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1.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 43(6): 644-650, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread throughout the world. During treatment, we found that the majority of patients had a decrease in hemoglobin (Hb). Interferon-α2b (IFN-α2b) was the primary suspected drug that was related to Hb reduction. Thus, the study aimed to investigate whether IFN-α2b could induce Hb reduction in severe patients with COVID-19 and its potential mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 50 patients who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University with severe COVID-19 infection were enrolled from February 12th to 24th, 2020. The demographics, baseline characteristics, clinical data, and therapeutic regimen were collected retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to the declined use of IFN-α2b on day 14. The Hb levels on admission, day 7, day14, and day 21 were collected and analyzed. The primary endpoint was the level of Hb on day 21. RESULTS: A total of 31 patients in the IFN-stop group and 19 patients in the non-IFN-stop group were reviewed. The age, gender, comorbidities, clinical symptoms, nutritional status, disease severity, complications, and other factors of the patients were compared, no difference was found between the IFN-stop group and the non-IFN-stop group. The Hb levels of all patients significantly decreased on day 7 compared with that on admission (p < .0001). In the IFN-stop group, the Hb level was increased in 7 days after IFN-α2b was stopped (p = .0008), whereas no difference was found between day 14 and day 21 in the non-IFN-stop group (p = .3152). CONCLUSIONS: IFN-α2b was associated with Hb reduction in the treatment of severe patients of COVID-19. Clinicians should be aware of the high incidence of Hb reduction for patients treated by IFN-α2b.


Subject(s)
Anemia/chemically induced , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interferon alpha-2/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anemia/blood , Anemia/diagnosis , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interferon alpha-2/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
3.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 27(6): 709-716, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511081

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients admitted to ICUs are a heterogeneous group, displaying multiple anaemia risk factors and comorbidities. Clinicians should therefore take all possible measures to identify modifiable risks. Patient Blood Management (PBM) is an approach promoting the timely application of evidence-based interventions designed to maintain patients own blood mass. RECENT FINDINGS: Within ICU-patients, anaemia is highly prevalent. Generally, anaemia is associated with impaired outcome and need of blood transfusion. Currently, with ICUs working at full capacity and the global blood reserves exhausted, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic reinforces the need for PBM implementation. For instance, implementation of a comprehensive coagulation management and measures to avoid iatrogenic blood loss may prevent bleeding-associated complications and adherence to blood transfusion guidelines may reduce adverse events associated with transfusion. SUMMARY: Critically ill patients display various morbidities often requiring individualized treatment. PBM offers patient-centred measures to improve outcome any time during hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Anemia , COVID-19 , Anemia/therapy , Blood Transfusion , Critical Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nat Med ; 27(10): 1675-1677, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488033
5.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(6): 1319-1324, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416363

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Health professions are heavily engaged facing the current threat of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Although there are many diagnostic tools, an accurate and rapid laboratory procedure for diagnosing COVID-19 is recommended. We focused on platelet parameters as the additional biomarkers for clinical diagnosis in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five hundred and sixty-one patients from February to April 2020 have been recruited. Patients were divided into three groups: (N = 50) COVID-19 positive and (N = 21) COVID-19 negative with molecular testing, (N = 490) as reference population without molecular testing. A Multiplex rRT-PCR from samples collected by nasopharyngeal swabs was performed and the hematological data collected. RESULTS: We detected a mild anemia in COVID-19 group and lymphopenia against reference population: hemoglobin (g/dL) 13.0 (11.5-14.8) versus 13.9 (12.8-15.0) (P = .0135); lymphocytes (109 /L) 1.24 (0.94-1.73) versus 1.99 (1.49-2.64) (P < .0001). In addition, abnormal platelet parameters as follows (COVID group vs reference population): PLT (×109 /L) 209 (160-258) vs 236 (193-279) (P = .0239). IPF (%) 4.05 (2.5-5.9) versus 3.4 (2.2-4.9) (P = .0576); H-IPF (%) 1.25 (0.8-2.2) versus 0.95 (0.6-1.5) (P = .0171) were identified. In particular, COVID positive group had a high H-IPF/IPF Ratio compared to reference population [0.32 (0.29-0.36) versus 0.29 (0.26-0.32), respectively, (P = .0003)]. Finally, a PLT difference of nearly 50 × 109 /L between pre/postCOVID-19 sampling for each patient was found (N = 42) (P = .0194). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 group results highlighted higher IPF and H-IPF values, with increased H-IPF/IPF Ratio, associated to PLT count reduction. These findings shall be adopted for a timely diagnosis of patients upon hospital admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , Pandemics , Platelet Count , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anemia/etiology , Blood Cell Count , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cell Differentiation , Cell Size , Disease Progression , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mean Platelet Volume , Middle Aged , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nasopharynx/virology , Pilot Projects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(6): 1309-1318, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409690

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Developing prognostic markers can be useful for clinical decision-making. Peripheral blood (PB) examination is simple and basic that can be performed in any facility. We aimed to investigate whether PB examination can predict prognosis in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: Complete blood count (CBC) and PB cell morphology were examined in 38 healthy controls (HCs) and 40 patients with COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19, including 26 mild and 14 severe cases, were hospitalized in Juntendo University Hospital (Tokyo, Japan) between April 1 and August 6, 2020. PB examinations were performed using Sysmex XN-3000 automated hematology analyzer and Sysmex DI-60 employing the convolutional neural network-based automatic image-recognition system. RESULTS: Compared with mild cases, severe cases showed a significantly higher incidence of anemia, lymphopenia, and leukocytosis (P < .001). Granular lymphocyte counts were normal or higher in mild cases and persistently decreased in fatal cases. Temporary increase in granular lymphocytes was associated with survival of patients with severe infection. Red cell distribution width was significantly higher in severe cases than in mild cases (P < .001). Neutrophil dysplasia was consistently observed in COVID-19 cases, but not in HCs. Levels of giant neutrophils and toxic granulation/Döhle bodies were increased in severe cases. CONCLUSION: Basic PB examination can be useful to predict the prognosis of COVID-19, by detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced multi-lineage changes in blood cell counts and morphological anomalies. These changes were dynamically correlated with disease severity and may be associated with disruption of hematopoiesis and the immunological system due to bone marrow stress in severe infection.


Subject(s)
Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/blood , Leukocytosis/etiology , Lymphocytes/ultrastructure , Lymphopenia/etiology , Neutrophils/ultrastructure , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Anemia/blood , Anemia/etiology , Blood Cell Count/instrumentation , Blood Cell Count/methods , COVID-19/mortality , Cell Shape , Cytoplasmic Granules/ultrastructure , Erythrocyte Indices , Female , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Leukocytosis/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Neural Networks, Computer , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 60(4): 103207, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336983

ABSTRACT

Blood transfusions come with risks and high costs, and should be utilized only when clinically indicated. Decisions to transfuse are however not always well informed, and lack of clinician knowledge and education on good clinical transfusion practices contribute to the inappropriate use of blood. Low and middle-income countries in particular take much strain in their efforts to address blood safety challenges, demand-supply imbalances, high blood costs as well as high disease burdens, all of which impact blood usage and blood collections. Patient blood management (PBM), which is a patient-focused approach aimed at improving patient outcomes by preemptively diagnosing and correcting anaemia and limiting blood loss by cell salvage, coagulation optimization and other measures, has become a major approach to addressing many of the challenges mentioned. The associated decrease in the use of blood and blood products may be perceived as being in competition with blood conservation measures, which is the more traditional, but primarily product-focused approach. In this article, we hope to convey the message that PBM and blood conservation should not be seen as competing concepts, but rather complimentary strategies with the common goal of improving patient care. This offers opportunity to improve the culture of transfusion practices with relief to blood establishments and clinical services, not only in South Africa and LMICs, but everywhere. With the COVID-19 pandemic impacting blood supplies worldwide, this is an ideal time to call for educational interventions and awareness as an active strategy to improve transfusion practices, immediately and beyond.


Subject(s)
Blood Banks/organization & administration , Blood Transfusion , Bloodless Medical and Surgical Procedures , Anemia/therapy , Blood Banks/economics , Blood Loss, Surgical , Blood Safety , Blood Transfusion/economics , Blood-Borne Infections/prevention & control , Bloodless Medical and Surgical Procedures/economics , COVID-19 , Clinical Decision-Making , Developing Countries , Donor Selection/economics , Evidence-Based Medicine , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Postpartum Hemorrhage/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology , Transfusion Medicine/education
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(4): 1257-1260, 2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280063

ABSTRACT

Adequate iron intake is essential for optimal child development, but iron deficiency and anemia among infants and young children are widespread in low- and middle-income countries. Large-scale food fortification strategies hold great promise for reducing micronutrient deficiencies; however, for children <2 y of age, the impact of such strategies is limited because their intake of staple foods is relatively low and fortification levels are targeted at the adult population. Iron supplementation, iron fortification of foods targeted to infants, and point-of-use fortification with iron-containing products such as multiple micronutrient powders (MNPs) and small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements are evidence-based approaches recommended to reduce anemia among infants and young children when used in the right context. Since 2003, the WHO, with support from UNICEF, has recommended the use of MNPs to control iron deficiency. However, the percentage of children with anemia has changed very little over the past 10 y. Five years ago the UN declared a decade of action on nutrition, including World Health Assembly (WHA) targets for maternal, infant, and young child nutrition, yet the WHA set no anemia targets for children. In July 2020 the leaders of 4 UN agencies issued a call for action to protect children's right to nutrition in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. Given persistently high rates of anemia among young children, the negative developmental impact, the challenge of meeting iron needs from typical complementary food diets, and the availability of successful evidence-based fortification strategies for this age group, we encourage planners, speakers, and donors at this year's UN Food Systems Summit and the Tokyo Nutrition for Growth Summit to 1) call for the WHA to set anemia targets for infants and young children and 2) promote investment in evidence-based interventions to improve the iron status of young children.


Subject(s)
Anemia/prevention & control , Food, Fortified/standards , Infant Food/standards , Iron, Dietary/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Evidence-Based Medicine/methods , Global Health , Humans , Infant
14.
Int J Paleopathol ; 33: 220-233, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This research attempts a differential diagnosis of skeletal lesions in a commingled sample from Hisban, Jordan, focusing on non-adults in the assemblage. MATERIALS: 2,883 well-preserved skeletal elements and 9 relatively complete skulls representing an MNI of 32 non-adults (<18 years old). METHODS: All skeletal elements were observed macroscopically and pathophysiological processes underlying any lesions or other anomalies were assessed, followed by a comparative approach to rule out potential diagnoses. RESULTS: The skeletal lesions observed were caused by inflammation due to chronic hemorrhaging, marrow hyperplasia due to an increase in hemopoiesis, rapid bone growth, and the impact of biomechanical strain on poorly mineralized elements. Rickets, scurvy, and acquired anemias best fit this pattern of lesions, although inflammation from other sources such as trauma or infection could not be definitively ruled out. CONCLUSIONS: The in utero and postnatal environments at Hisban were conducive to the development of vitamin C and D deficiencies from birth until 2 years of age. The analysis of commingled remains requires an ontological shift in the importance of the individual to the population in paleopathology. SIGNIFICANCE: This investigation demonstrates the efficacy of a combined biological and comparative approach in differential diagnosis in complicated commingled collections. In addition, it emphasizes the importance of the mother-infant dyad in understanding metabolic disease. LIMITATIONS: Histological and radiographic analyses were not included in this diagnostic study due to COVID-19 travel restrictions. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Isotopic analysis to investigate childhood diet and histological and radiographic analyses to assess survival of deficiencies.


Subject(s)
Anemia/history , Metabolic Diseases/history , Paleopathology/history , Rickets/history , Scurvy/history , Adolescent , Anemia/diagnosis , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , History, 19th Century , Humans , Jordan , Metabolic Diseases/diagnosis , Rickets/diagnosis , Scurvy/diagnosis , Skull/pathology
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e045609, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preventing infantile anaemia and ensuring optimal growth and development during early childhood, particularly in resource-constrained settings, represent an ongoing public health challenge. Current responses are aligned to treatment-based solutions, instead of determining the roles of its inter-related causes. This project aims to assess and understand the complex interplay of eco-bio-social-political factors that determine infantile anaemia to inform policy, research design and prevention practices. METHODS: This is a longitudinal birth cohort study including four components: (1) biological, will assess known blood markers of iron homeostasis and anaemia and stool microbiota to identify and genetically analyse the participants' flora; (2) ecological, will assess and map pollutants in air, water and soil and evaluate features of nutrition and perceived food security; (3) social, which will use different qualitative research methodologies to explore key stakeholders and informants' perceptions related to nutritional, environmental and anaemia topics, participant observations and a participatory approach and (4) a political analysis, to identify and assess the impact of policies, guidelines and programmes at all levels for infantile anaemia in the three regions. Finally, we will also explore the role of social determinants and demographic variables longitudinally for all study participants. This project aims to contribute to the evidence of the inter-related causal factors of infantile anaemia, addressing the complexity of influencing factors from diverse methodological angles. We will assess infantile anaemia in three regions of Peru, including newborns and their mothers as participants, from childbirth until their first year of age. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Research Ethics Committee of the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño (Lima, Peru), CIEI-043-2019. An additional opinion has been granted by the Ethical Committee of Queen Mary University of London (London, UK). Dissemination across stakeholders is taking part as a continues part of the research process.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Anemia/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Growth and Development , Homeostasis , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Iron , London , Peru
17.
J Nutr ; 151(7): 1854-1878, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many nutrients have powerful immunomodulatory actions with the potential to alter susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, progression to symptoms, likelihood of severe disease, and survival. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the latest evidence on how malnutrition across all its forms (under- and overnutrition and micronutrient status) may influence both susceptibility to, and progression of, COVID-19. METHODS: We synthesized information on 13 nutrition-related components and their potential interactions with COVID-19: overweight, obesity, and diabetes; protein-energy malnutrition; anemia; vitamins A, C, D, and E; PUFAs; iron; selenium; zinc; antioxidants; and nutritional support. For each section we provide: 1) a landscape review of pertinent material; 2) a systematic search of the literature in PubMed and EMBASE databases, including a wide range of preprint servers; and 3) a screen of 6 clinical trial registries. All original research was considered, without restriction to study design, and included if it covered: 1) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV) 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), or SARS-CoV viruses and 2) disease susceptibility or 3) disease progression, and 4) the nutritional component of interest. Searches took place between 16 May and 11 August 2020. RESULTS: Across the 13 searches, 2732 articles from PubMed and EMBASE, 4164 articles from the preprint servers, and 433 trials were returned. In the final narrative synthesis, we include 22 published articles, 38 preprint articles, and 79 trials. CONCLUSIONS: Currently there is limited evidence that high-dose supplements of micronutrients will either prevent severe disease or speed up recovery. However, results of clinical trials are eagerly awaited. Given the known impacts of all forms of malnutrition on the immune system, public health strategies to reduce micronutrient deficiencies and undernutrition remain of critical importance. Furthermore, there is strong evidence that prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes will reduce the risk of serious COVID-19 outcomes. This review is registered at PROSPERO as CRD42020186194.


Subject(s)
Anemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Obesity/epidemiology , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/epidemiology , Antioxidants/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Dietary Supplements , Disease Progression , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/immunology , Fatty Acids, Omega-6/immunology , Humans , Iron/immunology , Nutritional Support , SARS-CoV-2 , Selenium/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamins/immunology , Zinc/immunology
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5474-5480, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219314

ABSTRACT

In this study, laboratorial parameters of hospitalized novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients, who were complicated with severe pneumonia, were compared with the findings of cytokine storm developing in macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)/secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Severe pneumonia occurred as a result of cytokine storm in some patients who needed intensive care unit (ICU), and it is aimed to determine the precursive parameters in this situation. Also in this study, the aim is to identify laboratory criteria that predict worsening disease and ICU intensification, as well as the development of cytokine storm. This article comprises a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a single institution with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study includes 150 confirmed COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia. When they were considered as severe pneumonia patients, the clinic and laboratory parameters of this group are compared with H-score criteria. Patients are divided into two subgroups; patients with worsened symptoms who were transferred into tertiary ICU, and patients with stable symptoms followed in the clinic. For the patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, after they become complicated with severe pneumonia, lymphocytopenia (55.3%), anemia (12.0%), thrombocytopenia (19.3%), hyperferritinemia (72.5%), hyperfibrinogenemia (63.7%) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (90.8%), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) (31.3%), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) (20.7%) are detected. There were no significant changes in other parameters. Blood parameters between the pre-ICU period and the ICU period (in which their situation had been worsened and acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] was developed) were also compared. In the latter group lymphocyte levels were found significantly reduced (p = 0.01), and LDH, highly sensitive troponin (hs-troponin), procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels were significantly increased (p < 0.05). In addition, there was no change in hemoglobin, leukocyte, platelet, ferritin, and liver function test levels, including patients who developed ARDS, similar to the cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. COVID-19 pneumonia has similar findings as hyperinflammatory syndromes but does not seem to have typical features as in cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. In the severe patient group who has started to develop ARDS signs, a decrease in lymphocyte level in addition to the elevated LDH, hs-troponin, procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels can be a predictor in progression to ICU admission and could help in the planning of anti-cytokine therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Anemia/blood , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/immunology , Anemia/pathology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Hyperferritinemia/diagnosis , Hyperferritinemia/immunology , Hyperferritinemia/pathology , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Triglycerides/blood , Troponin/blood
20.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218624

ABSTRACT

Cancer is often accompanied by worsening of the patient's iron profile, and the resulting anemia could be a factor that negatively impacts antineoplastic treatment efficacy and patient survival. The first line of therapy is usually based on oral or intravenous iron supplementation; however, many patients remain anemic and do not respond. The key might lie in the pathogenesis of the anemia itself. Cancer-related anemia (CRA) is characterized by a decreased circulating serum iron concentration and transferrin saturation despite ample iron stores, pointing to a more complex problem related to iron homeostatic regulation and additional factors such as chronic inflammatory status. This review explores our current understanding of iron homeostasis in cancer, shedding light on the modulatory role of hepcidin in intestinal iron absorption, iron recycling, mobilization from liver deposits, and inducible regulators by infections and inflammation. The underlying relationship between CRA and systemic low-grade inflammation will be discussed, and an integrated multitarget approach based on nutrition and exercise to improve iron utilization by reducing low-grade inflammation, modulating the immune response, and supporting antioxidant mechanisms will also be proposed. Indeed, a Mediterranean-based diet, nutritional supplements and exercise are suggested as potential individualized strategies and as a complementary approach to conventional CRA therapy.


Subject(s)
Anemia/complications , Iron/blood , Life Style , Neoplasms/complications , Anemia/blood , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/blood , Animals , COVID-19 , Diet , Food, Fortified , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Hepcidins/blood , Homeostasis , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Liver/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal
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