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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(1): 342-344, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726464

ABSTRACT

Although rare in Portugal, snakebite envenoming entails severe morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a 65-year-old woman bitten on her leg in a northern coastal region in Portugal, on a walk during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. Despite first looking for help at the nearest pharmacy, she developed anaphylactoid shock and was promptly driven to a tertiary hospital, where antivenom was administered in a timely manner under close monitoring. Prophylactic antibiotics were started and maintained based on elevated inflammatory markers and signs of wound inflammation. She evolved favorably, with rapid weaning of vasopressors and resolution of end-organ dysfunction. This case highlights the importance of prompt recognition and describes crucial steps in envenomation management in a country where snakebite is infrequent, but potentially fatal.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , Anaphylaxis/etiology , Snake Bites/complications , Snake Bites/epidemiology , Aged , Anaphylaxis/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Antivenins/administration & dosage , Ceftriaxone/administration & dosage , Clindamycin/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Portugal/epidemiology , Snake Bites/therapy , Tetanus Toxoid/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
2.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(4): 376-385, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707803

ABSTRACT

Importance: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is a highly effective strategy to prevent infection and severe COVID-19 outcomes. The best strategy for a second dose of vaccine among persons who had an immediate allergic reaction to their first SARS CoV-2 vaccination is unclear. Objective: To assess the risk of severe immediate allergic reactions (eg, anaphylaxis) to a second dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine among persons with immediate allergic reactions to their first vaccine dose. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization Global Coronavirus database were searched from inception through October 4, 2021. Study Selection: Included studies addressed immediate allergic reactions of any severity to a second SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose in persons with a known or suspected immediate allergic reaction (<4 hours after vaccination) after their first SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose. Studies describing a second vaccine dose among persons reporting delayed reactions (>4 hours after vaccination) were excluded. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Paired reviewers independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Random-effects models were used for meta-analysis. The GRADE (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach evaluated certainty of the evidence. Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk of severe immediate allergic reaction and repeated severe immediate allergic reactions with a second vaccine dose. Reaction severity was defined by the reporting investigator, using Brighton Collaboration Criteria, Ring and Messmer criteria, World Allergy Organization criteria, or National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases criteria. Results: Among 22 studies of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines, 1366 individuals (87.8% women; mean age, 46.1 years) had immediate allergic reactions to their first vaccination. Analysis using the pooled random-effects model found that 6 patients developed severe immediate allergic reactions after their second vaccination (absolute risk, 0.16% [95% CI, 0.01%-2.94%]), 232 developed mild symptoms (13.65% [95% CI, 7.76%-22.9%]), and, conversely, 1360 tolerated the dose (99.84% [95% CI, 97.09%-99.99%]). Among 78 persons with severe immediate allergic reactions to their first SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, 4 people (4.94% [95% CI, 0.93%-22.28%]) had a second severe immediate reaction, and 15 had nonsevere symptoms (9.54% [95% CI, 2.18%-33.34%]). There were no deaths. Graded vaccine dosing, skin testing, and premedication as risk-stratification strategies did not alter the findings. Certainty of evidence was moderate for those with any allergic reaction to the first dose and low for those with severe allergic reactions to the first dose. Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis of case studies and case reports, the risk of immediate allergic reactions and severe immediate reactions or anaphylaxis associated with a second dose of an SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine was low among persons who experienced an immediate allergic reaction to their first dose. These findings suggest that revaccination of individuals with an immediate allergic reaction to a first SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine dose in a supervised setting equipped to manage severe allergic reactions can be safe.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
3.
Folia Med Cracov ; 61(4): 55-69, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707567

ABSTRACT

The need for mass population vaccination against Covid-19 poses a public health problem. Allergic symptoms occurring after the 1st dose of the vaccine may result in resignation from the administration of the 2nd dose. However, the majority of patients with mild and/or non-immediate symptoms may be safely vaccinated. The only absolute contraindication to administration of the vaccine is an anaphylactic reaction to any of its ingredients. Polyethylene glycol (PEG), widely used as an excipient in various vaccines, is considered the primary cause of allergic reactions associated with administration of Comirnaty (Pfizer/BioNTech) and Covid-19 Vaccine (Moderna) vaccines. However, hypersensitivity to PEG reported to date seems very rare, considering its widespread use in multiple everyday products, including medicines and cosmetics. In the paper, current literature data describing mechanisms of hypersensitivity reactions to PEG, their clinical symptoms and diagnostic capabilities are presented. Undoubtedly, the issue of hypersensitivity to PEG warrants further research, while patients with the diagnosis require individual diagnostic and therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 75(3): 315-325, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689534

