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2.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 88(7): 3543-3544, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794750
3.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 6027093, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789047

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of stellate ganglion block (SGB) combined with lidocaine at different concentrations for preemptive analgesia on postoperative pain relief and adverse reactions of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Methods: Ninety patients undergoing LC in our hospital from June 2019 to June 2020 were selected as the subjects and were randomly divided into group A (30 cases), group B (30 cases), and group C (30 cases), all patients received SGB, and 10 mL of lidocaine at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, and 0.75% was, respectively, administered to patients in groups A, B, and C, so as to compare the analgesic effect, adverse reactions, and clinical indicators among the three groups. Results: At T 1 and T 2, group C obtained obviously lower NRS scores than groups A and B (P < 0.001); compared with groups A and B, group A had obviously higher onset time (P < 0.001) and significantly lower duration (P < 0.001); no obvious differences in the hemodynamic indexes among the groups were observed (P > 0.05); group C obtained obviously higher BCS score than groups A and B; and the total incidence rate of adverse reactions was obviously higher in group C than in groups A and B (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Performing SGB combined with 0.5% lidocaine to patients undergoing LC achieves the optimal analgesic effect; such anesthesia plan can effectively stabilize patients' hemodynamics, present higher safety, and promote the regulation of the body internal environment. Further research will be conducive to establishing a better anesthesia plan for such patients.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Analgesia/adverse effects , Analgesics/pharmacology , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic/adverse effects , Humans , Lidocaine/adverse effects , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Stellate Ganglion
4.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 147(6): 319-325, 2022 03.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740507

ABSTRACT

MONITORING OF ANALGESIA, SEDATION AND DELIRIUM: The prerequisite for monitoring goal-oriented analgesia and screening for the presence of delirium is the use of validated measuring instruments such as the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale as well as an adequate medical and intensive care staffing ratio. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANALGESIA AND SEDATION: The goal, if possible, is an awake, oriented, cooperative patient who is free of pain. In this regard, multimodal analgesic treatment is of great importance. The lowest possible sedation should also be aimed for in COVID-19 patients, although deep sedation is recommended for invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients in the prone position.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , COVID-19 , Delirium , COVID-19/therapy , Delirium/therapy , Humans , Pain , Pain Management
6.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 46(5): 398-403, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The femoral nerve block (FNB) may be used for analgesia in hip fracture surgery. The pericapsular nerve group (PENG) block is a novel regional technique and may provide better pain reduction while preserving motor function, but these blocks have not been directly compared. METHODS: In a single-center double-blinded randomized comparative trial, patients presenting for hip fracture surgery received analgesia with either FNB or PENG block. The primary outcome measure was pain scores (Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) 0 to 10). Secondary outcomes were postoperative quadriceps strength, opiate use, complications, length of hospital stay, and patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS: Sixty patients were randomized and equally allocated between groups. Baseline demographics were similar. Postoperatively in recovery (day 0), the PENG group experienced less pain compared with the FNB group. (In the PENG group, 63% experienced no pain, 27% mild pain, and 10% moderate to severe pain. In comparison, 30% of the FNB group reported no pain, 27% mild pain, and 36% moderate to severe pain; p=0.04). This was assessed using an 11-point Likert NRS. Quadriceps strength was better preserved in the PENG group in the recovery unit (assessed using Oxford muscle strength grading, 60% intact in the PENG group vs none intact in the FNB group; p<0.001) and on day 1 (90% intact vs 50%, respectively; p=0.004). There was no difference in other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving a PENG block for intraoperative and postoperative analgesia during hip fracture surgery experience less postoperative pain in the recovery room with no difference detected by postoperative day 1. Quadriceps strength was better preserved with the PENG block. Despite the short-term analgesic benefit and improved quadriceps strength, there were no differences detected in the quality of recovery.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Nerve Block , Femoral Nerve , Humans , Pain Management , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control
7.
Med Gas Res ; 12(2): 41-43, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481079

