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1.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 43(6): 644-650, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread throughout the world. During treatment, we found that the majority of patients had a decrease in hemoglobin (Hb). Interferon-α2b (IFN-α2b) was the primary suspected drug that was related to Hb reduction. Thus, the study aimed to investigate whether IFN-α2b could induce Hb reduction in severe patients with COVID-19 and its potential mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 50 patients who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University with severe COVID-19 infection were enrolled from February 12th to 24th, 2020. The demographics, baseline characteristics, clinical data, and therapeutic regimen were collected retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to the declined use of IFN-α2b on day 14. The Hb levels on admission, day 7, day14, and day 21 were collected and analyzed. The primary endpoint was the level of Hb on day 21. RESULTS: A total of 31 patients in the IFN-stop group and 19 patients in the non-IFN-stop group were reviewed. The age, gender, comorbidities, clinical symptoms, nutritional status, disease severity, complications, and other factors of the patients were compared, no difference was found between the IFN-stop group and the non-IFN-stop group. The Hb levels of all patients significantly decreased on day 7 compared with that on admission (p < .0001). In the IFN-stop group, the Hb level was increased in 7 days after IFN-α2b was stopped (p = .0008), whereas no difference was found between day 14 and day 21 in the non-IFN-stop group (p = .3152). CONCLUSIONS: IFN-α2b was associated with Hb reduction in the treatment of severe patients of COVID-19. Clinicians should be aware of the high incidence of Hb reduction for patients treated by IFN-α2b.


Subject(s)
Anemia/chemically induced , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interferon alpha-2/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anemia/blood , Anemia/diagnosis , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interferon alpha-2/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
Int J Paleopathol ; 33: 220-233, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This research attempts a differential diagnosis of skeletal lesions in a commingled sample from Hisban, Jordan, focusing on non-adults in the assemblage. MATERIALS: 2,883 well-preserved skeletal elements and 9 relatively complete skulls representing an MNI of 32 non-adults (<18 years old). METHODS: All skeletal elements were observed macroscopically and pathophysiological processes underlying any lesions or other anomalies were assessed, followed by a comparative approach to rule out potential diagnoses. RESULTS: The skeletal lesions observed were caused by inflammation due to chronic hemorrhaging, marrow hyperplasia due to an increase in hemopoiesis, rapid bone growth, and the impact of biomechanical strain on poorly mineralized elements. Rickets, scurvy, and acquired anemias best fit this pattern of lesions, although inflammation from other sources such as trauma or infection could not be definitively ruled out. CONCLUSIONS: The in utero and postnatal environments at Hisban were conducive to the development of vitamin C and D deficiencies from birth until 2 years of age. The analysis of commingled remains requires an ontological shift in the importance of the individual to the population in paleopathology. SIGNIFICANCE: This investigation demonstrates the efficacy of a combined biological and comparative approach in differential diagnosis in complicated commingled collections. In addition, it emphasizes the importance of the mother-infant dyad in understanding metabolic disease. LIMITATIONS: Histological and radiographic analyses were not included in this diagnostic study due to COVID-19 travel restrictions. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Isotopic analysis to investigate childhood diet and histological and radiographic analyses to assess survival of deficiencies.


Subject(s)
Anemia/history , Metabolic Diseases/history , Paleopathology/history , Rickets/history , Scurvy/history , Adolescent , Anemia/diagnosis , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , History, 19th Century , Humans , Jordan , Metabolic Diseases/diagnosis , Rickets/diagnosis , Scurvy/diagnosis , Skull/pathology
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5474-5480, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219314

