendan was generally well tolerated, increased heart rate and headache occurred more frequently with levosimendan than with placebo. The possibility of a clinically relevant subgroup of responsive individuals requires further evaluation. FUNDING: Orion Corporation.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Administration, Oral , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Simendan/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
9.
Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener ; 23(1-2): 66-75, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358405

ABSTRACT

A roundtable convened in July 2020 examined issues concerning respiratory support in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), with reference to the potential for an early-phase orally administered medication that might either postpone the introduction of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and/or enhance the benefits to be gained from it. Attention was also given to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on usual practice in the assessment and management of ALS-related respiratory difficulties. Implementation of NIV marks a step-change in clinical status for patients and a major increase in burden for caregivers. All means to ease this transition should be explored: an oral therapy that supported respiratory function and patients' independence and sense of well-being would aid discussions to facilitate the eventual successful introduction of NIV. Assessment of a candidate oral therapy that might support respiratory function in ALS patients would be aided by the development of improved patient-reported outcome measures for robust quantification of treatment effect and quality of life. Such instruments could also be used to monitor patients' status during the COVID-19 pandemic, averting some of the risks of face-to-face assessment plus the patient burden and costs of traditional methods. Several oral candidate therapies have recently failed to meet their primary endpoints in clinical trials. However, understanding of the underlying physiology and appropriate trial design have grown and will inform future developments in this field.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/complications , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener ; 22(sup1): 1, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349730
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16046, 2021 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345578

ABSTRACT

Children that have a parent with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) suffer from the progressive loss of their beloved ones. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the difficulties faced by these children have increased. The study aimed to detect whether there were differences between the minors experiencing a relative's ALS and the minors with no experience of ALS and it aimed also to detect the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on these minors. The study involved Italian participants, in particular: the target group consisted of 38 children (7-18 years) (T0/T1); the control group consisted of 38 children (9-14 years) (T0 only). The following variables were measured: attachment with the Security Scale (SS), affects with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children (PANAS-C), behavioural problems with Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), death representation with Testoni Death Representation Scale for Children (TDRS-C), self-concept with the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale (MSCS), resilience and socio-emotional skills with the Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA). The results showed higher negative affectivity (p < .001), externalising behaviours (p < .05), uncertainty in reflective function (p < .05) in the target group compared to the control one; after the COVID-19 pandemic minors in the target group showed reduced certainty of mental states (p < .05) and interpersonal and scholastic self-esteem (p < .05). The impact of ALS on these minors is significant and produces negative affect, externalizing behaviours and uncertainty of mental states. The lockdown situation due to the COVID-19 pandemic has further aggravated minors in their school and interpersonal self-esteem.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Affect , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Emotions , Family , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Parents , Quality of Life , Self Concept
13.
Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener ; 22(sup1): 22-32, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343596

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Vital capacity (VC) is routinely used for ALS clinical trial eligibility determinations, often to exclude patients unlikely to survive trial duration. However, spirometry has been limited by the COVID-19 pandemic. We developed a machine-learning survival model without the use of baseline VC and asked whether it could stratify clinical trial participants and a wider ALS clinic population. Methods. A gradient boosting machine survival model lacking baseline VC (VC-Free) was trained using the PRO-ACT ALS database and compared to a multivariable model that included VC (VCI) and a univariable baseline %VC model (UNI). Discrimination, calibration-in-the-large and calibration slope were quantified. Models were validated using 10-fold internal cross validation, the VITALITY-ALS clinical trial placebo arm and data from the Emory University tertiary care clinic. Simulations were performed using each model to estimate survival of patients predicted to have a > 50% one year survival probability. Results. The VC-Free model suffered a minor performance decline compared to the VCI model yet retained strong discrimination for stratifying ALS patients. Both models outperformed the UNI model. The proportion of excluded vs. included patients who died through one year was on average 27% vs. 6% (VCI), 31% vs. 7% (VC-Free), and 13% vs. 10% (UNI). Conclusions. The VC-Free model offers an alternative to the use of VC for eligibility determinations during the COVID-19 pandemic. The observation that the VC-Free model outperforms the use of VC in a broad ALS patient population suggests the use of prognostic strata in future, post-pandemic ALS clinical trial eligibility screening determinations.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/epidemiology , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vital Capacity
14.
Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener ; 22(sup1): 5-8, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343595

