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1.
Cells ; 11(7)2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785536

ABSTRACT

The use of cannabis preparations has steadily increased. Although cannabis was traditionally assumed to only have mild vegetative side effects, it has become evident in recent years that severe cardiovascular complications can occur. Cannabis use has recently even been added to the risk factors for myocardial infarction. This review is dedicated to pathogenetic factors contributing to cannabis-related myocardial infarction. Tachycardia is highly important in this respect, and we provide evidence that activation of CB1 receptors in brain regions important for cardiovascular regulation and of presynaptic CB1 receptors on sympathetic and/or parasympathetic nerve fibers are involved. The prototypical factors for myocardial infarction, i.e., thrombus formation and coronary constriction, have also been considered, but there is little evidence that they play a decisive role. On the other hand, an increase in the formation of carboxyhemoglobin, impaired mitochondrial respiration, cardiotoxic reactions and tachyarrhythmias associated with the increased sympathetic tone are factors possibly intensifying myocardial infarction. A particularly important factor is that cannabis use is frequently accompanied by tobacco smoking. In conclusion, additional research is warranted to decipher the mechanisms involved, since cannabis use is being legalized increasingly and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its synthetic analogue nabilone are indicated for the treatment of various disease states.


Subject(s)
Cannabinoids , Cannabis , Myocardial Infarction , Adolescent , Analgesics , Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists , Cannabinoids/adverse effects , Cannabis/adverse effects , Heart , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/chemically induced , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 846042, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776056

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There is a dearth of research on the incidence and treatment of cancer pain in Africa. Yet Africa, with other developing countries, accounts for more than half of all cancer diagnoses, and it is estimated that cancer incidence in Africa will double by 2030. Objectives: This research protocol outlines an approach to investigate cancer pain in French-speaking African countries. The protocol intends to determine and describe the treatment and management of cancer pain in these countries. Barriers to treating cancer pain will be explored and the results will be collated to make a series of recommendations on policy positions, regulatory frameworks and protocols. Methods: A mixed-methods, co-creation methodology has been selected to ensure the societal impact of the research outcomes. This research will use both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods and analyses. The research will begin with a review of the policies and legislation that exist in relation to cancer pain management and the use of analgesics, in each French-speaking African country. An Experts Steering Committee will then be created to provide guidance on the protocol and research design and access to participants, as well as to execute on the administration of surveys to local structures and international experts. A series of semi-structured, qualitative interviews with experts and clinicians in the field of screening and management of cancer pain and access to treatment will follow. Purposive and snowball sampling will be used to select the respondent experts. The semi-structured interviews will be conducted to determine the main trends and barriers to the treatment of cancer pain in French-speaking African countries. From this qualitative research, two surveys will be developed and then administered: one to validate the policy and regulatory context, and the other to determine experts and healthcare professionals experience and perceptions of cancer pain. Results/Conclusions: The results will be analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods to determine themes and perceptions of cancer pain and treatment, from the policy level to the healthcare professional level. Evaluation of the results will lead to recommendations for a comprehensive framework for cancer pain treatment in French-speaking Africa.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Neoplasms , Pain Management , Africa , Analgesics/supply & distribution , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Health Personnel , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Pain Management/methods
4.
J Nippon Med Sch ; 88(6): 533-539, 2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may require continuous administration of analgesics, sedatives, and muscle relaxants. Nafamostat has recently been reported as a therapeutic agent for COVID-19. However, there is a lack of information on the compatibility of nafamostat with the aforementioned drug classes. This study evaluated the physical compatibility of nafamostat with these drug classes. METHODS: Nafamostat was combined with 1-3 target drugs (fentanyl, morphine, midazolam, dexmedetomidine, and rocuronium). Fifteen physical compatibility tests were conducted. Nafamostat was dissolved in 5% glucose solution; the final concentration was 10 mg/mL. All other medications were diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride to obtain clinically relevant concentrations. The power of hydrogen (pH) of all medications was measured during each test. Compatibility tests were conducted with 4 test solutions in which nafamostat and the target drugs were compounded at equal volume ratios (1:1, 1:1:1, or 1:1:1:1). Visual appearance, turbidity, and pH were evaluated immediately after mixing and at 1 and 3 hours. Physical incompatibilities were defined as gross precipitation, cloudiness, appearance of the Tyndall effect, or a turbidity change of ≥0.5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) based on nafamostat. RESULTS: The mean pH of nafamostat was 3.13 ± 0.03. The combination of nafamostat, fentanyl, and dexmedetomidine had the highest pH (3.39 ± 0.01; 3 hours after mixing). All drugs were compatible with nafamostat until 3 hours after admixture, with a mean turbidity value of ≤0.03 NTU. CONCLUSIONS: Infusions combining nafamostat with the tested sedatives, analgesics, and muscle relaxants could be safely administered.


Subject(s)
Analgesics/therapeutic use , Benzamidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Incompatibility , Fentanyl/therapeutic use , Guanidines/therapeutic use , Muscle Relaxants, Central/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
5.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 47(2): 144-145, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597058
7.
Agri ; 33(4): 215-222, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551923

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A new type of coronavirus outbreak has emerged in China and caused a pandemic. World Health Organization (WHO) announced the official name of this disease 'COVID-19'. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate pain in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Patients who were followed in the ward of an infectious diseases department because of possible or confirmed COVID-19 between May and September of 2020 were included in the study. The Turkish version of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) was applied. Demographic features, frequency, location, the intensity of pain, and response to analgesics were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 178 participants were included in the study. Ninety-one (51.1%) of patients had pain complaints and the mean pain score (MPS) was 2.28±2.81 over 10. Fifty-nine (56.0%) of participants with pain required analgesic therapy and 41 (80.3%) of them showed ≥50% pain relief with simple analgesics. Twelve of the remaining 18 who did not get enough pain relief with simple analgesic were taking their analgesics pro re nata (PRN) rather than around the clock (ATC). Pain frequency and intensity and mean hospitalization duration (MHD) were similar between confirmed and possible cases. CONCLUSION: Regarding the results, we conclude that pain is not one of the challenging symptoms and easily manageable in patients with a mild-moderate intensity of COVID-19. Our results were not enough to make a correlation between pain and the clinical course of the disease. Further studies are required for the evaluation of pain including patients in intensive care units.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pain/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 66(2): 288-294, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing lumbar discectomy usually suffer from moderate to severe pain during the postoperative period. Multimodal, or balanced analgesia, is the leading treatment principle for managing postoperative pain. The rationale is to achieve optimal pain treatment through additive or synergistic effects of several non-opioid analgesics, and thereby, reducing the need for postoperative opioids, facilitating early mobilization and functional rehabilitation. For discectomy surgery, evidence of both the benefit and harm of different analgesic interventions is unclear. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aims to investigate the benefits and harms of analgesic interventions in adult patients after lumbar discectomy. METHODS: This protocol for a systematic review is written according to The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols guidelines. We will search The Cochrane Library's CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, and ClinicalTrails.gov for published and ongoing trials. All randomized clinical trials assessing the postoperative analgesics effect of an intervention with a control or no-intervention group undergoing lumbar discectomy will be included. Two authors will independently screen trials for inclusion using Covidence, extract data and assess the risk of bias using Cochrane's risk-of-bias 2 tool. We will analyse the data using Review Manager and Trial Sequential Analysis. Meta-analysis will be performed according to the Cochrane guidelines. We will present our primary findings in a 'summary of findings' table and evaluate the overall certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. DISCUSSION: This systematic review will assess the benefits and harms of analgesic interventions after lumbar discectomy and have the potential to improve best practices and advance research.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic , Pain, Postoperative , Adult , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Diskectomy , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Systematic Reviews as Topic
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5189, 2020 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454803