ABSTRACT

In this study, laboratorial parameters of hospitalized novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients, who were complicated with severe pneumonia, were compared with the findings of cytokine storm developing in macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)/secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Severe pneumonia occurred as a result of cytokine storm in some patients who needed intensive care unit (ICU), and it is aimed to determine the precursive parameters in this situation. Also in this study, the aim is to identify laboratory criteria that predict worsening disease and ICU intensification, as well as the development of cytokine storm. This article comprises a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a single institution with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study includes 150 confirmed COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia. When they were considered as severe pneumonia patients, the clinic and laboratory parameters of this group are compared with H-score criteria. Patients are divided into two subgroups; patients with worsened symptoms who were transferred into tertiary ICU, and patients with stable symptoms followed in the clinic. For the patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, after they become complicated with severe pneumonia, lymphocytopenia (55.3%), anemia (12.0%), thrombocytopenia (19.3%), hyperferritinemia (72.5%), hyperfibrinogenemia (63.7%) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (90.8%), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) (31.3%), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) (20.7%) are detected. There were no significant changes in other parameters. Blood parameters between the pre-ICU period and the ICU period (in which their situation had been worsened and acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] was developed) were also compared. In the latter group lymphocyte levels were found significantly reduced (p = 0.01), and LDH, highly sensitive troponin (hs-troponin), procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels were significantly increased (p < 0.05). In addition, there was no change in hemoglobin, leukocyte, platelet, ferritin, and liver function test levels, including patients who developed ARDS, similar to the cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. COVID-19 pneumonia has similar findings as hyperinflammatory syndromes but does not seem to have typical features as in cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. In the severe patient group who has started to develop ARDS signs, a decrease in lymphocyte level in addition to the elevated LDH, hs-troponin, procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels can be a predictor in progression to ICU admission and could help in the planning of anti-cytokine therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Anemia/blood , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/immunology , Anemia/pathology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Hyperferritinemia/diagnosis , Hyperferritinemia/immunology , Hyperferritinemia/pathology , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Triglycerides/blood , Troponin/blood
7.
Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab ; 16(3): 147-153, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165207

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Changes in hematological parameters are becoming evident as important early markers of COVID-19. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has been shown to be associated with increased severity of COVID-19. In this study, we aim to explore the various hematological variables in COVID-19 positive patients with T2DM, so as to act early and improve patient outcomes.Methods: Medical e-records of seventy adult patients with T2DM who were COVID-19 positive have been analyzed in this retrospective cohort study. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters for these patients were examined.Results: Of the seventy patients with T2DM, 48.88% had poorly controlled diabetes. 70.69% were pyrexial, 56.25% were tachycardic and 38.58% were asymptomatic on presentation. Amongst the hematological parameters, anemia was seen in 10% of males and 15.38% of females. 20% had a high red-blood-cell-distribution-width (RDW). 7.27% had thrombocytosis and 3.64% had thrombocytopenia. 73.3% had a high platelet-distribution-width (PDW) and 44.44% had an increased mean-platelet-volume (MPV). 16.36% were neutropenic and 16.67% had lymphocytopenia.Conclusion: Diabetic COVID-19 positive patients have been shown to have prominent manifestations of the hemopoietic-system with varied hematological profiles. Recognizing the implications of these variables early in primary-care, can help clinicians aid management decisions and dictate early referral to secondary-care services, to help improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Hematologic Diseases/blood , Primary Health Care/trends , Adult , Anemia/blood , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Erythrocyte Indices/physiology , Female , Hematologic Diseases/diagnosis , Hematologic Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mean Platelet Volume/methods , Mean Platelet Volume/trends , Middle Aged , Platelet Count/methods , Platelet Count/trends , Primary Health Care/methods , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology
8.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 62(6): 1539, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043358
10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(8): 763-773, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725658

ABSTRACT

Iron metabolism and anemia may play an important role in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate biomarkers of anemia and iron metabolism (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin, soluble transferrin receptor, hepcidin, haptoglobin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, erythropoietin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrine, and erythrocyte indices) in patients diagnosed with COVID-19, and explored their prognostic value. Six bibliographic databases were searched up to August 3rd 2020. We included 189 unique studies, with data from 57,563 COVID-19 patients. Pooled mean hemoglobin and ferritin levels in COVID-19 patients across all ages were 129.7 g/L (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 128.51; 130.88) and 777.33 ng/mL (95% CI, 701.33; 852.77), respectively. Hemoglobin levels were lower with older age, higher percentage of subjects with diabetes, hypertension and overall comorbidities, and admitted to intensive care. Ferritin level increased with older age, increasing proportion of hypertensive study participants, and increasing proportion of mortality. Compared to moderate cases, severe COVID-19 cases had lower hemoglobin [weighted mean difference (WMD), - 4.08 g/L (95% CI - 5.12; - 3.05)] and red blood cell count [WMD, - 0.16 × 1012 /L (95% CI - 0.31; - 0.014)], and higher ferritin [WMD, - 473.25 ng/mL (95% CI 382.52; 563.98)] and red cell distribution width [WMD, 1.82% (95% CI 0.10; 3.55)]. A significant difference in mean ferritin levels of 606.37 ng/mL (95% CI 461.86; 750.88) was found between survivors and non-survivors, but not in hemoglobin levels. Future studies should explore the impact of iron metabolism and anemia in the pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anemia/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus/metabolism , Iron/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Erythropoietin , Ferritins/blood , Hemoglobins/analysis , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Hepcidins/blood , Hepcidins/metabolism , Humans , Iron/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Receptors, Transferrin/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Transferrin/analysis , Transferrin/metabolism
12.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 61(12): 2900-2904, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647011

ABSTRACT

The anemia of MDS often results in decreased quality of life, which is invoked to justify red cell transfusions; however, there are sparse data regarding the minimum hemoglobin (Hb) at which it is safe to forgo transfusions for patients with no evidence of end-organ damage. This issue is even more important in the COVID-19 era, where decreases in blood donations have stressed the blood supply. In March 2018, using a modified Delphi method, we convened a panel of 13 expert MDS clinicians for three iterative rounds to discuss a minimum safe Hb for this population. While the panel was unable to reach the pre-set consensus of 75% for a specific Hb threshold, there was 100% consensus that it be no greater than 7.5 g/dL. Our data suggest that, given no end-organ effects of anemia, patients with MDS can safely forgo transfusions with a Hb of 7.5 g/dL or higher.


Subject(s)
Anemia/therapy , Blood Transfusion/standards , Hemoglobins/analysis , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/etiology , Blood Donors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Clinical Decision-Making , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Hematology/standards , Hemoglobins/standards , Humans , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/blood , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/complications , Pandemics/prevention & control , Reference Values , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tissue and Organ Harvesting/standards
13.
Anaesthesia ; 75(8): 1105-1113, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-134623

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 disease escalates globally, optimising patient outcome during this catastrophic healthcare crisis is the number one priority. The principles of patient blood management are fundamental strategies to improve patient outcomes and should be given high priority in this crisis situation. The aim of this expert review is to provide clinicians and healthcare authorities with information regarding how to apply established principles of patient blood management during the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, this review considers the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on blood supply and specifies important aspects of donor management. We discuss how preventative and control measures implemented during the COVID-19 crisis could affect the prevalence of anaemia, and highlight issues regarding the diagnosis and treatment of anaemia in patients requiring elective or emergency surgery. In addition, we review aspects related to patient blood management of critically ill patients with known or suspected COVID-19, and discuss important alterations of the coagulation system in patients hospitalised due to COVID-19. Finally, we address special considerations pertaining to supply-demand and cost-benefit issues of patient blood management during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Donors/supply & distribution , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Anemia/complications , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Elective Surgical Procedures , Emergencies , Humans , Operative Blood Salvage , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Preoperative Care/methods , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Med Virol ; 92(7): 915-918, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47259

ABSTRACT

An 80-year-old man with multiple comorbidities presented to the emergency department with tachypnea, tachycardia, fever, and critically low O2 saturation and definitive chest computerized tomography scan findings in favor of COVID-19 and positive PCR results in 48 hours. He received antiviral treatment plus recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) due to his severe anemia. After 7 days of treatment, he was discharged with miraculous improvement in his symptoms and hemoglobin level. We concluded that rhEPO could attenuate respiratory distress syndrome and confront the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus through multiple mechanisms including cytokine modulation, antiapoptotic effects, leukocyte release from bone marrow, and iron redistribution away from the intracellular virus.


Subject(s)
Anemia/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Erythropoietin/therapeutic use , Fever/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Tachycardia/drug therapy , Tachypnea/drug therapy , Aged, 80 and over , Anemia/complications , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/virology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Fever/complications , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/virology , Humans , Iran , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Tachycardia/complications , Tachycardia/diagnosis , Tachycardia/virology , Tachypnea/complications , Tachypnea/diagnosis , Tachypnea/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
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