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients leads to acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan dysfunction, shock, and thrombosis thus contributing to significant morbidity and mortality. Several agents like steroids, ascorbic acid, vitamins (C, D, E), glutathione, N-acetylcysteine have been used and several studies are underway to identify its efficacy in addressing undesirable effects due to COVID-19 illness. Among several experimental modalities based on expert opinion and anecdotal data, melatonin is one molecule that appears promising. Owing to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and immunomodulatory properties, melatonin can be an important agent used as a component of multimodal analgesia in COVID-19 patients, suspected patients, and patients with exposure to positive patients undergoing emergency or urgent surgeries. Further research is required to know the optimal time of initiation, dose, and duration of melatonin as an adjunct.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , COVID-19 , Melatonin , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Melatonin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Intensive Care Med ; 37(2): 240-247, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463146

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with COVID-19 ARDS require significant amounts of sedation and analgesic medications which can lead to longer hospital/ICU length of stay, delirium, and has been associated with increased mortality. Tracheostomy has been shown to decrease the amount of sedative, anxiolytic and analgesic medications given to patients. The goal of this study was to assess whether tracheostomy decreased sedation and analgesic medication usage, improved markers of activity level and cognitive function, and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 ARDS. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective registry of patients with COVID-19 ARDS who underwent tracheostomy creation at the University of Pennsylvania Health System or the Johns Hopkins Hospital from 3/2020 to 12/2020. Patients were grouped into the early (≤14 days, n = 31) or late (15 + days, n = 97) tracheostomy groups and outcome data collected. RESULTS: 128 patients had tracheostomies performed at a mean of 19.4 days, with 66% performed percutaneously at bedside. Mean hourly dose of fentanyl, midazolam, and propofol were all significantly reduced 48-h after tracheostomy: fentanyl (48-h pre-tracheostomy: 94.0 mcg/h, 48-h post-tracheostomy: 64.9 mcg/h, P = .000), midazolam (1.9 mg/h pre vs. 1.2 mg/h post, P = .0012), and propofol (23.3 mcg/kg/h pre vs. 8.4 mcg/kg/h post, P = .0121). There was a significant improvement in mobility score and Glasgow Coma Scale in the 48-h pre- and post-tracheostomy. Comparing the early and late groups, the mean fentanyl dose in the 48-h pre-tracheostomy was significantly higher in the late group than the early group (116.1 mcg/h vs. 35.6 mcg/h, P = .03). ICU length of stay was also shorter in the early group (37.0 vs. 46.2 days, P = .012). INTERPRETATION: This data supports a reduction in sedative and analgesic medications administered and improvement in cognitive and physical activity in the 48-h period post-tracheostomy in COVID-19 ARDS. Further, early tracheostomy may lead to significant reductions in intravenous opiate medication administration, and ICU LOS.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , COVID-19 , Humans , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheostomy
9.
Neuromodulation ; 24(8): 1439-1450, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a minimally invasive method for treating pain. In the most recent review published in 2012, TENS was associated with increased pain relief following cardiothoracic surgery when compared to standard multimodal analgesia. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine if adding TENS to current pain management practices decreases pain and analgesic use and improves pulmonary function for postcardiothoracic surgery patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CINAHL, MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched using specific keywords. Covidence was used to screen, select studies, and extract data by two independent reviewers. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool assessed risk of bias. Visual analog scale (VAS) and pulmonary function data were exported for meta-analysis using a random effects model. RESULTS: The search yielded 38 articles. Eight randomized controlled trials met inclusion criteria for the literature review. Five studies were included in the meta-analysis of pain at 24, 48, and 72 hours postoperatively. Data were analyzed using the standard mean difference (SMD). TENS had a significant impact on VAS at rest (-0.76 SMD [95% confidence interval, CI = -1.06 to -0.49], p < 0.00001) and with coughing (-1.11 SMD [95% CI = -1.64 to -0.56], p < 0.0001). FEV1 improved after 72 hours (1.00 SMD [95% CI = 0.66-1.35], p < 0.00001), as did forced vital capacity (1.16 SMD [95% CI = 0.23-2.10], p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The addition of TENS therapy to multimodal analgesia significantly decreases pain following cardiothoracic surgery, increases the recovery of pulmonary function, and decreases the use of analgesics.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Humans , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Systematic Reviews as Topic
10.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 43(2): 394-403, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453813

ABSTRACT

Background Duloxetine is currently approved for chronic pain management; however, despite some evidence, its utility in acute, postoperative pain remains unclear Aim of the review This systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine if duloxetine 60 mg given perioperatively, is safe and effective at reducing postoperative opioid consumption and reported pain following elective orthopedic surgery. Method CINAHL, Medline, Cochrane Central Registry for Clinical Trials, Google Scholar, and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched using a predetermined search strategy from inception to January 15, 2019. Covidence.org was used to screen, select, and extract data by two independent reviewers. Individual study bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Opioid consumption data were converted to oral morphine milligram equivalents (MME) and exported to RevMan where meta-analysis was conducted using a DerSimonian and Laird random effects model. Results Six randomized-controlled trials were included in the literature review of postoperative pain and adverse effects. Five studies were utilized for the meta-analysis of postoperative opioid consumption; totaling 314 patients. Postoperative pain analysis showed variable statistical significance with overall lower pain scores with duloxetine. Adverse effects included an increase in insomnia with duloxetine but lower rates of nausea and vomiting. Meta-analysis revealed statistically significant [mean difference (95% CI)] lower total opioid use with duloxetine postoperatively at 24 h [- 31.9 MME (- 54.22 to - 9.6), p = 0.005], 48 h [- 30.90 MME (- 59.66 to - 2.15), p = 0.04] and overall [- 31.68 MME (- 46.62 to - 16.74), p < 0.0001]. Conclusion These results suggest that adding perioperative administration duloxetine 60 mg to a multimodal analgesia regimen within the orthopedic surgery setting significantly lowers total postoperative opioid consumption and reduces pain without significant adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Orthopedic Procedures , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Duloxetine Hydrochloride , Humans , Orthopedic Procedures/adverse effects , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy
12.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 33(1): 48-67, 2021.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197640

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To propose agile strategies for a comprehensive approach to analgesia, sedation, delirium, early mobility and family engagement for patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, considering the high risk of infection among health workers, the humanitarian treatment that we must provide to patients and the inclusion of patients' families, in a context lacking specific therapeutic strategies against the virus globally available to date and a potential lack of health resources. METHODS: A nonsystematic review of the scientific evidence in the main bibliographic databases was carried out, together with national and international clinical experience and judgment. Finally, a consensus of recommendations was made among the members of the Committee for Analgesia, Sedation and Delirium of the Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva. RESULTS: Recommendations were agreed upon, and tools were developed to ensure a comprehensive approach to analgesia, sedation, delirium, early mobility and family engagement for adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Given the new order generated in intensive therapies due to the advancing COVID-19 pandemic, we propose to not leave aside the usual good practices but to adapt them to the particular context generated. Our consensus is supported by scientific evidence and national and international experience and will be an attractive consultation tool in intensive therapies.


OBJETIVO: Proponer estrategias agile para este abordaje integral de la analgesia, sedación, delirium, implementación de movilidad temprana e inclusión familiar del paciente con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda por COVID-19, considerando el alto riesgo de infección que existe entre los trabajadores de salud, el tratamiento humanitario que debemos brindar al paciente y su familia, en un contexto de falta estrategias terapéuticas específicas contra el virus globalmente disponibles a la fecha y una potencial falta de recursos sanitarios. METODOS: Se llevó a cabo una revision no sistemática de la evidencia científica en las principales bases de datos bibliográficos, sumada a la experiencia y juicio clínico nacional e internacional. Finalmente, se realizó un consenso de recomendaciones entre los integrantes del Comité de Analgesia, Sedación y Delirium de la Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva. RESULTADOS: Se acordaron recomendaciones y se desarrollaron herramientas para asegurar un abordaje integral de analgesia, sedación, delirium, implementación de movilidad temprana e inclusión familiar del paciente adulto con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda por COVID-19. DISCUSIÓN: Ante el nuevo orden generado en las terapias intensivas por la progresión de la pandemia de COVID-19, proponemos no dejar atrás las buenas prácticas habituales, sino adaptarlas al contexto particular generado. Nuestro consenso está respaldado en la evidencia científica, la experiencia nacional e internacional, y será una herramienta de consulta atractiva en las terapias intensivas.


