Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 574
Filter
2.
Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis ; 16: 17539447221137170, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Management of high blood pressure (BP) typically requires adherence to medication regimes. However, it is known that the COVID-19 pandemic both interrupted access to some routine prescriptions and changed some patient health behaviours. AIM: This study, therefore, retrospectively investigated prescription reimbursement of cardiovascular (CVD) medicines as a proxy measure for patient adherence and access to medicines during the pandemic. METHODS: A cohort study of all primary care patients in England prescribed CVD medicines. The exposure was to the global pandemic. Prescriptions were compared before and after the pandemic's onset. Statistical variation was the outcome of interest. RESULTS: Descriptive statistics show changes to monthly prescriptions, with wide confidence intervals indicating varying underlying practice. Analysis of variance reveals statistically significant differences for bendroflumethiazide, potassium-sparing diuretics, nicorandil, ezetimibe, ivabradine, ranolazine, colesevelam and midodrine. After the pandemic began (March-October 2020), negative parameters are observed for ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, statins, antiplatelet, antithrombotics, ARBs, loop diuretics, doxazosin, bendroflumethiazide, nitrates and indapamide, indicating decelerating monthly prescription items (statistically significant declines of calcium channel blockers, antithrombotic, adrenoreceptor blockers and diuretics) of CVD medicines within the general population. Many data points are not statistically significant, but fluctuations remain clinically important for the large population of patients taking these medications. CONCLUSION: A concerning decline in uptake of CVD therapies for chronic heart disease was observed. Accessible screening and treatment alongside financial relief on prescription levies are needed. A video abstract is (4 min 51 s) available: https://bit.ly/39gvEHi.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Agents , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Diseases , Humans , Pandemics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Bendroflumethiazide , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Cardiovascular Agents/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Drug Prescriptions
4.
Circulation ; 141(20): 1648-1655, 2020 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138307

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic affecting 185 countries and >3 000 000 patients worldwide as of April 28, 2020. COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which invades cells through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Among patients with COVID-19, there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease, and >7% of patients experience myocardial injury from the infection (22% of critically ill patients). Although angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 serves as the portal for infection, the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers requires further investigation. COVID-19 poses a challenge for heart transplantation, affecting donor selection, immunosuppression, and posttransplant management. There are a number of promising therapies under active investigation to treat and prevent COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia, Viral , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/enzymology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
7.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276781, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117546

ABSTRACT

Hypertension appears to be one of the commonest comorbidities in COVID-19 patients, although whether hypertensive individuals have a higher risk of severe COVID-19 compared with non-hypertensives is unclear. It is also unclear whether the absolute level of systolic blood pressure, or the type of anti-hypertensive medication is related to this risk. Analyses were conducted using data from the UK Biobank and linked health records. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess the impact of hypertension, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and medications on the risk of severe COVID-19. 16,134 individuals tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus, 22% (n = 3,584) developed severe COVID-19 and 40% (n = 6,517) were hypertensive. Hypertension was associated with 22% higher odds of severe COVID-19 (Odds ratio (OR) 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12, 1.33), compared with normotension after adjusting for confounding variables. In those taking anti-hypertensive medications, elevated SBP showed a dose-response relationship with severe COVID-19 (150-159mmHg versus 120-129mmHg (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.44, 2.53), >180+mmHg versus 120-129mmHg (OR 1.93; 95% CI 1.06, 3.51)). SBP <120mmHg was associated with greater odds of severe COVID-19 (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.11, 1.78). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-II receptor blockers were not associated with altered risk of severe COVID-19. Hypertension is an important risk factor for COVID-19. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms is warranted in case of more severe strains or other viruses in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Biological Specimen Banks , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
8.
BMJ ; 379: e072175, 2022 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117032

