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1.
World Neurosurg ; 148: e209-e217, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has overwhelmed the blood supply chain worldwide and severely influenced clinical procedures with potential massive blood loss, such as clipping surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Whether acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) is safe and effective in aneurysm clipping remains largely unknown. METHODS: Patients with aSAH who underwent clipping surgery within 72 hours from bleeding were included. The patients in the ANH group received 400 mL autologous blood collection, and the blood was returned as needed during surgery. The relationships between ANH and perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion, postoperative outcome, and complications were analyzed. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients with aSAH were included between December 2019 and June 2020 (20 in the ANH group and 42 in the non-ANH group). ANH did not reduce the need of perioperative blood transfusion (3 [15%] vs. 5 [11.9%]; P = 0.734). However, ANH significantly increased serum hemoglobin levels on postoperative day 1 (11.5 ± 2.5 g/dL vs. 10.3 ± 2.0 g/dL; P = 0.045) and day 3 (12.1 ± 2.0 g/dL vs. 10.7 ± 1.3 g/dL; P = 0.002). Multivariable analysis indicated that serum hemoglobin level on postoperative day 1 (odds ratio, 0.895; 95% confidence interval, 0.822-0.973; P = 0.010) was an independent risk factor for unfavorable outcome, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that it had a comparable predictive power to World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade (Z = 0.275; P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: ANH significantly increased postoperative hemoglobin levels, and it may hold the potential to improve patients' outcomes. Routine use of ANH should be considered in aneurysm clipping surgery.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Ruptured/surgery , Blood Transfusion, Autologous/methods , Bloodless Medical and Surgical Procedures/methods , Hemodilution/methods , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/surgery , Adult , Aged , Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Female , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Perioperative Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Instruments
2.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(47): 3768-3774, 2020 Dec 22.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004770

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the improvement of emergency admission screening and perioperative management protocols in the scenario of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its regular prevention and control for patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms, which are the most common emergency cases with the most urgent needs for emergent surgery. Methods: The response protocol of the emergency surgical management of ruptured intracranial aneurysm during the epidemic period (from January to March, 2020) at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University was reviewed. The prognosis of emergent aneurysm surgery under different levels of protection or during the same period of 2019 and 2020 was further compared to describe the operation and prognosis under the new management protocol. Results: A total of 127 emergency cases with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were referred to Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 20 to March 25, 2020, and 42 cases(33.1%) underwent emergent aneurysm clipping after multi-desciplinary consultation. Admissions of emergency cases required epidemiological, laboratory, and imaging screenings for COVID-19, with additional throat swab virus nucleic acid screening afterwards. During the same period, 9 cases of COVID-19 were confirmed in the emergency screening, and no false negative cases were found. Compared with the same period in 2019, the interval between emergency visits and emergency craniotomy did not increase significantly due to the preoperative screening ((37±17) hours during the epidemic period versus (29±12) hours at the same period in 2019, P=0.058). There was no significant difference in the incidence of perioperative adverse events and postoperative neurological dysfunction (P=0.779). According to the screening results, the corresponding operative and postoperative management protocol and protection standards were adopted. There was no significant difference in the prognosis of emergent surgery between patients with a negative initial screening and those who were to be excluded or suspected in the initial screening (P=0.678). Although viral nucleic acid screening tended to prolong the time interval before surgical intervention ((36±15) hours before nucleic acid screening versus (40±20) hours after nucleic acid screening, P=0.453), there was no statistically significant difference in the preoperative adverse events and postoperative neurological function (P=0.653). Conclusion: The current protocol of COVID-19 screening and stratified emergent surgery management based on screening results can effectively identify suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases, thereby ensuring timely, safe and effective emergent surgery and prohibiting nosocomial spread.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Ruptured , COVID-19 , Intracranial Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured/surgery , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
3.
World Neurosurg ; 148: e197-e208, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989401