Subject(s)
Analgesia/standards , COVID-19/complications , Consensus , Delirium/therapy , Pain Management/standards , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Analgesia/methods , Analgesics/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Checklist , Delirium/diagnosis , Early Ambulation , Family , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Neuromuscular Blockade/methods , Neuromuscular Blockade/standards , Pain Management/methods , Pain Measurement/methods , Pain Measurement/standards , Psychomotor Agitation/therapy
13.
Ann Pharmacother ; 56(1): 73-82, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197336

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe clinically pertinent challenges of managing sedation in COVID-19 patients on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) and describe considerations for enhanced safety and efficacy of pharmacological agents used. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search was performed using the following search terms: ECMO, ARDS, sedation, COVID-19, coronavirus, opioids, analgesia, fentanyl, hydromorphone, morphine, oxycodone, methadone, ketamine, propofol, dexmedetomidine, clonidine, benzodiazepines, midazolam, lorazepam, and diazepam. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Relevant clinical and pharmacokinetic studies were considered. All studies included were published between January 1988 and March 2021. DATA SYNTHESIS: Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to COVID-19 may progress to requiring VV-ECMO support. Agents frequently used for sedation and analgesia in these patients have been shown to have significant adsorption to ECMO circuitry, leading to possible diminished clinical efficacy. Use of hydromorphone-based analgesia has been associated with improved clinical outcomes in patients on VV-ECMO. However, safety and efficacy regarding use of other agents in this patient population remains an area of further research. RELEVANCE TO PATIENT CARE AND CLINICAL PRACTICE: This review addresses clinical challenges associated with sedation management in COVID-19 patients requiring VV-ECMO support and provides potential strategies to overcome these challenges. CONCLUSIONS: Historically, sedation and analgesia management in patients requiring ECMO support have posed a challenge for bedside clinicians given the unique physiological and pharmacokinetic changes in this patient population. A multimodal strategy to managing analgesia and sedation should be used, and the use of enteral agents may play a role in reducing parenteral agent requirements.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Br Dent J ; 229(7): 398, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127152
15.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(12): 2342-2356, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917111

ABSTRACT

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most demanding conditions in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Management of analgesia and sedation in ARDS is particularly challenging. An expert panel was convened to produce a "state-of-the-art" article to support clinicians in the optimal management of analgesia/sedation in mechanically ventilated adults with ARDS, including those with COVID-19. Current ICU analgesia/sedation guidelines promote analgesia first and minimization of sedation, wakefulness, delirium prevention and early rehabilitation to facilitate ventilator and ICU liberation. However, these strategies cannot always be applied to patients with ARDS who sometimes require deep sedation and/or paralysis. Patients with severe ARDS may be under-represented in analgesia/sedation studies and currently recommended strategies may not be feasible. With lightened sedation, distress-related symptoms (e.g., pain and discomfort, anxiety, dyspnea) and patient-ventilator asynchrony should be systematically assessed and managed through interprofessional collaboration, prioritizing analgesia and anxiolysis. Adaptation of ventilator settings (e.g., use of a pressure-set mode, spontaneous breathing, sensitive inspiratory trigger) should be systematically considered before additional medications are administered. Managing the mechanical ventilator is of paramount importance to avoid the unnecessary use of deep sedation and/or paralysis. Therefore, applying an "ABCDEF-R" bundle (R = Respiratory-drive-control) may be beneficial in ARDS patients. Further studies are needed, especially regarding the use and long-term effects of fast-offset drugs (e.g., remifentanil, volatile anesthetics) and the electrophysiological assessment of analgesia/sedation (e.g., electroencephalogram devices, heart-rate variability, and video pupillometry). This review is particularly relevant during the COVID-19 pandemic given drug shortages and limited ICU-bed capacity.


