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1.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 44(1): 25-32, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611384

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has created a lot of turmoil in medical teaching, the magnitude of impact is many folds in the subject of anatomy, as it is practical based. A major challenge for anatomy teachers is to replicate the experience of practical exposures. These exposures range from cadaveric dissection to demonstration of bones, museum specimens, and histology slides, where they will have interactive communication with students, and thus help in the enhancement of communication and clinical skills among them. In recent days, anatomy teachers throughout the globe started using various advanced technology to make the teaching-learning session more interesting. In pre-pandemic era, usage of such advancements in information and communication technology was a 'choice'. But pandemic has changed the situation drastically, what was a 'choice' earlier is now an 'obligation.' Presently although infection rate is low, vaccination rate is high, most of the medical schools re-opened for usual offline teaching, still body donation is all time low making the situation 'back to square one'. Keeping such unprecedented situations in mind, we need to incorporate various innovative educational technologies in day-to-day teaching-learning methodologies.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Students, Medical , Anatomy/education , Curriculum , Educational Technology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Teaching
2.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1842661, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573887

ABSTRACT

Methods of anatomical education have, as with many facets of normal life, been forced to evolve rapidly due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Whilst some authors claim that cadaver dissection is now under threat, we believe the centuries-old practice can and must be upheld.


Subject(s)
Anatomy/education , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dissection/education , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cadaver , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students, Medical
3.
Clin Anat ; 35(1): 129-134, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499232

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to analyze differences in participation, and in the results obtained in the anatomy and histology exams, over two academic years of the Sport Sciences degree course. During the first semester of the academic year 2019/2020 both the lectures and the exam took place face-to-face, while during the academic year 2020/2021 everything was done online. Statistical analysis revealed that the online modality was especially advantageous for the anatomy exam. Students' opinions were also assessed through a short questionnaire. The results showed that teachers involved themselves in both groups. Students needed to interact socially with teachers and colleagues and to ask them questions. Even if the differences were not significant, the difference was greater for face-to-face students in most comparisons. Finally, the most common methods of peer communication were by social media.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , COVID-19 , Anatomy/education , Humans , Pandemics , Peer Group , SARS-CoV-2 , Teaching
4.
Clin Anat ; 35(1): 121-128, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487445

ABSTRACT

The social distancing measures necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in the migration of human anatomy lessons to virtual platforms. Even student communities have had to relocate online. The virtual replacement of visual-spatial and social elements, essential for studying anatomy, has posed particular challenges for educators. Our department used Microsoft Teams, an online communication platform, in conjunction with Visible Body, a 3D anatomical modeling program, EdiErmes online resources, and Leica Acquire for teaching microscopic anatomy. We delivered about 160 h of both synchronous and asynchronous lessons for students on the medical degree program per academic year. In this study, we compare face-to-face and distance teaching in order to define these different approaches better and to evaluate the final student scores. The aim is to debate the relevance of distance learning pedagogy to the design of new online anatomy teaching courses and the development of online learning. Analysis of the final scores showed that anatomy examinations after the online course had a statistically significantly higher average value than those obtained at the end of the face-to-face course. The experience at the University of Genoa shows that distance learning in the teaching of human anatomy was perceived by most students as useful and positive. Distance learning can be an effective support for anatomy teaching, facilitating a different mode of learning in which lessons and study are more sensitive to the individual's schedule and needs. Of course, we should not and cannot exclude face-to-face teaching.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Anatomy/education , Curriculum , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(3): 461-463, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435100

ABSTRACT

Understanding the gross organization of skeletal muscle is critical to understanding the mechanism of action of muscle physiology. Due to coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), many colleges have had to discontinue or curtail teaching and laboratory activities. Whether students are in the classroom or learning online, it is important for them to understand the basics of skeletal muscle organization that allows for movement. Manipulatives have been shown to enhance student learning and understanding in many fields, including physiology. This gives instructors an easy-to-follow tool for making a manipulative that allows students to see the organization of the skeletal muscle. Students can make this manipulative themselves from supplies commonly found in the home or office.


Subject(s)
Anatomy/education , Education, Distance , Learning , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , COVID-19 , Humans , Students
6.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(3): 481-485, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435099

ABSTRACT

The College of Science and Health Professions offers a university preprofessional program. Like most medical schools in Saudi Arabia, the teaching delivery strategy in the university preprofessional program is on campus and face-to-face. During the month of March 2020, teaching activities of the spring semester were proceeding as normal; however, the sudden emergence of COVID-19 disturbed routine activities and compelled authorities to switch all teaching activities from face-to-face to online. Training sessions and workshops for all stakeholders on online delivery methods were arranged. Blackboard and other online facilities were utilized. All teaching materials, including newly made video clips for anatomy and physiology practicals, were uploaded on Blackboard and discussed online with students. Students' anxiety related to the exam was reassured by giving them the option of open book quizzes during summative continuous assessment. All scheduled teaching sessions, lectures, and practicals were conducted proficiently. Revision sessions and assessment quizzes were conducted with students' satisfaction. At the end of the semester, a final exam was conducted online as an open book exam. Students with technical issues while attempting the exam were given an opportunity to make up for it. After a successful final exam, the cumulative block grades showed students secured higher grades in the open book exam. Following that, the King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences has managed to conduct on-campus close book exams that abide by self-distancing and standard operating procedure policies.


Subject(s)
Anatomy/education , COVID-19 , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Physiology/education , Universities , Humans , Saudi Arabia , Schools, Medical , Teaching
7.
Morphologie ; 105(350): 196-203, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401723

ABSTRACT

The culture of cadaver dissection remains the most commonly used method of practical teaching and learning of human anatomy. Anatomist and medical professionals considered cadaver dissection as the gold standard for teaching and learning anatomy in detail. The increase seen in the establishment of new medical training institutions globally has consequently led to a proportionate increase in the sourcing for cadavers. Moreover, the surge in mortality rates following the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with no cure or approved vaccine has been a source of concern for academia, especially on the safety in the usage of cadavers for dissection. Notwithstanding, several countries continue to depend on unclaimed bodies as the primary source for cadavers, regardless of the cause of death. Besides, body donation is also usually reported to be strained during disease outbreaks thereby putting countries that depend solely on it in a dilemma. This study highlighted the recommended standard operating procedures (SOPs) to be imbibed in gross anatomy dissection halls during and post-COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Students, Medical , Anatomy/education , Cadaver , Curriculum , Humans , Laboratories , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Teaching
8.
Clin Teach ; 18(4): 341-347, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349992
10.
Anat Sci Educ ; 14(5): 528-535, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344960

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has challenged medical educators internationally to confront the challenges of adapting their present educational activities to a rapidly evolving digital world. In this article, the authors use anatomy education as proxy to reflect on and remap the past, present, and future of medical education in the face of these disruptions. Inspired by the historical Theatrum Anatomicum (Anatomy 1.0), the authors argue replacing current anatomy dissection laboratory (Anatomy 2.0) with a prototype anatomy studio (Anatomy 3.0). In this studio, anatomists are web-performers who not only collaborate with other foundational science educators to devise meaningful and interactive content but who also partner with actors, directors, web-designers, computer engineers, information technologists, and visual artists to master online interactions and processes in order to optimize students' engagement and learning. This anatomy studio also offers students opportunities to create their own online content and thus reposition themselves digitally, a step into developing a new competency of stage presence within medical education. So restructured, Anatomy 3.0 will prepare students with the skills to navigate an emergent era of tele and digital medicine as well as help to foreshadow forthcoming changes in medical education.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Education, Medical , Students, Medical , Anatomy/education , Curriculum , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Anat Sci Educ ; 14(5): 552-561, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312702

ABSTRACT

In response to the Covid-19 pandemic, medical educators have transformed pre-clerkship anatomy curricula into online formats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and student perceptions of an online near-peer anatomy curriculum. The classes of 2022 and 2023 completed identical foundational anatomy curricula in-person, whereas the class of 2024 completed an adapted curriculum for remote online learning. Quantitative and qualitative responses were used to compare attitudes between instructional methods. Assessment scores and evaluation survey responses were collected from the classes of 2022 (n = 185), 2023 (n = 184), and 2024 (n = 183). Mean assessment scores (±SD) for the classes of 2022, 2023, and 2024 were 93.64% (±5.86), 93.75% (±4.09), and 92.04% (±4.83), respectively. Post hoc group comparisons showed the class of 2024 scored significantly lower than the two previous classes [2022: (H(1) = 18.58, P < 0.001), 2023: (H(1) = 18.65, P < 0.001)]. Mean survey results concerning curriculum quality were 4.06/5.00 for the class of 2023 and 3.57/5.0 for the class of 2024 (t(365) = 2.67, P = 0.008). Considering a small effect size (η2 = 0.034), there was no meaningful difference in student assessment scores. A potential drawback of online near-peer anatomy teaching remains in student perceptions of course quality; qualitative feedback suggested technological limitations and perceptions of online course instructors were partly responsible for lower student satisfaction. Following the Covid-19 pandemic, medical educators should incorporate the lessons learned from this unique educational inflection point to improve curricula moving forward.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Students, Medical , Anatomy/education , Curriculum , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Teaching
12.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(2): 290-298, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307985

