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1.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 102: 102756, 2023 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323119

ABSTRACT

Prior literature has established a positive association between sickle cell disease and risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2. Data from a cross-sectional study evaluating COVID-19 testing devices (n = 10,567) was used to examine the association between underlying health conditions and SARS-CoV-2 infection in an urban metropolis in the southern United States. Firth's logistic regression was used to fit the model predicting SARS-CoV-2 positivity using vaccine status and different medical conditions commonly associated with COVID-19. Another model using the same method was built using SARS-CoV-2 positivity as the outcome and hemoglobinopathy presence, age (<16 Years vs. ≥16 Years), race/ethnicity and comorbidities, including hemoglobinopathy, as the factors. Our first model showed a significant association between hemoglobinopathy and SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR: 2.28, 95 % CI: (1.17,4.35), P = 0.016). However, in the second model, this association was not maintained (OR: 1.35, 95 % CI: (0.72,2.50), P = 0.344). We conclude that the association between SARS-CoV-2 positivity and presence of hemoglobinopathies like sickle cell disease is confounded by race, age, and comorbidity status. Our results illuminate previous findings by identifying underlying clinical/demographic factors that confound the reported association between hemoglobinopathies and SARS-CoV-2. These findings demonstrate how social determinants of health may influence disease manifestations more than genetics alone.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , COVID-19 , Hemoglobinopathies , Humans , United States , Adolescent , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hemoglobinopathies/epidemiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology
2.
Blood ; 141(2): 129-130, 2023 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310833
3.
Indian J Public Health ; 67(1): 112-116, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297771

ABSTRACT

Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common hemoglobinopathy disorders and is widely prevalent in India, especially in the tribal population. SCD patients are prone to develop recurrent respiratory infections and related complications owing to the microvascular occlusion and impaired immunological response. Objectives: We aimed to determine the prevalence and impact of COVID-19 in SCD patients from India. Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional study in Chandrapur district of Maharashtra, India, between August and October 2021. After taking informed consent, details of 300 SCD patients' demographic data, history of COVID-19 testing, infection, symptoms related to COVID-19 in the past 1 year, hospitalization, complications, mortality, COVID-19 vaccination, and side effects were recorded. Results: We found that 93 (31%) of SCD patients had influenza-like symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic with symptoms of fever (81.72%), cough (35.48%), sore throat (18.27%), headache (15.05%), and breathlessness (7.52%). A total of 13 (4.33%) SCD among 300 SCD were tested as COVID positive. Majority of them were mild cases and the 1st dose of COVID-19 vaccine was received by 47 (29.37%) of SCD patients and 10 (6.02%) of the patient had received second dose of vaccine. Conclusion: Low incidence of COVID-19 and milder disease spectrum in our study cohort suggests that there is no increased risk of COVID-19 mortality and morbidity in SCD patients compared to general population. However, the reason for low COVID vaccination in our study could be due to the fear of complications of COVID vaccine.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , India/epidemiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/diagnosis
4.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 16(2): 151-156, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Compared with the general population, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) typically have substantially reduced life expectancies. It is unclear whether SCD patients who acquire COVID-19 have higher rates of complications and mortality than the general population. We sought to elucidate COVID-19 presentation and outcomes in patients with SCD. METHODS: Using retrospective chart review, we evaluated demographic characteristics, presenting symptoms, chest imaging findings, blood transfusion requirements, need for mechanical ventilation or pressor support, medication administration (including remdesivir and dexamethasone), and survival among individuals with SCD hospitalized with COVID-19 from March 2020 to December 2021. RESULTS: Among 72 SCD patients, increased pain was the most common presenting symptom followed by cough, fever, and dyspnea. Thirty-seven (44%) received simple transfusion and 14 (17%) underwent exchange transfusion. Lung imaging findings suggestive of COVID-19 were observed in 27 (37%) patients; 21 (29%) patients were treated with remdesivir and 26 (35%) received dexamethasone. Three patients (4%) required mechanical ventilation and pressor support; all three died from COVID complications. CONCLUSIONS: Pain is the most common presenting symptom in SCD patients with COVID-19. We observed a mortality rate higher than that among the general population among patients who required mechanical ventilation and pressor support.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/therapy , Pain/etiology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Delivery of Health Care
5.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 70(5): e30274, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276251