Subject(s)
Analgesia/standards , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Analgesia/methods , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Pain Management/methods
16.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 35(6): 1403-1409, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-911913

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to assess Analgesia/Nociception Index (ANI) and bispectral index (BIS) variations in supine and prone position during closed-tracheal suction in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring myorelaxation and prone positioning. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 15 patients hospitalized in ICU for severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring sedation, myorelaxation and prone positioning. The BIS, instant ANI (ANIi), mean ANI (ANIm), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and SpO2 were retrieved in supine and prone position 1 min before tracheal suction then every minute from the beginning of tracheal suction during 4 min and compared using ANOVA for repeated measures (p < 0.05 considered as statistically significant). Both ANIm and ANIi decreased significantly during tracheal suction with no difference between positions, whereas BIS showed no significant variation within time and between groups. The median [Q1-Q3] ANIm value decreased from 87 [68-98] to 79 [63-09] in supine position and from 79 [63-95] to 78 [66-98] in prone position 2 min after the beginning of tracheal suction. The median [Q1-Q3] ANIi value decreased earlier 1 min after the beginning of tracheal suction from 84 [69-98] to 73 [60-90] in supine position and from 84 [60-99] to 71 [51-88] in prone position. Both HR, SBP and SpO2 varied modestly but significantly during tracheal suction with no difference between positions. Monitoring ANI, but not BIS, may be of interest to detect noxious stimuli such as tracheal suction in ICU myorelaxed patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring prone positioning.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , COVID-19 , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Nociception , Prone Position , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Suction , Supine Position
18.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(1): 98-111, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780096

ABSTRACT

In the critically ill patient, optimal pain and sedation management remains the cornerstone of achieving comfort, safety, and to facilitate complex life support interventions. Pain relief, using multimodal analgesia, is an integral component of any orchestrated approach to achieve clinically appropriate goals in critically ill patients. Sedative management, however, remains a significant challenge. Subsequent studies including most recent randomized trials have failed to provide strong evidence in favor of a sedative agent, a mode of sedation or ancillary protocols such as sedative interruption and sedative minimization. In addition, clinical practice guidelines, despite a comprehensive evaluation of relevant literature, have limitations when applied to individual patients. These limitations have been most apparent during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. As such, there is a need for a mindset shift to a practical and achievable sedation strategy, driven by patients' characteristics and individual patient needs, rather than one cocktail for all patients. In this review, we present key principles to achieve patient-and symptom-oriented optimal analgesia and sedation in the critically ill patients. Sedative intensity should be proportionate to care complexity with due consideration to an individual patient's modifiers. The use of multimodal analgesics, sedatives, and antipsychotics agents-that are easily titratable-reduces the overall quantum of sedatives and opioids, and reduces the risk of adverse events while maximizing clinical benefits. In addition, critical considerations regarding the choice of sedative agents should be given to factors such as age, medical versus operative diagnosis, and cardiovascular status. Specific populations such as trauma, neurological injury, and pregnancy should also be taken into account to maximize efficacy and reduce adverse events.


Subject(s)
Analgesia/methods , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Pain Management/methods , Analgesics/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
20.
Br Dent J ; 229(1): 15-18, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640219

ABSTRACT

With dental services currently altered, dentists are being asked to provide advice, analgesia and antibiotics in situations where they would normally be offering operative care. Dentists are familiar with using analgesia for short courses for their patients, but using higher-dose regimes and for periods of over two weeks brings special challenges. This paper reviews the areas where special precautions are needed when using analgesia in the current situation.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Analgesia , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Dentistry , Dentists , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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