ABSTRACT

Stapled hemorrhoidopexy has a few advantages such as less postoperative pain and faster recovery compared with conventional hemorrhoidectomy. There are two major devices used for stapled hemorrhoidopexy, PPH stapler (Ethicon EndoSurgery) and DST stapler (Covidien). This study was conducted to investigate the postoperative outcomes among patients with grade III and IV hemorrhoids who underwent hemorrhoidopexy with either of these two devices. A total of 242 consecutive patients underwent stapled hemorrhoidopexy with either PPH stapler (110 patients) or DST stapler (132 patients) at a single center in 2017. We performed a retrospective case-control study to compare the short-term postoperative outcomes and the complications between these two groups. After matching the cases in terms of age, gender, and the grade of hemorrhoids, there were 100 patients in each group (PPH versus DST). There were no significant differences in the postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) score and analgesic usage. Among complications, the incidence of anorectal stricture was significantly higher in the DST group (p = 0.02). Evaluation of the mucosal specimen showed that the total surface area, the muscle/mucosa ratio and the surface area of the muscle were also significantly higher in the DST group (p = 0.03). Further analysis of the DST group demonstrated that patients with anorectal stricture after surgery are younger than patients without anorectal stricture, and higher muscle/mucosa ratio (p = 0.03) and a higher surface area of the muscle (p = 0.03) also measured in the surgical specimen. The two devices provide similar outcomes of postoperative recovery. Patients who underwent DST stapled hemorrhoidopexy had a higher incidence rate of stricture, larger area of muscle excision, and higher muscle/mucosa ratio in the surgical specimen. Further investigation is warranted for a better understanding of the correlation between muscle excision and anorectal stricture.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhoidectomy/instrumentation , Hemorrhoids/surgery , Surgical Staplers , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Anal Canal/pathology , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Anus Diseases/etiology , Constriction, Pathologic/etiology , Equipment Design , Female , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Isoxazoles/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Size , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Retention/etiology
10.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(Suppl 1): S21-S26, 2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447573

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate potential differences in days on mechanical ventilation for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) based on route of administration of analgesic and sedative medications: intravenous (IV) alone vs IV + enteral (EN). SUMMARY: This institutional review board-approved study evaluated ventilation time and fentanyl or midazolam requirements with or without concurrent EN hydromorphone and lorazepam. Patients were included in the study if they were 18 to 89 years old and were admitted to the intensive care unit with a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction or antigen test and respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 72 hours. In total, 100 patients were evaluated, 60 in the IV-only group and 40 in the IV + EN group. There was not a significant difference in ventilation time between the groups (mean [SD], 19.6 [12.8] days for IV + EN vs 15.6 [11.2] days for IV only; P = 0.104). However, fentanyl (2,064 [847] µg vs 2,443 [779] µg; P < 0.001) and midazolam (137 [72] mg vs 158 [70] mg; P = 0.004) requirements on day 3 were significantly higher in the IV-only group, and the increase in fentanyl requirements from day 1 to day 3 was greater in the IV-only group than in the IV + EN group (378 [625] µg vs 34 [971] µg; P = 0.033). CONCLUSION: Addition of EN analgesic and sedative medications to those administered by the IV route did not change the duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with COVID-19, but the combination may reduce IV opioid requirements, decreasing the impact of IV medication shortages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Analgesics , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
Acta Neurol Belg ; 122(2): 465-469, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, manifests with headache, both in the acute phase and as a post-infection symptom, which may be refractory to usual analgesics. OBJECTIVES: Investigate the therapeutic response of refractory COVID or post-COVID headache to indomethacin. METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective, open and uncontrolled. A sample of 37 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 presenting headache during the acute phase or after the resolution of the disease, with refractoriness to the usual symptomatic medication was treated with indomethacin. RESULTS: Of the 37 patients (24 women and 13 men), 29 were migraineurs and 8 had no previous history of headache. The average age was 40.4 ± 9.4 years, ranging from 19 to 65 years. In 26 (70.3%) patients, the onset of headache occurred within 72 h, and in 11 (29.7%), after 10 days of positivity for Sars-CoV-2. After treatment with indomethacin, 36 patients reported greater than 50% headache relief from the third day and 5 became asymptomatic on the fifth day. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with migraine or no prior history of headache who present with refractory COVID or post-COVID headache to common analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and/or triptans, indomethacin should be considered a therapeutic option.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Analgesics , COVID-19/complications , Female , Headache/drug therapy , Headache/etiology , Humans , Indomethacin/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Obstet Anesth ; 48: 103212, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401518

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 in pregnancy increases the risk of caesarean section. We present two cases of late gestation pregnant women with severe COVID-19. Both were successfully treated with mechanical ventilation without termination of pregnancy and, following recovery from COVID-19, had vaginal deliveries at term. These two cases demonstrate the possibility of treating pregnant women with severe COVID-19 with mechanical ventilation in the late second and early third trimesters without them having a pre-term delivery. With a multidisciplinary approach, such management could avoid the maternal risks of surgery during a severe infection and, at the same time, enable term birth with a lower risk of neonatal complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Live Birth , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Adult , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/therapeutic use , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
15.
Nurs Stand ; 36(9): 77-81, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369911

ABSTRACT

Ketamine is a synthetic drug with unique properties which started to be used therapeutically in humans in the 1970s and is now widely used in all fields of nursing. Ketamine acts on the central nervous system, primarily through inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. However, the precise understanding of its mechanisms of action remains elusive in many respects. Ketamine is frequently used as an anaesthetic in medical and surgical procedures and as an analgesic in children and adults. It is increasingly used in mental health settings to treat depression. It has potential to be used more often in areas such as palliative care and mental health care. This article reviews the physiological and pharmacological properties of ketamine, explores its main therapeutic uses, and considers the associated implications for nursing practice.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Anesthetics , Ketamine , Analgesics/pharmacology , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Anesthetics/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Ketamine/pharmacology , Ketamine/therapeutic use
16.
Radiology ; 302(1): 84-87, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360578

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is one of the several known triggers of Parsonage-Turner syndrome (PTS). This case series describes two individuals with clinical presentations of PTS whose symptoms began 13 hours and 18 days following receipt of the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 and Moderna mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine, respectively. The diagnosis of PTS was confirmed by using both electrodiagnostic testing and 3.0-T MR neurography. Although research is needed to understand the association between PTS and COVID-19 vaccination, MR neurography may be used to help confirm suspected cases of PTS as COVID-19 vaccines continue to be distributed worldwide.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus Neuritis/diagnostic imaging , Brachial Plexus Neuritis/etiology , Brachial Plexus/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Adult , Analgesics , Brachial Plexus Neuritis/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Gabapentin/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prednisone/therapeutic use
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pain is a common compensation mechanism in pregnant women that they may face during gestation due to physiological changes. Paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most administered analgesic drugs worldwide. Therefore, safety and efficacy are important measures for the use of analgesics during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: Assess the knowledge of analgesic drug utilization among Saudi pregnant women. METHOD: We conducted a self-administered survey with an electronic questionnaire via Google Drive among a sample of 406 Saudi women. RESULTS: About half of the respondents took analgesics during the first trimester, and 52.5% of women have used analgesics at least once without any medical advice during their gestation. Most participants agreed that paracetamol is the safest and effective analgesic drug during pregnancy, yet 61.8% of women are not aware that analgesics could be detrimental to the fetus if inappropriately administered in the third trimester. CONCLUSION: Participants have a good perception of the safest and most effective analgesic drug during pregnancy, but they have poor knowledge about analgesics' side effects.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Analgesics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Saudi Arabia
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304172

ABSTRACT

Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are known to be variable with growing evidence of nervous system involvement. In this case report, we describe the symptoms of a patient infected with SARS-CoV-2 whose clinical course was complicated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We present a case of a 58-year-old woman who was initially diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia due to symptoms of fever and cough. Two weeks later, after the resolution of upper respiratory tract symptoms, she developed symmetric ascending quadriparesis and paresthesias. The diagnosis of GBS was made through cerebrospinal fluid analysis and she was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin administration.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Low Back Pain/physiopathology , Muscle Weakness/physiopathology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Gabapentin/therapeutic use , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Radiculopathy/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging
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