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has taken a heavy toll of 4 million deaths. We were all looking forward to the authorisation of safe vaccines. Soon after vaccination programmes started, the reports about anaphylaxis began to emerge. Growing anxiety has urged regulatory agencies and academic societies to issue adequate recommendations regarding patient eligibility to vaccination. AIM OF THE STUDY: Observation of patients who had a history of a severe anaphylactic reaction and/or anaphylactic shock and were vaccinated against COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A single-centre, prospective, observational study was conducted at the Department of Infectious Diseases and Paediatrics at Stefan Zeromski Specialist Hospital in Krakow, Poland. Adult patients with a history of a severe anaphylactic reaction and/or anaphylactic shock and patients without it were administered the Comirnaty vaccine by Pfizer-BioNTech or the ChAdOx1-S vaccine by AstraZeneca in a two-dose schedule at the department. The patients were then observed at the department for 60 minutes. A week after each vaccination dose, the patients were contacted by telephone in order to collect data about a late allergic reaction. RESULTS: In total, 403 patients were enrolled. For the Pfizer BioNTech Comirnaty vaccine, the study group (i.e. patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reactions to various substances, other than those present in the vaccine) included 151 patients, and there were 161 controls. For the AstraZeneca ChAdOx1-S vaccine, the study group included 47 patients, and 44 patients formed the control group. Nine cases of severe anaphylactic reactions were reported: 3 in the study groups (1.5%) and 6 in the control groups (3%). Anaphylactic shock after vaccine administration occurred in one patient from the control group. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination with using Pfizer-BioNTech Comirnaty and AstraZeneca ChAdOx1-S is safe also for patients with a history of a severe anaphylactic reaction and/or anaphylactic shock. Severe anaphylactic reactions and anaphylactic shock, although rare, may also develop in patients without a prior history of allergic conditions. The Personnel od vaccination centres should be therefore trained to provide medical help. Incorrect patient exclusions delay the attainment of the goal determined for the vaccination programme.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Adult , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Poland , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Intern Med J ; 52(1): 121-124, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642668

ABSTRACT

The Pfizer/BioNtech BNT162b2 is a major vaccine used in the Australian COVID-19 immunisation programme. We report on BNT162b2 safety in the observation period in a dedicated vaccination clinic linked to a quaternary teaching hospital. We performed a retrospective review of medical records for 57 842 vaccinations, and describe the model of care and adverse event rate at the clinic during its first 2 months of operation. A total of 243 adverse events following immunisation (0.42% of total vaccine doses) were recorded in the immediate observation period post-vaccination, which were predominantly immunisation stress-related responses. Of the 110 patients who experienced an adverse event with their first dose of the vaccine, 90% returned for their second dose of the vaccine, with 87% not reporting any further adverse reaction with the subsequent dose. Nineteen (0.03% of total doses) people were reviewed for an allergic reaction, of which 10 (53%) reported a history of prior allergies. A female predominance was present in both total adverse reactions (70%) and allergic vaccine reactions (79%). Only two patients experienced anaphylaxis (0.003% of total doses), in keeping with low rates of adverse reactions to the BNT162b2 vaccine in the current literature. Overall, the present study reinforces the safety of BNT162b2 in the Australian population, describes vaccination completion rates after adverse events and identifies predisposing factors for rare allergic reactions to the vaccine.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Mass Vaccination , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
9.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(1): 37-39, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604942

ABSTRACT

Background: After Emergency Use Authorization of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, guidance was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that persons with an immediate allergic reaction to a messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccine should be evaluated by an allergist/immunologist before receipt of the second dose. Methods: In vaccinating health-care personnel, we referred those with significant reactions to allergy/immunology specialists so that they could safely receive the second dose. Results: We found that many reactions after the first dose were nonallergic but could be debilitating and a barrier to the second dose. We created a protocol of premedications to allow health-care personnel to safely receive their second mRNA COVID-19 vaccine dose. Conclusion: This protocol is adaptable and can be used in settings where allergy/immunology referral is not immediately available.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , /adverse effects , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , RNA, Messenger
10.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(6): 515-521, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607107

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute allergic reactions to messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines are rare but may limit public health immunization efforts. Objectives: To characterize suspected allergic reactions to the first dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccine and to assess the safety and utility of a two-step graded-dose protocol for the second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine in patients with a history of low suspicion of anaphylaxis to their first dose. Methods: This was a retrospective evaluation of referrals to the allergy and immunology clinic for a presumed allergic reaction to the first dose of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna) between December 17, 2020, and February 28, 2021. Recommendations for the second dose and outcomes were evaluated by trained board-certified allergists. Results: Seventy-seven patients presented with a Pfizer-BioNTech reaction (56 [72.7%]) or with a Moderna reaction (21 [27.3%]). Most patients (69.7%) had symptom onset within 4 hours. Most commonly reported symptoms were cutaneous (51.9%), cardiovascular (48.1%), and respiratory (33.8%) symptoms. Recommendations included to proceed with the single dose (70.1%), two-step graded dose (19.5%), or deferral (10.4%). Twelve of 15 patients completed the second dose with a graded-dose protocol. Of these patients, five reported at least one or more similar symptoms as experienced with their first dose. Conclusion: Of the patients with presumed allergic reactions to their first dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, most were able to safely receive the second dose. For those with a low suspicion of anaphylaxis, the two-step graded protocol with the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was well tolerated. A graded-dose protocol could be an effective strategy for second-dose vaccination in those who may otherwise defer the second dose.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hypersensitivity , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
11.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 52(3): 375-386, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591714

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is the commonest cause of death by a single infectious agent globally and ranks amongst the top ten causes of global mortality. The incidence of TB is highest in Low-Middle Income countries (LMICs). Prompt institution of, and compliance with, therapy are cornerstones for a favourable outcome in TB and to mitigate the risk of multiple drug resistant (MDR)-TB, which is challenging to treat. There is some evidence that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to anti-TB drugs occur in over 60% and 3%-4% of patients respectively. Both ADRs and HSRs represent significant barriers to treatment adherence and are recognised risk factors for MDR-TB. HSRs to anti-TB drugs are usually cutaneous and benign, occur within few weeks after commencement of therapy and are likely to be T-cell mediated. Severe and systemic T-cell mediated HSRs and IgE mediated anaphylaxis to anti-TB drugs are relatively rare, but important to recognise and treat promptly. T-cell-mediated HSRs are more frequent amongst patients with co-existing HIV infection. Some patients develop multiple sensitisation to anti-TB drugs. Whilst skin tests, patch tests and in vitro diagnostics have been used in the investigation of HSRs to anti-TB drugs, their predictive value is not established, they are onerous, require specialist input of an allergist and are resource-dependent. This is compounded by the global, unmet demand for allergy specialists, particularly in low-income countries (LICs)/LMICs and now the challenging circumstances of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. This narrative review provides a critical analysis of the limited published evidence on this topic and proposes a cautious and pragmatic approach to optimise and standardise the management of HSRs to anti-TB drugs. This includes clinical risk stratification and a dual strategy involving sequential re-challenge and rapid drug desensitisation. Furthermore, a concerted international effort is needed to generate real-time data on ADRs, HSRs, safety and clinical outcomes of these interventions.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis/therapy , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/therapy , Drug Hypersensitivity/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Humans
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2140364, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591621

ABSTRACT

Importance: Little is known about the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine adverse effects in a real-world population. Objective: To evaluate factors potentially associated with participant-reported adverse effects after COVID-19 vaccination. Design, Setting, and Participants: The COVID-19 Citizen Science Study, an online cohort study, includes adults aged 18 years and older with a smartphone or internet access. Participants complete daily, weekly, and monthly surveys on health and COVID-19-related events. This analysis includes participants who provided consent between March 26, 2020, and May 19, 2021, and received at least 1 COVID-19 vaccine dose. Exposures: Participant-reported COVID-19 vaccination. Main Outcomes and Measures: Participant-reported adverse effects and adverse effect severity. Candidate factors in multivariable logistic regression models included age, sex, race, ethnicity, subjective social status, prior COVID-19 infection, medical conditions, substance use, vaccine dose, and vaccine brand. Results: The 19 586 participants had a median (IQR) age of 54 (38-66) years, and 13 420 (68.8%) were women. Allergic reaction or anaphylaxis was reported in 26 of 8680 participants (0.3%) after 1 dose of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine, 27 of 11 141 (0.2%) after 2 doses of the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine or 1 dose of the JNJ-78436735 (Johnson & Johnson) vaccine. The strongest factors associated with adverse effects were vaccine dose (2 doses of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 or 1 dose of JNJ-78436735 vs 1 dose of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273; odds ratio [OR], 3.10; 95% CI, 2.89-3.34; P < .001), vaccine brand (mRNA-1273 vs BNT162b2, OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.86-2.15; P < .001; JNJ-78436735 vs BNT162b2: OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.52-0.79; P < .001), age (per 10 years: OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.72-0.76; P < .001), female sex (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.53-1.78; P < .001), and having had COVID-19 before vaccination (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.77-2.66; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this real-world cohort, serious COVID-19 vaccine adverse effects were rare and comparisons across brands could be made, revealing that full vaccination dose, vaccine brand, younger age, female sex, and having had COVID-19 before vaccination were associated with greater odds of adverse effects. Large digital cohort studies may provide a mechanism for independent postmarket surveillance of drugs and devices.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , /adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , /administration & dosage , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(3): 827-836, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587394

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 mRNA vaccination-associated acute-onset hypersensitivity reactions have caused anxiety and may be contributing to vaccine hesitancy. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, severity, and risk factors for treated acute-onset COVID-19 mRNA vaccination-associated hypersensitivity reactions in a well-characterized population. METHODS: All Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) members who received COVID-19 mRNA vaccinations between December 15, 2020, and March 11, 2021, at a KPSC facility were identified and characterized, along with all treated acute-onset vaccination-associated hypersensitivity events. RESULTS: We identified 391,123 unique vaccine recipients (59.18% female, age 64.19 ± 17.86 years); 215,156 received 2 doses (53.54% Moderna), 157,615 only a first dose (50.13% Moderna) (1961 [1.46%] >2 weeks late getting a second dose), and 18,352 (74.43% Moderna) only a second dose. Only 104 (0.028%) (85.58% female, age 53.18 ± 15.96 years) had treated first dose events, 68 (0.030%) Moderna. Only 32 (0.014%) (93.75% female, age 57.28 ± 17.09 years) had treated second dose events, 21 (0.016%) Moderna. Only 2 (0.00033%) vaccinations resulted in anaphylaxis. Only 27 (20.77%) of those with treated first dose reactions failed to get a second dose. Only 6 of 77 (7.8%) with first dose reactions also had second dose reactions. Individuals with treated events were more likely to be female (P < .0001), younger (P < .0001), and had more pre-existing drug "allergies" (2.11 ± 2.12 vs 1.02 ± 1.41 [P < .0001] for average recipients). CONCLUSIONS: Treated acute-onset hypersensitivity events were mostly benign, more common with first COVID-19 mRNA vaccine doses, more likely to occur in younger females with typical risk factors associated with multiple drug intolerance syndrome, and very unlikely to be primarily immunologically mediated.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , Anaphylaxis/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic
15.
Vaccine ; 40(3): 477-482, 2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute adverse events and anaphylaxis were reported after the administration of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines. We aim to explore the nature and outcome of adverse events following BNT162B2 vaccine in a community vaccination center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHOD: Within 30 min post vaccination, all acute adverse events (AAEs) that occurred before March 31st, 2021, and in people older than 16 years were reviewed (AAE group). We used the case definition of Brighton collaboration on vaccine safety to define anaphylaxis. Patients' demographics, comorbidities, allergy history, and outcome at disposition were collected. Observation duration after vaccination was short (<15 min) or extended (<3 h). Statistical analysis was performed to study AAEs association with the study variables and outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 71,221 vaccine recipients, 144 (0.002%) had developed 345 AAEs, at a rate of 48.4 events per 10,000 dose administered. The majority of cases in AAE group were first dose recipients (93.8%) and previously healthy (59%), while the minority had a previous history of allergy (6.3%) or a laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (4.2%). We found a significant association between female gender and the occurrence of any AAE (p-value = 0.002). Per every 10,000 doses administered, non-anaphylactic AAEs were dizziness (17.8), headache (9.7), nausea (7.1), or syncope (3.2). Only one in every ten AAEs was considered serious and resulted in an extended observation (4.8 per 10,000 doses), but only 1/144 required hospitalization for non-anaphylaxis reasons (0.1 per 10,000 doses). According to the Brighton collaboration definition of anaphylaxis, no single case of high certainty anaphylaxis was recorded. No death was documented in this cohort. CONCLUSION: Acute adverse events due toBNT162b2 vaccinewere rare andmostlynon-seriouswith a tendency to occur more in women. Further prospectivestudieson largervaccine recipientsto evaluatethe incidenceof anaphylaxis in the Saudi population are warranted.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
16.
Respir Investig ; 60(2): 248-255, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19) vaccination is progressing globally. Several adverse reactions have been reported with vaccination against COVID-19. It is unknown whether adverse reactions to COVID-19 vaccination are severe in individuals with allergies. METHODS: We administered the COVID-19 vaccine to the medical staff at Yamagata University Hospital from March to August 2021. Subsequently, we conducted an online questionnaire-based survey to investigate the presence of allergy and adverse reactions after vaccination and examine the association between allergy and adverse reactions after immunization. RESULTS: Responses were collected from 1586 to 1306 participants after the first and second administration of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, respectively. Adverse reactions included injection site pain, injection site swelling, fever, fatigue or malaise, headache, chills, nausea, muscle pain outside the injection site, and arthralgia. The frequency of some adverse reactions and their severity were higher, and the duration of symptoms was longer in participants with allergies than in those without allergies. Although several participants visited the emergency room for treatment after the first and second vaccinations, no participant was diagnosed with anaphylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the frequency and severity of adverse reactions after injection of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine were higher in individuals with allergy; however, no severe adverse reactions such as anaphylaxis or death were observed. These results indicate that individuals with allergic histories may tolerate the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Medical Staff , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(6): 610-617, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546085

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A known history of a severe allergic reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis) to any component of the vaccine is the only contraindication to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccination. It is important for pediatricians to understand the likelihood of an allergic reaction to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, including its excipients. RECENT FINDINGS: Episodes concerning for anaphylaxis were immediately reported following early administration of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines to adults. Although allergic type symptoms were reported equally in recipients of placebos and test vaccines in phase 3 clinical trials, post-authorization prospective studies state that 0.2-2% of vaccine recipients have experienced allergic reactions. Subsequent allergy testing of affected individuals has focused largely on evaluation of allergic sensitization to a novel vaccine excipient, polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEG is a polymer incorporated in numerous pharmaceutical products because of its favorable, inert properties. The results of allergy testing in adults to date indicate that IgE mediated anaphylaxis to PEG allergy is rarely identified after COVID-19 mRNA vaccine reactions. Numerous individuals with presumed anaphylaxis have tolerated a second vaccine after evaluation and testing by an allergist, suggesting either misdiagnosis or a novel immune mechanism. SUMMARY: Confirmed anaphylactic reactions to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are rare, likely due to a lack of preexisting IgE against the vaccine components, including PEG.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Adult , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S7): e2021519, 2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1543087

ABSTRACT

Hypersensitivity reactions to polyethylene glycol (PEG) is an emerging challenge and the interest about this disease is growing since PEG is considered one of the possible causes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) vaccine-associated anaphylaxis. PEG is used in a wide variety of pharmaceutical, medical, industrial, cosmetic, and food products and can be an active ingredient or used as an excipient. PEG is present in several medications, and it may or may not be present in different formulations and dosages of the same drug. Lack of standardization nomenclature, inadequate labelling of products and lack of knowledge about PEG involvement in hypersensitivity reactions expose patients at risk of presenting multiple reactions before a diagnosis could be made. In this review we describe the main cases published in literature and propose an allergy work-up and management.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
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