ABSTRACT

Objective: To measure the correlation between single breath counting (SBC) and forced vital capacity (liters, FVCL) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and to define the utility of SBC for determining when patients meet the threshold for initiation of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (FVC < 50% predicted [FVCpred]). Methods: Both patient paced (SBCpp) or externally paced (SBCep) counting along with FVCL+pred and standard clinical data were collected. Linear regression was used to examine SBCpp and SBCep as a predictor of FVCL. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of SBC categorically predicting FVCpred of ≤50%. Results: In 30 ALS patients, SBC explained a moderate proportion of the variance in FVCL (SBCpp: R2= 0.431, p < 0.001; SBCep: R2 = 0.511, p < 0.01); this proportion improved when including covariates (SBCpp: R2= 0.635, p < 0.01; SBCep: R2= 0.657, p < 0.01). Patients with minimal speech involvement performed similarly in unadjusted (SBCpp: R2 = 0.511, p < 0.01; SBCep: R2= 0.595, p < 0.01) and adjusted (SBCpp: R2 = 0.634, p < 0.01; SBCep: R2= 0.650, p < 0.01) models. SBCpp had 100% sensitivity and 60% specificity (area under curve (AUC) = 0.696) for predicting FVCpred <50%. SBCep had 100% sensitivity and 56% specificity (AUC = 0.696). With minimal speech involvement SBCpp and SBCep both had 100% sensitivity and 76.1% specificity (SPCpp: AUC = 0.845; SBCep: AUC = 0.857). Conclusions: SBC explains a moderate proportion of variance in FVC and is an extremely sensitive marker of poor FVC. When FVC cannot be obtained, such as during the current COVID-19 pandemic, SBC is helpful in directing patient care.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vital Capacity
15.
Neurodegener Dis Manag ; 11(4): 307-314, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319563

ABSTRACT

Aim: To investigate the patients' perception of their disease, its management and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on persons living with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in Malaysia. Patients & methods: An online survey comprising 42 questions was conducted on ALS patients during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: Responses were received from 37/60 (62%) participants with ALS directly or through their caregivers. During the COVID-19 pandemic, two-thirds of patients were negatively impacted by the sudden disruption to their hospital appointments, rehabilitation sessions and reduced social interactions. Conclusion: This study provided insight into patients' perception of their care and management of ALS in Malaysia which will facilitate in implementing changes that can improve care to persons living with this devastating illness.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Malaysia , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288901

ABSTRACT

A cytokine storm, autoimmune features and dysfunctions of myeloid cells significantly contribute to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Genetic background of the host seems to be partly responsible for severe phenotype and genes related to innate immune response seem critical host determinants. The C9orf72 gene has a role in vesicular trafficking, autophagy regulation and lysosome functions, is highly expressed in myeloid cells and is involved in immune functions, regulating the lysosomal degradation of mediators of innate immunity. A large non-coding hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE) in this gene is the main genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), both characterized by neuroinflammation and high systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines, while HREs of intermediate length, although rare, are more frequent in autoimmune disorders. C9orf72 full mutation results in haploinsufficiency and intermediate HREs seem to modulate gene expression as well and impair autophagy. Herein, we sought to explore whether intermediate HREs in C9orf72 may be a risk factor for severe COVID-19. Although we found intermediate HREs in only a small portion of 240 patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, the magnitude of risk for requiring non-invasive or mechanical ventilation conferred by harboring intermediate repeats >10 units in at least one C9orf72 allele was more than twice respect to having shorter expansions, when adjusted for age (odds ratio (OR) 2.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-5.37, p = 0.040). The association between intermediate repeats >10 units and more severe clinical outcome (p = 0.025) was also validated in an independent cohort of 201 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. These data suggest that C9orf72 HREs >10 units may influence the pathogenic process driving more severe COVID-19 phenotypes.


Subject(s)
C9orf72 Protein/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Microsatellite Repeats , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/pathology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener ; 23(1-2): 76-80, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258723

ABSTRACT

Forced vital capacity (FVC) is an essential respiratory measurement for assessment and monitoring of patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Our clinic rapidly implemented remote assessment of FVC after COVID-19 related restrictions on respiratory testing were imposed, using mini-spirometers and video consultation. We sought to evaluate the patient's experiences of performing remote respiratory assessments to guide future development and optimisation of the service. Twenty-five patients completed surveys. The mean age was 65.2 years and average time from diagnosis was 17.04 (2-99) months. Seventy-two percent (n = 18) required help from a caregiver to perform the tests. Ninety-two percent (n = 23) of patients reported that overall, they were satisfied and were happy to continue with remote respiratory assessment. Reducing the number of clinic visits for review and assessment was valued by 92% (n = 23) and reducing the risk associated with COVID-19 was valued by 96% (n = 24). The highest frequency reported as acceptable for performing the remote breathing assessments was monthly (60%, n = 15), followed by every second month (28%, n = 7). Remote respiratory testing is viewed positively by patients. These technologies used in combination with video-consultations and other novel forms of remote monitoring implemented in response to the COVID-19 crisis will continue to be valuable tools for clinical care in future. However, further evaluation of the validity of remote respiratory assessment is required.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Aged , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/diagnosis , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vital Capacity
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