Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
1.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 21(8): 3176-3180, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The humans have been disproportionately affected by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The novel coronavirus or the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV2) causing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread across the globe. Androgens have been suggested to have a role in COVID-19 pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review article is to study the link between androgens and COVID-19. METHODOLOGY: PubMed and Google Scholar search was performed to retrieve literature related to the topic. Review articles, clinical trials, retrospective studies, observational studies, and case-control studies were considered for the review. RESULTS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected men are more inclined to be hospitalized for intensive care unit (ICU) as compared with women. This difference in the ICU admissions provides some clue for possible influence of androgens in the severity of COVID-19. The contribution of androgen and androgen receptor in COVID-19 disease and its severity, as well as the numerous medications targeting androgen and its receptor for lowering COVID-19 disease severity, are discussed in this review. Available literature suggests the role of androgen in the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19. Sensitivity for androgen may be an important factor in regulating the severity of COVID-19 disease. CONCLUSION: There is a scope for the development of COVID-19 treatments based on androgen suppression. Clinical trials may furnish pivotal data and add more evidence-based options for the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Androgens , COVID-19 , Androgens/physiology , Female , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Endocrine ; 71(1): 3-8, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920061

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Throughout the SARS-CoV2 pandemic, multiple reports show higher percentages of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality among men than women, indicating that men are more affected by COVID-19. The pathophysiology of this difference is yet not established, but recent studies suggest that sex hormones may influence the viral infectivity process. Here, we review the current evidence of androgen sensitivity as a decisive factor for COVID-19 disease severity. METHODS: Relevant literature investigating the role of androgens in COVID-19 was assessed. Further, we describe several drugs suggested as beneficial for COVID-19 treatment related to androgen pathways. Lastly, we looked at androgen sensitivity as a predictor for COVID-19 progression and ongoing clinical trials on androgen suppression therapies as a line of treatment. RESULTS: SARS-COV2 virus spike proteins utilize Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) for host entry. Androgen receptors are transcription promoters for TMPRSS2 and can, therefore, facilitate SARS-COV2 entry. Variants in the androgen receptor gene correlate with androgen sensitivity and are implicated in diseases like androgenetic alopecia and prostate cancer, conditions that have been associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes and hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Androgen's TMPRSS2-mediated actions might explain both the low fatalities observed in prepubertal children and the differences between sexes regarding SARS-COV2 infection. Androgen sensitivity may be a critical factor in determining COVID-19 disease severity, and sensitivity tests can, therefore, help in predicting patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Androgens/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Sex Characteristics , Adult , Child , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Internalization
4.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110112, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654445

ABSTRACT

In coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), four major factors have been correlated with worse prognosis: aging, hypertension, obesity, and exposure to androgen hormones. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor, regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) action are critical for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) cell entry and infectivity. ACE2 expression and RAAS are abnormal in hypertension and obesity, while TMPRSS2 is overexpressed when exposed to androgens, which may justify why these factors are overrepresented in COVID-19. Among therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2, we hypothesized that spironolactone, a long used and safe mineralocorticoid and androgen receptors antagonist, with effective anti-hypertensive, cardioprotective, nephroprotective, and anti-androgenic properties may offer pleiotropic actions in different sites to protect from COVID-19. Current data shows that spironolactone may concurrently mitigate abnormal ACE2 expression, correct the balances membrane-attached and free circulating ACE2 and between angiotensin II and Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)), suppress androgen-mediated TMPRSS2 activity, and inhibit obesity-related RAAS dysfunctions, with consequent decrease of viral priming. Hence, spironolactone may provide protection from SARS-CoV-2, and has sufficient plausibility to be clinically tested, particularly in the early stages of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Androgens/physiology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Spironolactone/therapeutic use , Androgen Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Enzyme Induction/drug effects , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/physiopathology , Kidney/drug effects , Male , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/physiopathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/biosynthesis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Receptors, Virus/drug effects , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/drug effects , Sex Distribution , Spironolactone/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
5.
Prog Urol ; 30(10): 484-487, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634109

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the pandemic that hit the world starting December 2019. Recent studies and international statistics have shown an increased prevalence, morbidity as well as mortality of this disease in male patients compared to female patients. The aim of this brief communication is to describe the pathophysiology of this sex-discrepancy, based on the infectivity mechanism of the coronavirus including the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), the Type II transmembrane Serine Protease (TMPRSS2), and the androgen receptor. This could help understand the susceptibility of urological patients, especially those receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer, and testosterone replacement therapy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Receptors, Androgen/physiology , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Androgens/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Male , Organ Specificity , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/biosynthesis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/physiopathology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/biosynthesis , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Sex Distribution , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Internalization
6.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 27(9): R281-R292, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-577793

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global health challenge with active development of antiviral drugs and vaccines seeking to reduce its significant disease burden. Early reports have confirmed that transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are critical targets of SARS-CoV-2 that facilitate viral entry into host cells. TMPRSS2 and ACE2 are expressed in multiple human tissues beyond the lung including the testes where predisposition to SARS-CoV-2 infection may exist. TMPRSS2 is an androgen-responsive gene and its fusion represents one of the most frequent alterations in prostate cancer. Androgen suppression by androgen deprivation therapy and androgen receptor signaling inhibitors form the foundation of prostate cancer treatment. In this review, we highlight the growing evidence in support of androgen regulation of TMPRSS2 and ACE2 and the potential clinical implications of using androgen suppression to downregulate TMPRSS2 to target SARS-CoV-2. We also discuss the future directions and controversies that need to be addressed in order to establish the viability of targeting TMPRSS2 and/or ACE2 through androgen signaling regulation for COVID-19 treatment, particularly its relevance in the context of prostate cancer management.


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Androgens/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiology , Male , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL