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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262487, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has a severe impact on all aspects of patient care. Among the numerous biomarkers of potential validity for diagnostic and clinical management of COVID-19 are biomarkers at the interface of iron metabolism and inflammation. METHODS: The follow-up study included 54 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with a moderate and severe/critical form of the disease. Iron deficiency specific biomarkers such as iron, ferritin, transferrin receptor, hepcidin, and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) as well as relevant markers of inflammation were evaluated twice: in the first five days when the patient was admitted to the hospital and during five to 15 days; and their validity to diagnose iron deficiency was further assessed. The regression and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analyses were performed to evaluate the prognosis and determine the probability for predicting the severity of the disease in the first five days of COVID-19. RESULTS: Based on hemoglobin values, anemia was observed in 21 of 54 patients. Of all iron deficiency anemia-related markers, only ZnPP was significantly elevated (P<0.001) in the anemic group. When patients were grouped according to the severity of disease, slight differences in hemoglobin or other anemia-related parameters could be observed. However, the levels of ZnPP were significantly increased in the severely ill group of patients. The ratio of ZnPP to lymphocyte count (ZnPP/L) had a discrimination power stronger than the neutrophil to lymphocyte count ratio (N/L) to determine disease severity. Additionally, only two markers were independently associated with the severity of COVID-19 in logistic regression analysis; D-dimer (OR (5.606)(95% CI 1.019-30.867)) and ZnPP/L ratio (OR (74.313) (95% CI 1.081-5108.103)). CONCLUSIONS: For the first time ZnPP in COVID-19 patients were reported in this study. Among all iron-related markers tested, ZnPP was the only one that was associated with anemia as based on hemoglobin. The increase in ZnPP might indicate that the underlying cause of anemia in COVID-19 patients is not only due to the inflammation but also of nutritional origin. Additionally, the ZnPP/L ratio might be a valid prognostic marker for the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/blood , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/complications , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Protoporphyrins/blood , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Logistic Models , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Prognosis , Turkey/epidemiology
2.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(9): e666-e669, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370708

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are the most effective measure to prevent deaths and illness from infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the efficacy of several paediatric vaccines is lower in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), where mortality from vaccine-preventable infections remains high. Vaccine efficacy can also be decreased in adults in the context of some common comorbidities. Identifying and correcting the specific causes of impaired vaccine efficacy is of substantial value to global health. Iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide, affecting more than 2 billion people, and its prevalence in LMICs could increase as food security is threatened by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this Viewpoint, we highlight evidence showing that iron deficiency limits adaptive immunity and responses to vaccines, representing an under-appreciated additional disadvantage to iron deficient populations. We propose a framework for urgent detailed studies of iron-vaccine interactions to investigate and clarify the issue. This framework includes retrospective analysis of newly available datasets derived from trials of COVID-19 and other vaccines, and prospective testing of whether nutritional iron interventions, commonly used worldwide to combat anaemia, improve vaccine performance.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Developing Countries , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Pediatrics ; 147(3)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112521

ABSTRACT

We describe 2 previously healthy children who suffered disabling arterial ischemic strokes because of acute intracranial large vessel occlusion within 3 to 4 weeks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Both children presented from communities with high COVID-19 case rates in the Southwest United States. An 8-year-old American Indian girl experienced severe iron deficiency anemia requiring blood transfusion and presented with bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) distribution strokes 3 weeks later. She underwent emergent mechanical thrombectomy of the left MCA with successful clot retrieval but experienced reocclusion of that artery 5 hours after intervention. She also had evidence of cerebral arteritis on catheter angiography and vessel wall imaging, and clot pathology revealed recently formed, unorganized platelet- and fibrin-rich thrombus with sparse clusters of erythrocytes, degenerated histiocytes, few eosinophils, and rare neutrophils. A 16-year old African American boy demonstrated evidence of arteritis on brain magnetic resonance angiography and serological markers of cardiac and renal injury accompanied by positive lupus anticoagulant antibodies. The children described in this report express clinical features inconsistent with focal cerebral arteriopathy, including elevated markers of systemic inflammation in both bilateral MCA strokes in one case and multiple organ system dysfunction in the other case. Neither patient fulfilled criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, given absence of fever. These cases illustrate that systemic postinfectious arteritis with cerebrovascular involvement may complicate COVID-19 infection in previously healthy school-aged children, and their presentations may overlap but not fulfill criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children or focal cerebral arteriopathy.


Subject(s)
Arteritis/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Thrombotic Stroke/etiology , Adolescent , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/complications , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/therapy , Arteritis/diagnostic imaging , Blood Transfusion , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Middle Cerebral Artery/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy , Thrombotic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Thrombotic Stroke/surgery
4.
Br J Cancer ; 124(7): 1231-1236, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The faecal immunochemical test (FIT) was introduced to triage patients with low-risk symptoms of possible colorectal cancer in English primary care in 2017, underpinned by little primary care evidence. METHODS: All healthcare providers in the South West of England (population 4 million) participated in this evaluation. 3890 patients aged ≥50 years presenting in primary care with low-risk symptoms of colorectal cancer had a FIT from 01/06/2018 to 31/12/2018. A threshold of 10 µg Hb/g faeces defined a positive test. RESULTS: Six hundred and eighteen (15.9%) patients tested positive; 458 (74.1%) had an urgent referral to specialist lower gastrointestinal (GI) services within three months. Forty-three were diagnosed with colorectal cancer within 12 months. 3272 tested negative; 324 (9.9%) had an urgent referral within three months. Eight were diagnosed with colorectal cancer within 12 months. Positive predictive value was 7.0% (95% CI 5.1-9.3%). Negative predictive value was 99.8% (CI 99.5-99.9%). Sensitivity was 84.3% (CI 71.4-93.0%), specificity 85.0% (CI 83.8-86.1%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.92 (CI 0.86-0.96). A threshold of 37 µg Hb/g faeces would identify patients with an individual 3% risk of cancer. CONCLUSIONS: FIT performs exceptionally well to triage patients with low-risk symptoms of colorectal cancer in primary care; a higher threshold may be appropriate in the wake of the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Feces/chemistry , Occult Blood , Primary Health Care , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/physiopathology , England , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Weight Loss
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