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Radiographics ; 40(6): 1574-1599, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810605

ABSTRACT

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) results in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was declared an official pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. The infection has been reported in most countries around the world. As of August 2020, there have been over 21 million cases of COVID-19 reported worldwide, with over 800 000 COVID-19-associated deaths. It has become apparent that although COVID-19 predominantly affects the respiratory system, many other organ systems can also be involved. Imaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis of all manifestations of the disease, as well as its related complications, and proper utilization and interpretation of imaging examinations is crucial. With the growing global COVID-19 outbreak, a comprehensive understanding of the diagnostic imaging hallmarks, imaging features, multisystemic involvement, and evolution of imaging findings is essential for effective patient management and treatment. To date, only a few articles have been published that comprehensively describe the multisystemic imaging manifestations of COVID-19. The authors provide an inclusive system-by-system image-based review of this life-threatening and rapidly spreading infection. In part 1 of this article, the authors discuss general aspects of the disease, with an emphasis on virology, the pathophysiology of the virus, and clinical presentation of the disease. The key imaging features of the varied pathologic manifestations of this infection that involve the pulmonary and peripheral and central vascular systems are also described. Part 2 will focus on key imaging features of COVID-19 that involve the cardiac, neurologic, abdominal, dermatologic and ocular, and musculoskeletal systems, as well as pediatric and pregnancy-related manifestations of the virus. Vascular complications pertinent to each system will be also be discussed in part 2. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2020.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Angiography/methods , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Inflammation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnostic imaging , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ultrasonography/methods
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