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate attitudes toward vaccination and vaccine uptake regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among pediatric patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and their caregivers. PROCEDURE: Adolescent patients and caregivers of children with SCD were surveyed during routine clinic visits; we then conducted a logistic regression analysis to understand differences in vaccine status, while qualitative responses were coded thematically. RESULTS: Among respondents, the overall vaccination rate among adolescents and caregivers was 49% and 52%, respectively. Among the unvaccinated, 60% and 68% of adolescents and caregivers, respectively, preferred to remain unvaccinated, most commonly due to lack of perceived personal benefit from vaccination or mistrust in the vaccine. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that child's age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.2, p < .01) and caregiver education (measured by the Economic Hardship Index [EHI] score, OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.74-0.78, p < .05) were independent predictors of getting vaccinated. CONCLUSION: Despite the increased risk of severe illness due to COVID-19 in patients with SCD, vaccine hesitancy remains high in this population of families whose children have SCD. Fortunately, the reasons cited for deferring vaccination among those who are unvaccinated were largely due to barriers that may be overcome with quality communication around the utility of the vaccine and information about vaccine safety.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , Humans , Child , COVID-19 Vaccines , Caregivers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/therapy
6.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0282423, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the outcomes of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and COVID-19. METHOD: A multicenter prospective study was conducted in five hematological centers from Central and Southeast Brazil, starting in April 2020. The variables recorded include clinical symptoms, diagnostic methods, therapeutic measures, and treatment sites. The clinical repercussions of the infection on the initial treatment and the overall prognosis were also evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty-five unvaccinated children, aged 4 to 17 years, with SCD and a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR result participated in this study. Patients were classified as SCD types SS (n = 20, 80%) and SC (n = 5, 20%). Clinical characteristics and evolution were similar in both groups (p>0.05), except for the fetal hemoglobin value which was higher among the SC patients (p = 0.025). The most frequent symptoms were hyperthermia (72%) and cough (40%). Three children were admitted to the intensive care unit, all of whom were overweight/obese (p = 0.078). No deaths were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although SCD leads to specific complications, the results found in this sample suggest that COVID-19 does not seem to carry an increased mortality risk in pediatric patients with this disease.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , COVID-19 , Humans , Child , COVID-19/complications , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/therapy , Anemia, Sickle Cell/diagnosis , Registries
7.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 15(12): 1045-1054, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259073

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most frequent inherited disorder in the world. It is caused by a single amino acid mutation on the beta-globin chain, which lead to red blood cell deformation, haemolysis, and chronic inflammation. Clinical consequences are vaso-occlusives crisis, acute chest syndrome, thrombosis, infection, and chronic endothelial injury. AREAS COVERED: Corticosteroids are an old therapeutic class, that are inexpensive and widely available, which can be administered in different forms. Their adverse effects are numerous and well-known. This class could appear to be useful in SCD treatment due to its anti-inflammatory effect. Moreover, corticosteroids remain an essential therapeutic class for many indications, besides SCD. Although specific adverse effects of corticosteroids have been suspected in SCD patients for decades, recent papers has reported strong evidence of specific and severe adverse effects in this population. Based on a literature review, we will discuss pathophysiological considerations, consequences, and practical use of corticosteroids in SCD. EXPERT OPINION: High corticosteroid doses, for any indication , induce vaso-occlusive crises, acute chest syndrome, and re-hospitalization in patients with SCD. There is no evidence of any benefits of corticosteroid use in the SCD acute events. Prevention by hydroxyurea and/or red blood cell transfusion or exchange should be discussed when corticosteroid use is indispensable.


Subject(s)
Acute Chest Syndrome , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Humans , Acute Chest Syndrome/etiology , Acute Chest Syndrome/drug therapy , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/drug therapy , Hydroxyurea/adverse effects , Erythrocyte Transfusion/adverse effects , Hospitalization
8.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(2): e450-e452, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063086

ABSTRACT

In people with sickle cell disease (SCD), oral abscesses are concerning clinical conditions and carry a high risk of postoperative sickle cell complications. We present an unusual case of a 14-year-old girl with SCD whose initial presentation of facial swelling, headaches, jaw pain, and paresthesia mimicked an odontogenic abscess. She was diagnosed with vaso-occlusive crisis in the mandibular bone and successfully managed noninvasively. This is among the youngest cases of paresthesia in the lower lip in SCD, which provided a clue that postponing invasive aspiration or biopsy was possible under empiric antibiotics and close observation.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , Jaw Diseases , Abscess/diagnosis , Abscess/etiology , Adolescent , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Female , Humans , Mandible , Pain/diagnosis , Pain/etiology , Paresthesia/complications
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(9)2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043857

ABSTRACT

Sickle cell disease and thalassaemia are life-long haematological diseases that can impact the quality of life of patients. This impact on quality of life can require intermittent psychological input throughout the lifespan for management. Managing everyday life during the COVID-19 pandemic could be challenging for people with these health conditions, which could impact their health, their mood and anxiety, their perception of control, and their engagement with their regular healthcare services. This report describes the characteristics of these health conditions and discusses reflections, from a specialist psychology service working with this clinical population, about the impact of COVID-19 on patient engagement with the service. The main aim of this report is to highlight the relevance and usefulness of videoconferencing as a therapy format, suggest implications for further service development and suggest alternate ways of working therapeutically with clients.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , COVID-19 , Thalassemia , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Thalassemia/complications , Thalassemia/therapy
11.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol ; 35(3): 101382, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007465

ABSTRACT

Throughout the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, understanding the effects of COVID-19 on persons with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) and Sickle Cell Trait (SCT) has garnered interest. Patients with SCD diagnosed with COVID-19 utilize the emergency department and are hospitalized at significantly higher rates compared to the general population, with vaso-occlusive crisis and acute chest syndrome as the leading presentations. Whether SCD alone increases the likelihood of severe COVID-19 illness remains uncertain; however, potential risk factors for severe disease among patients with SCD include older age, frequent acute care visits for pain, haemoglobin SC disease, and pre-existing end-organ disease. SCT status may also influence COVID-19 outcomes, particularly among those with pre-existing co-morbidities. Corticosteroids in patients with SCD and COVID-19 should be used with extreme caution given strong associations between corticosteroid exposure and severe vaso-occlusive crisis, with prophylactic transfusion administered if corticosteroids are deemed necessary. Hydroxyurea may be protective in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , COVID-19 , Sickle Cell Trait , Humans , Sickle Cell Trait/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/therapy , Hydroxyurea/therapeutic use , Risk Factors
13.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 307, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the pandemic, no severe pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 cases have been described in Congo. CASE: We studied a 3-month-old male child of Congolese origin who was admitted to the pediatric department with 7-day history of fever, unilateral lower leg swelling, and dyspnea. There was no known history of contact with a coronavirus disease 2019 patient, and all the family members were asymptomatic. Nasopharyngeal swabs done at admission did not detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. However, serology tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibodies were positive for immunoglobulin M and negative for immunoglobulin G. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed hemoglobin A1, hemoglobin A2, hemoglobin F, and hemoglobin S of 46.2%, 2.5%, 19.9%, and 38.4%, respectively. Chest X-ray showed retrocardiac pneumonia in the left lung, and Doppler ultrasound of the left lower limb showed a recent total femoropopliteal venous thrombosis. At day 10 of hospitalization, our patient had classical signs of cardiac tamponade with a voluminous pericardial effusion seen on echocardiographic examination and elevated C-reactive protein, compatible with a diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a case of plausible severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection associated with venous thrombosis and acute pericarditis in Congo. CONCLUSION: We hypothesized that this case of venous thrombosis and acute pericarditis in a Congolese child with heterozygous sickle cell disease was related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , COVID-19 , Pericarditis , Venous Thrombosis , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , COVID-19/complications , Child , Hemoglobins , Humans , Infant , Male , Pericarditis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
15.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 10: 23247096221111778, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950962

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection is commonly associated with neurological complications. Patients with sickle cell disease are at increased risk of developing neurologic complications throughout their lifetimes and often have underlying cardiopulmonary comorbidities that may predispose them to poor outcomes during serious infections. In this case series, we describe 2 patients with sickle cell disease who developed devastating neurologic complications following SARS-CoV-2 infection, which ultimately led to brain edema and death. We highlight the unusual manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with sickle cell disease and address the risk of these patients to develop catastrophic neurologic injury due to COVID-19, if not recognized promptly.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , COVID-19/complications , Comorbidity , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Am J Emerg Med ; 58: 235-244, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914107

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute chest syndrome (ACS) in sickle cell disease (SCD) is a serious condition that carries with it a high rate of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: This review highlights the pearls and pitfalls of ACS in SCD, including diagnosis and management in the emergency department (ED) based on current evidence. DISCUSSION: ACS is defined by respiratory symptoms and/or fever and a new radiodensity on chest imaging in a patient with SCD. There are a variety of inciting causes, including infectious and non-infectious etiologies. Although ACS is more common in those with homozygous SCD, clinicians should consider ACS in all SCD patients, as ACS is a leading cause of death in SCD. Patients typically present with or develop respiratory symptoms including fever, cough, chest pain, and shortness of breath, which can progress to respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in 20% of adult patients. However, the initial presentation can vary. While the first line imaging modality is classically chest radiograph, lung ultrasound has demonstrated promise. Further imaging to include computed tomography may be necessary. Management focuses on analgesia, oxygen supplementation, incentive spirometry, bronchodilators, rehydration, antibiotics, consideration for transfusion, and specialist consultation. Empiric antibiotics that cover atypical pathogens are necessary along with measures to increase oxygen-carrying capacity in those with hypoxemia such as simple transfusion or exchange transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: An understanding of ACS can assist emergency clinicians in diagnosing and managing this potentially deadly disease.


Subject(s)
Acute Chest Syndrome , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Acute Chest Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Chest Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Chest Syndrome/etiology , Acute Disease , Adult , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Chest Pain/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Prevalence
17.
Blood Adv ; 6(15): 4408-4412, 2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910256

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a life-threatening complication observed among patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and also among those with severe COVID-19 infection. Although prior studies show that patients with SCD are at risk of severe COVID-19 illness, it remains unclear if COVID-19 infection further increases VTE risk for this population. We hypothesized that patients with SCD hospitalized for COVID-19 would have higher VTE rates than those hospitalized for other causes. Using electronic health record data from a multisite research network, TriNetX, we identified 2 groups of patients with SCD hospitalized during 2020: (1) with COVID-19 and (2) without COVID-19. We compared VTE rates using risk ratios estimated based on adjusted Poisson regression model with log link and robust error variances. Of the 281 SCD patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and 4873 SCD patients hospitalized without COVID-19 , 35 (12.46%) and 418 (8.58%) had incident VTE within 6 months of the index hospitalization respectively. After adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics, no significant differences in VTE rates within 6 months were found between the 2 groups (adjusted relative risk, 1.06 [95% confidence interval, 0.79-1.41]). These data suggest that hospitalization with COVID-19 does not further increase VTE risk in patients with SCD.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 332, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912166

ABSTRACT

The main pathological effects of COVID-19 infection have been reported to occur in the lungs, with the most pronounced manifestation being reported as Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) with thromboembolic phenomena. Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a common genetic disorder present in 2% of newborns in Ghana. The complications of SCD include Vaso-Occlusive Crisis and Acute Chest Syndrome, which primarily manifest in the lungs. The effects of SCD on the progression of COVID-19 have not been extensively and clearly documented in literature. The objective was to describe the clinical and pathological findings in three SCD patients who died of COVID-19 related complications. A complete autopsy was performed on each of the three SCD patients who were presumed to have COVID-19. Lung swabs were subsequently taken and tested for SARS-CoV-2. The differences in histopathological findings of the three cases were highlighted and correlation with clinical findings was also done. Lung histopathological findings for all three cases were consistent with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)/ Diffuse Alveolar Damage (DAD) described for infections with COVID-19 and lung swabs tested for SARS-CoV-2 by real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR) were positive. Though SCD has been reported not to adversely affect an individual´s chance of worse outcome when infected with COVID-19, our findings suggest otherwise. We suggest that SCD may be an important co-morbidity that needs to be considered in COVID-19 patients and when present needs to be considered as an adverse risk for poor outcomes. Also, post-discharge anti-coagulation and monitoring should be encouraged. More autopsies are required to fully understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19 in SCD patients.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Aftercare , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Autopsy , COVID-19/complications , Ghana/epidemiology , Hospitals, Military , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lung/pathology , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
19.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 22(3): 218-220, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903880

ABSTRACT

Sickle cell disease is a common inherited disorder that is characterised by chronic haemolysis and vaso-occlusive episodes, resulting in severe pain and end-organ damage. The most frequent acute manifestation of sickle cell disease is a painful vaso-occlusive crisis, which can, in some cases, develop into a sickle chest crisis: a life-threatening complication of sickle cell disease that requires early recognition and prompt intervention to prevent progressive respiratory failure. In addition to the acute complications, patients with sickle cell disease are also at risk of a number of chronic complications that require multidisciplinary specialist input.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/therapy , Humans
20.
Hematology ; 27(1): 742-744, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895708

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTPeople with sickle cell disease (SCD) are more vulnerable to hospitalization, pneumonia, and pain following COVID-19 infection. However, given the association between the inflammatory response and vaso-occlusive crises in SCD and a case report of vaso-occlusive crises following administration of the ChAdOx1 nCov-195-7/AstraZeneca vaccine, there is concern that the administration of COVID-19 vaccines in people with SCD might provoke a vaso-occlusive crisis. To address this critical gap in knowledge, we sought to examine acute care usage for vaso-occlusive crisis and frequency and severity of side effects following COVID-19 vaccination among patients at the Montefiore Sickle Cell Center for Adults. As part of regular care, patients were asked if they had received COVID-19 vaccination and any side effects were noted. Electronic medical records were reviewed for the type of vaccine, dates received, episodes of vaso-occlusive crises within seven days of a dose, and side effects noted. The risk of average hospital utilization per week in 2019 was calculated as a baseline. We found that fewer than 1 in 10 patients presented to the hospital within seven days of vaccination and that the risk of hospital utilization was similar to the average risk in a week in 2019. Of patients who reported side effects, one reported a possible case of sensorineural hearing loss otherwise no other rare side effects, including thrombosis or death, were reported.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Pain , Adult , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Pain/etiology , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
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