ABSTRACT

This paper describes how an anatomy and physiology laboratory class transitioned from a paper-based lab to an online learning platform that updated the curriculum to rely more on face-to-face small group collaboration and peer teaching. Student perceptions of the new format were positive, but halfway through the transition a global pandemic challenged the new instruction method. The face-to-face curriculum had to be adjusted to a virtual format that lacked in-person interaction between the instructor and the students. This switch to virtual labs had an adverse effect on both student perception and student performance in the second half of the semester. Our observations underscore the importance of creating an interactive community when teaching virtually.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , Computer-Assisted Instruction , Education, Distance , Anatomy/education , Curriculum , Educational Measurement , Humans , Pandemics , Students , Teaching
14.
Anat Sci Educ ; 14(5): 536-551, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300365

ABSTRACT

In early 2020, the Covid-19 crisis forced medical institutions worldwide to convert quickly to online platforms for content delivery. Although many components of medical education were adaptable to that format, anatomical dissection laboratory lost substantial content in that conversion, including features of active student participation, three-dimensional spatial relationships of structures, and the perception of texture, variation, and scale. The present study aimed to develop and assess online anatomy laboratory sessions that sought to preserve benefits of the dissection experience for first-year medical students. The online teaching package was based on a novel form of active videography that emulates eye movement patterns that occur during processes of visual identification, scene analysis, and learning. Using this video-image library of dissected materials, content was presented through asynchronous narrated laboratory demonstrations and synchronous/active video conference sessions and included a novel, video-based assessment tool. Data were obtained using summative assessments and a final course evaluation. Test scores for the online practical examination were significantly improved over those for previous in-person dissection-based examinations, as evidenced by several measures of performance (Mean: 2015-2019: 82.5%; 2020: 94.9%; P = 0.003). Concurrently, didactic test scores were slightly, but not significantly, improved (Mean: 2015-2019: 88.0%; 2020: 89.9%). Student evaluations of online sessions and overall course were highly positive. Results indicated that this innovative online teaching package can provide an effective alternative when in-person dissection laboratory is unavailable. Although this approach consumed considerable faculty time for video editing, further development will include video conference breakout rooms to emulate dissection small-group teamwork.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Students, Medical , Anatomy/education , Cadaver , Computers , Curriculum , Educational Measurement , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Teaching
15.
Anat Sci Educ ; 14(5): 586-589, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300364
16.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(26): e188, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298136

ABSTRACT

The rapid increase of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic from mid-February 2020 has led the anatomy department of the Korea University College of Medicine to cease the dissection laboratory. However, the hands-on anatomy laboratory experience is paramount to maximizing learning outcomes. In this paper, we share the experiences and lessons learned through the face-to-face cadaveric dissection experience during this disruptive situation. To minimize infection risks, the following strategies were applied: first, students' on-campus attendance was reduced; second, body temperatures and symptoms were checked before entering the laboratory, and personal protective equipment was provided to all participants; and third, a negative pressure air circulation system was used in the dissection room. We suggest that conducting face-to-face cadaveric anatomy dissection is feasible when the daily count of newly infected cases stabilizes, and there is ample provision of safety measures to facilitate hands-on education.


Subject(s)
Anatomy/education , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dissection/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Cadaver , Education, Distance/methods , Humans , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools, Medical , Students, Medical
17.
GMS J Med Educ ; 38(5): Doc87, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295609

ABSTRACT

At the start of the COVID-pandemic in March 2020, the Institutes of Veterinary Anatomy of the five German educational institutions were confronted with the challenge of digitalising all lectures for the second and fourth semesters of veterinary students. After an online kick-off event and a preliminary status quo meeting, available digital teaching material was exchanged for students to stream from learning platforms. Lectures were either synchronized or made available as audio recordings and connotated slides on the learning platforms. Fortunately, digital microscopic slides had already been in use, which made it easy for students to access them. Dissection exercises mostly consisted of self-study, using instructive videos and interactive exercises. In the second half of the semester, four of the educational institutions were able to offer a restricted number of in-person gross anatomy classes under reinforced conditions. Success monitoring took place online through different formats, and partially on a voluntary basis, via the learning platforms. Although the past two semesters had to almost exclusively take place online due to the unprecedented circumstances, and joint efforts of the five veterinary institutions, there is a general consensus that the practical education in anatomy, histology and embryology is essential to veterinary students. In fact, it is the only way they can obtain the necessary skills to successfully complete the rest of their degree.


Subject(s)
Anatomy/education , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Education, Veterinary/methods , Pandemics , Schools, Veterinary , Teaching , Audiovisual Aids , Digital Technology , Dissection , Germany , Humans , Internet , Microscopy , Physical Distancing , Professional Competence , Students , Universities , Veterinary Medicine
18.
Clin Anat ; 34(6): 910-918, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272162

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought difficult times to anatomy educators and medical/dental students. Under normal circumstances, gross anatomy classes give students opportunities to touch and observe human bones and cadaveric tissues, thus enhancing their understanding; such morphology is difficult to learn from textbooks alone. As many studies have shown, three-dimensional (3D) technologies used in online lectures can serve as alternatives to real specimens for providing knowledge of anatomy. However, such technologies are often expensive. The goal of this study was to create 3D anatomy models for online lectures using a free cellphone app. Free application software (Qlone) was used to create 3D anatomical models. The extracranium and intracranium of adult skull, fetal skull, mandible, temporal bone, second cervical vertebra, and ilium were all scanned and exported to the computer in 3D format. A total of 53 anatomical structures were evaluated by nine observers. Although the 53 structures used in this study did not include all the structures that students need to learn, visibility was good/acceptable for most of the 53. The free and simple 3D scanning app used in this study could enable anatomy educators to provide better content to students during online lectures.


Subject(s)
Anatomy/education , Education, Distance , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Mobile Applications , Models, Anatomic , Virtual Reality , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Cell Phone , Humans
19.
Clin Anat ; 34(6): 961-965, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242706

ABSTRACT

The inclusion of human body dissection in anatomical science curricula has been described as a critical educational experience for the mastery of anatomical structures and concepts. To ensure that body donors are ethically acquired and suitable for anatomy education, Anatomical Donation Programs (ADPs) are tasked with the responsibility of acquiring body donors for basic and clinical science curricula. Considering the personal and institutional impact of SARS-CoV-2, a national survey was conducted to examine the current effect of the pandemic on ADP protocols, body donation, and the sustainability of ADPs in the United States (U.S.). Eighty-nine U.S. ADPs were identified and contacted for optional participation in a survey to assess the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on their programs. Survey data were collected and managed using REDCap electronic data capture tools. Thirty-six ADPs (40.5% response rate) from the nine U.S. Divisions are represented in the survey results. Data were collected on ADP descriptions and demographics, SARS-CoV-2 impact on ADPs and protocols, and body donation and ADP sustainability. Almost all ADPs reported that the pandemic has affected their ADP operations in some way; however, the sustainability for the majority of ADPs appears likely and donor availability remains stable due to a proportional decrease in body donations and body donor requests. As the long-term impact on ADPs has yet to be determined, the authors plan to reevaluate the lasting impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on body donation, ADP sustainability, and anatomical science education throughout the year 2021.


Subject(s)
Anatomy/education , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cadaver , Education, Medical , Tissue and Organ Procurement/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Curriculum , Humans , United States
20.
Clin Anat ; 34(6): 948-960, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230196

ABSTRACT

It is critical that academic opinion of pandemic pedagogy is comprehensively quantified in order to inform future practices. Thus, this study examines how anatomists in the United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (ROI) perceive the teaching adaptations made in response to COVID-19, and how these adaptations have impacted their experiences teaching, their online work environment and community. Data was collected via a questionnaire from 24 anatomists across 15 universities in the UK (11) and ROI (4). With regards to teaching, 95.6% of academics have upskilled in new technologies to meet the demands of distance teaching. Academics (95.8%) preferred face-to-face delivery of practical sessions. Most universities (80.0%) reported that practical sessions will continue in a new form that ensures social distancing. However, 50.0% of academics are uncertain if these adaptations will improve student learning. Many anatomists believe that the new adaptations may hinder student-student (66.7%) and student-tutor (45.8%) interactions. Regarding assessment, 52.6% of academics preferred traditional methods to online. Remote online assessment was difficult to protect against collusion, but provided time saving opportunities for academics. Finally, in terms of working environment, 83.3% of academics stated that their workload increased; 54.2% preferred working on site rather than remotely and 79.2% think that staff interactions are better when working on site. These results demonstrate a widespread concern amongst anatomists regarding the pandemic-induced adaptations to teaching, assessment and working environment. However, important opportunities were also identified that could ultimately serve to benefit students and educators alike.


Subject(s)
Anatomy/education , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Education, Distance , Faculty, Medical/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Ireland , Social Interaction , United Kingdom
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