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1.
Clin Imaging ; 85: 10-13, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with pulmonary embolism (PE) in adults. However, the rate of PE in pediatric patients with acute COVID-19 evaluated by CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: Determine PE rate in pediatric patients with acute COVID-19 and compare to adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of CTPA studies, performed between March 2020 and January 2021 on pediatric patients with acute COVID-19, but not MIS-C, was performed. CTPAs performed on an adult cohort of acute COVID-19 patients during April 2020 were reviewed for comparison. Pediatric and chest radiologists independently reviewed CTPAs of pediatric and adult patients, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 355 acute COVID-19 pediatric patients treated during the study period, 14 (16.6 ± 4.8y, median-18.5y, 64% female) underwent CTPA. Of the 1868 acute COVID-19 adults treated during two weeks in April 2020, 50 (57.2 ± 17.0y, median-57.0y, 42% female) underwent CTPA. The PE rate was 14% in the pediatric group (2 patients) and 18% in the adult group (9 patients) (p = 1.0). Both pediatric patients with PE were obese, over 18y, and had asthma, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension. No child<18y with acute COVID-19 had PE. In the adult cohort, higher alanine-aminotransferase and D-dimer levels were associated with PE (p = 0.04 and p = 0.004, respectively). CONCLUSION: Despite similar PE rates in pediatric and adult patients, PE occurred in acute COVID-19 pediatric patients who were >18y, obese, and had at least 1 comorbidity. Children <18y with COVID-19 did not have PE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Adult , Angiography , COVID-19/complications , Child , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Humans , Male , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
3.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(4): 1068-1073, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525577

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients have increased risk of pulmonary embolism (PE), but symptoms of both conditions overlap. Because screening algorithms for PE in COVID-19 patients are currently lacking, PE might be underdiagnosed. We evaluated a screening algorithm in which all patients presenting to the ED with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 routinely undergo D-dimer testing, followed by CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) if D-dimer is ≥ 1.00 mg/L. Consecutive adult patients presenting to the ED of two university hospitals in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, between 01-10-2020 and 31-12-2020, who had a final diagnosis of COVID-19, were retrospectively included. D-dimer and CTPA results were obtained. Of 541 patients with a final diagnosis of COVID-19 presenting to the ED, 25 (4.6%) were excluded because D-dimer was missing, and 71 (13.1%) because they used anticoagulation therapy. Of 445 included patients, 185 (41.6%; 95%CI 37.0-46.3) had a D-dimer ≥ 1.00 mg/L. CTPA was performed in 169 of them, which showed PE in 26 (15.4%; 95%CI 10.3-21.7), resulting in an overall detection rate of 5.8% (95%CI 3.9-8.4) in the complete study group. In patients with and without PE at CTPA, median D-dimer was 9.84 (IQR 3.90-29.38) and 1.64 (IQR 1.17-3.01), respectively (p < 0.001). PE prevalence increased with increasing D-dimer, ranging from 1.2% (95%CI 0.0-6.4) if D-dimer was 1.00-1.99 mg/L, to 48.6% (95%CI 31.4-66.0) if D-dimer was ≥ 5.00 mg/L. In conclusion, by applying this screening algorithm, PE was identified in a considerable proportion of COVID-19 patients. Prospective management studies should assess if this algorithm safely rules-out PE if D-dimer is < 1.00 mg/L.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Pulmonary Embolism , Adult , Angiography , COVID-19/complications , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Netherlands , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies
6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(8)2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376897

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: bedside cardiac ultrasound is a widely adopted method in Emergency Departments (ED) for extending physical examination and refining clinical diagnosis. However, in the setting of hemodynamically-stable pulmonary embolism, the diagnostic role of echocardiography is still the subject of debate. In light of its high specificity and low sensitivity, some authors suggest that echocardiographic signs of right ventricle overload could be used to rule-in pulmonary embolism. In this study, we aimed to clarify the diagnostic role of echocardiographic signs of right ventricle overload in the setting of hemodynamically-stable pulmonary embolism in the ED. Materials and Methods: we performed a systematic review of literature in PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane databases, considering the echocardiographic signs for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in the ED. Studies considering unstable or shocked patients were excluded. Papers enrolling hemodynamically stable subjects were selected. We performed a diagnostic test accuracy meta-analysis for each sign, and then performed a critical evaluation according to pretest probability, assessed with Wells' score for pulmonary embolism. Results: 10 studies were finally included. We observed a good specificity and a low sensitivity of each echocardiographic sign of right ventricle overload. However, once stratified by the Wells' score, the post-test probability only increased among high-risk patients. Conclusions: signs of echocardiographic right ventricle overload should not be used to modify the clinical behavior in low- and intermediate- risk patients according to Wells' score classification. Among high-risk patients, however, echocardiographic signs could help a physician in detecting patients with the highest probability of pulmonary embolism, necessitating a confirmation by computed tomography with pulmonary angiography. However, a focused cardiac and thoracic ultrasound investigation is useful for the differential diagnosis of dyspnea and chest pain in the ED.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Embolism , Angiography , Echocardiography , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography
7.
World Neurosurg ; 154: e320-e324, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing restrictions over trainees' working hours and the recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic warrant new educational methods of surgical skills. We assessed a novel video-recording system for neuroendovascular skill education, developed with the installation of a hybrid operating room (OR) at our institution. METHODS: A single-plane angiography unit with a large flat display (FlexVision XL; Philips Medical Systems) was installed in our OR. All media sources in the OR, including live fluoroscopy and ceiling-mounted camcorders, were connected to a video switcher. This video switcher laid up to 8 video images into one big image, which was transferred to the large display and the professional-use Blu-ray recorder. The recording was performed continuously during the procedure. This recording system was evaluated retrospectively with a questionnaire administered to the 5 trainees. RESULTS: Using this system, 68 interventional procedures were recorded. Among the potential merits, the trainees assigned the greatest value to the simultaneous recording of the operator's hand motions and the fluoroscopy images. Among the potential limitations of the system, the prolonged time and the increased volume of the video data bothered the trainees the most. The recorded video looked like a live demonstration. CONCLUSIONS: Our "selfie" video recording system was useful for skill training of neuroendovascular interventions.


Subject(s)
Endovascular Procedures/education , Neurosurgery/education , Neurosurgical Procedures/education , Operating Rooms , Video Recording , Angiography , COVID-19 , Clinical Competence , Education, Medical, Graduate , Fluoroscopy , Humans , Internship and Residency , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(4): 1068-1073, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279480

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients have increased risk of pulmonary embolism (PE), but symptoms of both conditions overlap. Because screening algorithms for PE in COVID-19 patients are currently lacking, PE might be underdiagnosed. We evaluated a screening algorithm in which all patients presenting to the ED with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 routinely undergo D-dimer testing, followed by CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) if D-dimer is ≥ 1.00 mg/L. Consecutive adult patients presenting to the ED of two university hospitals in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, between 01-10-2020 and 31-12-2020, who had a final diagnosis of COVID-19, were retrospectively included. D-dimer and CTPA results were obtained. Of 541 patients with a final diagnosis of COVID-19 presenting to the ED, 25 (4.6%) were excluded because D-dimer was missing, and 71 (13.1%) because they used anticoagulation therapy. Of 445 included patients, 185 (41.6%; 95%CI 37.0-46.3) had a D-dimer ≥ 1.00 mg/L. CTPA was performed in 169 of them, which showed PE in 26 (15.4%; 95%CI 10.3-21.7), resulting in an overall detection rate of 5.8% (95%CI 3.9-8.4) in the complete study group. In patients with and without PE at CTPA, median D-dimer was 9.84 (IQR 3.90-29.38) and 1.64 (IQR 1.17-3.01), respectively (p < 0.001). PE prevalence increased with increasing D-dimer, ranging from 1.2% (95%CI 0.0-6.4) if D-dimer was 1.00-1.99 mg/L, to 48.6% (95%CI 31.4-66.0) if D-dimer was ≥ 5.00 mg/L. In conclusion, by applying this screening algorithm, PE was identified in a considerable proportion of COVID-19 patients. Prospective management studies should assess if this algorithm safely rules-out PE if D-dimer is < 1.00 mg/L.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Pulmonary Embolism , Adult , Angiography , COVID-19/complications , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Netherlands , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies
12.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(2): e155-e160, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150977

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had many ramifications on healthcare delivery and practice. As part of this, utilising biomarkers to risk stratify patients has become increasingly popular. During the COVID-19 pandemic the use of D-dimer has increased due to the evidence of COVID-19 induced thrombo-embolic disease. We evaluated the use of D-dimer on all hospital admissions during the peak of the pandemic and evaluated its sensitivity in diagnosing pulmonary embolic disease (PE). Patients without COVID-19 infection were as likely to have evidence of PE as their COVID-positive counterparts. However, the sensitivity of a D-dimer was higher in COVID-positive patients at a lower D-dimer level (>1,500 µg/L, sensitivity 81%, specificity 70%) than in those without clinical, immunological or radiological evidence of COVID-19 infection (D-dimer >2,000 µg/L, sensitivity 80%, specificity 76%). These data suggest higher D-dimer thresholds should be considered for the exclusion of pulmonary emboli.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Pulmonary Embolism , Angiography , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Pandemics , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146028

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has varied cardiovascular manifestations including microvascular and macrovascular thrombi leading to multiorgan system injury and failure. This case describes a patient presenting with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure from COVID-19 who abruptly developed a large thrombus in the right coronary artery leading to myocardial infarction. This case report reviews the ECG, heart catheterisation images prepercutaneous and postpercutaneous coronary intervention, critical care management and outcome in the context of the height of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Virginia area. A brief review of relevant literature regarding cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 is also provided. Unfortunately, the patient ultimately passed after 2 weeks of inability to wean off the ventilator.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Thrombosis/etiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Angiography , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cardiac Catheterization , Coronary Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Thrombosis/surgery , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug-Eluting Stents , Electrocardiography , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Radiography , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Thrombectomy
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