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether disrupting the renin angiotensin system with angiotensin receptor blockers will improve clinical outcomes in people with covid-19. DESIGN: CLARITY was a pragmatic, adaptive, multicentre, phase 3, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 17 hospital sites in India and Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were at least 18 years old, previously untreated with angiotensin receptor blockers, with a laboratory confirmed diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who had been admitted to hospital for management of covid-19. INTERVENTION: Oral angiotensin receptor blockers (telmisartan in India) or placebo (1:1) for 28 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoint was covid-19 disease severity using a modified World Health Organization Clinical Progression Scale (WHO scale) at day 14. Secondary outcomes were WHO scale scores at day 28, mortality, intensive care unit admission, and respiratory failure. Analyses were evaluated on an ordinal scale in the intention-to-treat population. RESULTS: Between 3 May 2020 and 13 November 2021, 2930 people were screened for eligibility, with 393 randomly assigned to angiotensin receptor blockers (of which 388 (98.7%) to telmisartan 40 mg/day) and 394 to the control group. 787 participants were randomised: 778 (98.9%) from India and nine (1.1%) from Australia. The median WHO scale score at day 14 was 1 (interquartile range 1-1) in 384 participants assigned angiotensin receptor blockers and 1 (1-1) in 382 participants assigned placebo (adjusted odds ratio 1.51 (95% credible interval 1.02 to 2.23), probability of an odds ratio of >1 (Pr(OR>1)=0.98). WHO scale scores at day 28 showed little evidence of difference between groups (1.02 (0.55 to 1.87), Pr(OR>1)=0.53). The trial was stopped when a prespecified futility rule was met. CONCLUSIONS: In patients admitted to hospital for covid-19, mostly with mild disease, not requiring oxygen, no evidence of benefit, based on disease severity score, was found for treatment with angiotensin receptor blockers, using predominantly 40 mg/day of telmisartan. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04394117.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Telmisartan/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Renin-Angiotensin System
10.
Intern Med ; 61(20): 3053-3062, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079926

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the continuation of antibody prevalence status after 12 months and background factors in antibody-positive subjects following asymptomatic infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods We initially determined the SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid protein immunoglobulin G (anti-N IgG) antibody prevalence in 1,603 patients, doctors, and nurses at 65 medical institutions in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. We then obtained consent from 33 of the 39 subjects who tested positive and performed follow-up for 12 months. Results Follow-up for up to 12 months showed that a long-term response of the anti-N IgG antibody could be detected in 6 of the 33 participants (18.2%). The proportions with hypertension, using an angiotensin-receptor blocker, and without a drinking habit were higher among the participants with a long-term anti-N IgG antibody response for up to 12 months than among those without a long-term antibody response. Conclusions The proportion of individuals with subclinical COVID-19 who continuously had a positive result for the anti-N IgG antibody at 12 months was low.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e017364, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064368

ABSTRACT

Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor to enter human cells. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARB) are associated with ACE-2 upregulation. We hypothesized that antecedent use of ACEI/ARB may be associated with mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods and Results We used the Coracle registry, which contains data of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 4 regions of Italy, and restricted analyses to those ≥50 years of age. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Among these 781 patients, 133 (17.0%) used an ARB and 171 (21.9%) used an ACEI. While neither sex nor smoking status differed by user groups, patients on ACEI/ARB were older and more likely to have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure. The overall mortality rate was 15.1% (118/781) and increased with age (PTrend<0.0001). The crude odds ratios (ORs) for death for ACEI users and ARB users were 0.98, 95% CI, 0.60-1.60, P=0.9333, and 1.13, 95% CI, 0.67-1.91, P=0.6385, respectively. After adjusting for age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure, antecedent ACEI administration was associated with reduced mortality (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31-0.98, P=0.0436); a similar, but weaker trend was observed for ARB administration (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.32-1.07, P=0.0796). Conclusions In those aged ≥50 years hospitalized with COVID-19, antecedent use of ACEI was independently associated with reduced risk of inpatient death. Our findings suggest a protective role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition in patients with high cardiovascular risk affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
13.
Mol Med Rep ; 26(5)2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055488