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been at its peak for the past 8 months and has affected more than 215 countries around the world. India is now the second most-affected nation with more than 48,000,000 cases and 79,000 deaths. Despite this, and the fact that it is a lower-middle-income nation, the number of deaths is almost one third that of the United States and one half that of Brazil. However, there has been no experience published from non-COVID-19-designated hospitals, where the aim is to manage noninfected cases with neurosurgical ailments while keeping the number of infected cases to a minimum. METHODS: We analyzed the number of neurosurgical cases (nontrauma) done in the past 5 months (March-July 2020) in our institute, which is the largest neurosurgical center by volume in southern India, and compared the same to the concurrent 5 months in 2019 and 5 months preceding the pandemic. We also reviewed the total number of cases infected with COVID-19 managed during this time. RESULTS: We operated a total of 630 cases (nontrauma) in these 5 months and had 9 COVID-19 infected cases operated during this time. There was a 57% (P = 0.002) reduction in the number of cases operated as compared with the same 5 months in the preceding year. We employed a dual strategy of rapid antigen testing and surgery for cases needing emergency intervention and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test for elective cases. The hospital was divided into 3 zones (red, orange, and green) depending on infectivity level with minimal interaction. Separate teams were designated for each zone, and thus we were able to effectively manage even infected cases despite the absence of pulmonology/medical specialists. CONCLUSIONS: We present a patient management protocol for non-COVID-19-designated hospitals in high-volume centers with the constraints of a lower-middle-income nation and demonstrate its effectiveness. Strict zoning targeted testing and effective triage can help in management during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neurosurgical Procedures/trends , Telemedicine/trends , Tertiary Care Centers/organization & administration , Ambulatory Care/trends , Aneurysm, Ruptured/surgery , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cerebrovascular Disorders/surgery , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infection Control , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Neural Tube Defects/surgery , Patient Selection , Personal Protective Equipment , Radiosurgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Diseases , Spinal Injuries
4.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 162(11): 2725-2729, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679403

ABSTRACT

The clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are non-specific and multi-inflammatory. They vary from mild to severe manifestations that can be life-threatening. The association of SARS-CoV-2 infection and pseudoaneurysm formation or rupture of an already existing aneurysm is still unexplored. Several mechanisms may be involved, including the direct destruction to the artery by the viral infection or through the release of the inflammatory cytokines. We are presenting a case of a 13-year-old girl with a ruptured cerebral pseudoaneurysm of the left middle cerebral artery (M2 segment) with severe intracerebral hemorrhage as the earliest manifestation of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, False/etiology , Aneurysm, Ruptured/etiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Middle Cerebral Artery , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adolescent , Aneurysm, Dissecting/diagnostic imaging , Aneurysm, Dissecting/etiology , Aneurysm, Dissecting/surgery , Aneurysm, False/diagnostic imaging , Aneurysm, False/surgery , Aneurysm, Ruptured/diagnostic imaging , Aneurysm, Ruptured/surgery , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Ascites/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Brain Edema/etiology , COVID-19 , Cerebral Angiography , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/surgery , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Craniotomy , Disease Progression , Female , Hepatomegaly/etiology , Humans , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Splenic Infarction/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
World Neurosurg ; 138: e955-e960, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-274866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a substantial threat to the health of health care personnel on the front line of caring for patients with COVID-19. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have announced that all nonessential planned surgeries and procedures should be postponed until further notice and only urgent procedures should proceed. Neurologic surgeries and procedures should not be delayed under the circumstance in which it is essential at saving a life or preserving functioning of the central nervous system. METHODS: With the intent to advise the neurosurgery team on how to adequately prepare and safely perform neurosurgical procedures on confirmed and suspected patients with COVID-19, we discuss considerations and recommendations based on the lessons and experience shared by neurosurgeons in China. RESULTS: Perioperative and intraoperative strategies, considerations, as well as challenges arisen under the specific circumstance have been discussed. In addition, a case of a ruptured aneurysm in a suspected patient with COVID-19 is reported. It is advised that all health care personnel who immediately participate in neurosurgical surgeries and procedures for confirmed and suspected patients with COVID-19 should take airborne precautions and wear enhanced personal protective equipment. CONCLUSIONS: Following the proposed guidance, urgent neurosurgical surgeries and procedures can be safely performed for the benefit of critical patients with or suspected for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Ruptured/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/surgery , Air Filters , Aneurysm, Ruptured/complications , Aneurysm, Ruptured/diagnostic imaging , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Craniotomy/methods , Drainage , Emergencies , Hematoma/complications , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/surgery , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/complications , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Pressure , Intraoperative Care , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Monitoring, Physiologic , Operating Rooms , Pandemics , Perioperative Care , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , United States
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