ABSTRACT

COVID­19 patients with severe infection have been observed to have elevated auto­antibodies (AAs) against angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) and endothelin (ET) 1 receptor type A (ETAR), compared with healthy controls and patients with favorable (mild) infection. AT1R and ETAR are G protein­coupled receptors, located on vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, immune and endothelial cells, and are activated by angiotensin II (Ang II) and ET1 respectively. AAs that are specific for these receptors have a functional role similar to the natural ligands, but with a more prolonged vasoconstrictive effect. They also induce the production of fibroblast collagen, the release of reactive oxygen species and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (including IL­6, IL­8 and TNF­α) by immune cells. Despite the presence of AAs in severe COVID­19 infected patients, their contribution and implication in the severity of the disease is still not well understood and further studies are warranted. The present review described the major vascular homeostasis systems [ET and renin­angiotensin­aldosterone system (RAAS)], the vital regulative role of nitric oxide, the AAs, and finally the administration of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), so as to provide more insight into the interplay that exists among these components and their contribution to the severity, prognosis and possible treatment of COVID­19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Diseases , Angiotensin II , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Collagen , Endothelial Cells , Endothelins , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Nitric Oxide , Reactive Oxygen Species , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Receptor, Endothelin A , Receptors, Angiotensin , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
14.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267327, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The complex link between nutritional status, protein and lipid synthesis, and immunity plays an important prognostic role in patients with heart failure. However, the association between appetite loss at discharge and long-term outcome remains unclear. METHODS: The Kyoto Congestive Heart Failure registry is a prospective cohort study that enrolled consecutive patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) in Japan. We assessed 3528 patients alive at discharge, and for whom appetite and follow-up data were available. We compared one-year clinical outcomes in patients with and without appetite loss at discharge. RESULTS: In the multivariable logistic regression analysis using 19 clinical and laboratory factors with P value < 0.1 by univariate analysis, BMI < 22 kg/m2 (odds ratio (OR): 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-2.24, P = 0.01), CRP >1.0mg/dL (OR: 1.49, 95%CI: 1.04-2.14, P = 0.03), and presence of edema at discharge (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 2.99-6.22, P<0.001) were associated with an increased risk of appetite loss at discharge, whereas ambulatory status (OR: 0.57, 95%CI: 0.39-0.83, P = 0.004) and the use of ACE-I/ARB (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.50-0.98, P = 0.04) were related to a decreased risk in the presence of appetite loss. The cumulative 1-year incidence of all-cause death (primary outcome measure) was significantly higher in patients with appetite loss than in those without appetite loss (31.0% vs. 15.0%, P<0.001). The excess adjusted risk of appetite loss relative to no appetite loss remained significant for all-cause death (hazard ratio (HR): 1.63, 95%CI: 1.29-2.07, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Loss of appetite at discharge was associated with worse 1-year mortality in patients with ADHF. Appetite is a simple, reliable, and useful subjective marker for risk stratification of patients with ADHF.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Patient Discharge , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Appetite , Humans , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Registries
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 958418, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022743

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate the clinical predictors of in-hospital mortality in hospitalized patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection during the Omicron period. Methods: All consecutive hospitalized laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients between January and May 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent accurate physical, laboratory, radiographic and echocardiographic examination. Primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Results: 74 consecutive COVID-19 patients (80.0 ± 12.6 yrs, 45.9% males) were included. Patients who died during hospitalization (27%) and those who were discharged alive (73%) were separately analyzed. Compared to patients discharged alive, those who died were significantly older, with higher comorbidity burden and greater prevalence of laboratory, radiographic and echographic signs of pulmonary and systemic congestion. Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) (OR 1.76, 95%CI 1.07-2.92), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (OR 1.24, 95%CI 1.10-1.39) and absence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) therapy (OR 0.01, 95%CI 0.00-0.22) independently predicted the primary endpoint. CCI ≥7 and NLR ≥9 were the best cut-off values for predicting mortality. The mortality risk for patients with CCI ≥7, NLR ≥9 and not in ACEI/ARBs therapy was high (86%); for patients with CCI <7, NLR ≥9, with (16.6%) or without (25%) ACEI/ARBs therapy was intermediate; for patients with CCI <7, NLR <9 and in ACEI/ARBs therapy was of 0%. Conclusions: High comorbidity burden, high levels of NLR and the undertreatment with ACEI/ARBs were the main prognostic indicators of in-hospital mortality. The risk stratification of COVID-19 patients at hospital admission would help the clinicians to take care of the high-risk patients and reduce the mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renin-Angiotensin System , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Lymphocytes , Male , Neutrophils , Retrospective Studies
16.
Hypertension ; 79(11): 2601-2610, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases including arterial hypertension are common comorbidities among patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. We assessed the influence of preexisting hypertension and its pharmacological treatment on in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: We studied all consecutive patients who were admitted to the University Hospital in Krakow, Poland, due to COVID-19 between March 2020 and May 2021. Data of 5191 patients (mean age 61.9±16.7 years, 45.2% female) were analyzed. RESULTS: The median hospitalization time was 14 days, and the mortality rate was 18.4%. About a quarter of patients had an established cardiovascular disease including coronary artery disease (16.6%) or stroke (7.6%). Patients with hypertension (58.3%) were older and had more comorbidities than patients without hypertension. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, age above median (64 years), male gender, history of heart failure or chronic kidney disease, and higher C-reactive protein level, but not preexisting hypertension, were independent risk factors for in-hospital death in the whole study group. Patients with hypertension already treated (n=1723) with any first-line antihypertensive drug (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, or thiazide/thiazide-like diuretics) had a significantly lower risk of in-hospital death (odds ratio, 0.25 [95% CI, 0.2-0.3]; P<0.001) compared to nontreated hypertensives (n=1305). CONCLUSIONS: Although the diagnosis of preexisting hypertension per se had no significant impact on in-hospital mortality among patients with COVID-19, treatment with any first-line blood pressure-lowering drug had a profound beneficial effect on survival in patients with hypertension. These data support the need for antihypertensive pharmacological treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Hospital Mortality , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/chemically induced , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Thiazides/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization
19.
Environ Res ; 215(Pt 1): 114218, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004063

ABSTRACT

The tremendous rise in the consumption of antimicrobial products had aroused global concerns, especially in the midst of pandemic COVID-19. Antimicrobial resistance has been accelerated by widespread usage of antimicrobial products in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, the widespread use of antimicrobial products releases biohazardous substances into the environment, endangering the ecology and ecosystem. Therefore, several strategies or measurements are needed to tackle this problem. In this review, types of antimicrobial available, emerging nanotechnology in antimicrobial production and their advanced application have been discussed. The problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB)and antimicrobial resistance genes (AMG) had become the biggest threat to public health. To deal with this problem, an in-depth discussion of the challenges faced in antimicrobial mitigations and potential alternatives was reviewed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Ecosystem , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(17): e026143, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001999

ABSTRACT

Background Published randomized controlled trials are underpowered for binary clinical end points to assess the safety and efficacy of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) in adults with COVID-19. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to assess the safety and efficacy of RASi in adults with COVID-19. Methods and Results MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register were searched for randomized controlled trials that randomly assigned patients with COVID-19 to RASi continuation/commencement versus no RASi therapy. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at ≤30 days. A total of 14 randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and enrolled 1838 participants (aged 59 years, 58% men, mean follow-up 26 days). Of the trials, 11 contributed data. We found no effect of RASi versus control on all-cause mortality (7.2% versus 7.5%; relative risk [RR], 0.95; [95% CI, 0.69-1.30]) either overall or in subgroups defined by COVID-19 severity or trial type. Network meta-analysis identified no difference between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors versus angiotensin II receptor blockers. RASi users had a nonsignificant reduction in acute myocardial infarction (2.1% versus 3.6%; RR, 0.59; [95% CI, 0.33-1.06]), but increased risk of acute kidney injury (7.0% versus 3.6%; RR, 1.82; [95% CI, 1.05-3.16]), in trials that initiated and continued RASi. There was no increase in need for dialysis or differences in congestive cardiac failure, cerebrovascular events, venous thromboembolism, hospitalization, intensive care admission, inotropes, or mechanical ventilation. Conclusions This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers versus control in patients with COVID-19 found no difference in all-cause mortality, a borderline decrease in myocardial infarction, and an increased risk of acute kidney injury with RASi. Our findings provide strong evidence that RASi can be used safely in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Myocardial Infarction , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Adult , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Renin-Angiotensin System
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL