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1.
Drugs ; 82(1): 43-54, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) use and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and outcomes in US veterans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined 27,556 adult US veterans who tested positive for COVID-19 between March to November 2020. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models using propensity score (PS) for weight, adjustment, and matching were used to examine the odds of an event within 60 days following a COVID-19-positive case date and time to death, respectively, according to ACEI and/or ARB prescription within 6 months prior to the COVID-19-positive case date. RESULTS: The overlap PS weighted logistic regression model showed lower odds of an intensive care unit (ICU) admission (odds ratio [OR] 95% CI 0.77, 0.61-0.98) and death within 60 days (0.87, 0.79-0.97) with an ACEI or ARB prescription. Veterans with an ARB-only prescription also had lower odds of an ICU admission (0.64, 0.44-0.92). The overlap PS weighted model similarly showed a lower risk of time to all-cause mortality in veterans with an ACEI or ARB prescription (HR [95% CI]: 0.87, 0.79-0.97) and an ARB only prescription (0.78, 0.67-0.91). Veterans with an ACEI prescription had higher odds of experiencing a septic event within 60 days after the COVID-19-positive case date (1.22, 1.02-1.46). CONCLUSION: In this study of a national cohort of US veterans, we found that the use of an ACEI/ARB in patients with COVID-19 was not associated with increased mortality and other worse outcomes. Future studies should examine underlying pathways and further confirm the relationship of ACEI prescription with sepsis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/epidemiology , Veterans
2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248009, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575841

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the start of the pandemic, millions of people have been infected, with thousands of deaths. Many foci worldwide have been identified in retirement nursing homes, with a high number of deaths. Our study aims were to evaluate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the retirement nursing homes, the predictors to develop symptoms, and death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling all people living in retirement nursing homes (PLRNH), where at least one SARS-CoV-2 infected person was present. Medical and clinical data were collected. Variables were compared with Student's t-test or Pearson chi-square test as appropriate. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate variables' influence on infection and symptoms development. Cox proportional-hazards model was used to evaluate 30 days mortality predictors, considering death as the dependent variable. We enrolled 382 subjects. The mean age was 81.15±10.97 years, and males were 140(36.7%). At the multivariate analysis, mental disorders, malignancies, and angiotensin II receptor blockers were predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection while having a neurological syndrome was associated with a lower risk. Only half of the people with SARS-CoV-2 infection developed symptoms. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and neurological syndrome were correlated with an increased risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 related symptoms. Fifty-six (21.2%) people with SARS-CoV-2 infection died; of these, 53 died in the first 30 days after the swab's positivity. Significant factors associated with 30-days mortality were male gender, hypokinetic disease, and the presence of fever and dyspnea. Patients' autonomy and early heparin treatment were related to lower mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: We evidenced factors associated with infection's risk and death in a setting with high mortality such as retirement nursing homes, that should be carefully considered in the management of PLRNH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/pathology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Nursing Homes , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Survival Rate
3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258684, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480452

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities have a significantly increased risk for a critical course of COVID-19. As the SARS-CoV2 virus enters cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor II (ACE2), drugs which interact with the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) were suspected to influence disease severity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 1946 consecutive patients with cardiovascular comorbidities or hypertension enrolled in one of the largest European COVID-19 registries, the Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2 (LEOSS) registry. Here, we show that angiotensin II receptor blocker intake is associated with decreased mortality in patients with COVID-19 [OR 0.75 (95% CI 0,59-0.96; p = 0.013)]. This effect was mainly driven by patients, who presented in an early phase of COVID-19 at baseline [OR 0,64 (95% CI 0,43-0,96; p = 0.029)]. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly lower incidence of death in patients on an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) (n = 33/318;10,4%) compared to patients using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) (n = 60/348;17,2%) or patients who received neither an ACE-inhibitor nor an ARB at baseline in the uncomplicated phase (n = 90/466; 19,3%; p<0.034). Patients taking an ARB were significantly less frequently reaching the mortality predicting threshold for leukocytes (p<0.001), neutrophils (p = 0.002) and the inflammatory markers CRP (p = 0.021), procalcitonin (p = 0.001) and IL-6 (p = 0.049). ACE2 expression levels in human lung samples were not altered in patients taking RAAS modulators. CONCLUSION: These data suggest a beneficial effect of ARBs on disease severity in patients with cardiovascular comorbidities and COVID-19, which is linked to dampened systemic inflammatory activity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
4.
J Clin Invest ; 131(19)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDThe angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) D allele is more prevalent among African Americans compared with other races and ethnicities and has previously been associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis through excessive ACE1 activity. ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB) may counteract this mechanism, but their association with COVID-19 outcomes has not been specifically tested in the African American population.METHODSWe identified 6218 patients who were admitted into Mount Sinai hospitals with COVID-19 between February 24 and May 31, 2020, in New York City. We evaluated whether the outpatient and in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARB is associated with COVID-19 in-hospital mortality in an African American compared with non-African American population.RESULTSOf the 6218 patients with COVID-19, 1138 (18.3%) were ACE-I/ARB users. In a multivariate logistic regression model, ACE-I/ARB use was independently associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality in the entire population (OR, 0.655; 95% CI, 0.505-0.850; P = 0.001), African American population (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.249-0.779; P = 0.005), and non-African American population (OR, 0.748, 95% CI, 0.553-1.012, P = 0.06). In the African American population, in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARB was associated with improved mortality (OR, 0.378; 95% CI, 0.188-0.766; P = 0.006), whereas outpatient use was not (OR, 0.889; 95% CI, 0.375-2.158; P = 0.812). When analyzing each medication class separately, ARB in-hospital use was significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality in the African American population (OR, 0.196; 95% CI, 0.074-0.516; P = 0.001), whereas ACE-I use was not associated with impact on mortality in any population.CONCLUSIONIn-hospital use of ARB was associated with a significant reduction in in-hospital mortality among COVID-19-positive African American patients.FUNDINGNone.


Subject(s)
African Americans , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
5.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): 863-872, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 entry in human cells depends on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, which can be upregulated by inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We aimed to test our hypothesis that discontinuation of chronic treatment with ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) mitigates the course o\f recent-onset COVID-19. METHODS: ACEI-COVID was a parallel group, randomised, controlled, open-label trial done at 35 centres in Austria and Germany. Patients aged 18 years and older were enrolled if they presented with recent symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and were chronically treated with ACEIs or ARBs. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to discontinuation or continuation of RAS inhibition for 30 days. Primary outcome was the maximum sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score within 30 days, where death was scored with the maximum achievable SOFA score. Secondary endpoints were area under the death-adjusted SOFA score (AUCSOFA), mean SOFA score, admission to the intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, and death. Analyses were done on a modified intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04353596. FINDINGS: Between April 20, 2020, and Jan 20, 2021, 204 patients (median age 75 years [IQR 66-80], 37% females) were randomly assigned to discontinue (n=104) or continue (n=100) RAS inhibition. Within 30 days, eight (8%) of 104 died in the discontinuation group and 12 (12%) of 100 patients died in the continuation group (p=0·42). There was no significant difference in the primary endpoint between the discontinuation and continuation group (median [IQR] maximum SOFA score 0·00 (0·00-2·00) vs 1·00 (0·00-3·00); p=0·12). Discontinuation was associated with a significantly lower AUCSOFA (0·00 [0·00-9·25] vs 3·50 [0·00-23·50]; p=0·040), mean SOFA score (0·00 [0·00-0·31] vs 0·12 [0·00-0·78]; p=0·040), and 30-day SOFA score (0·00 [10-90th percentile, 0·00-1·20] vs 0·00 [0·00-24·00]; p=0·023). At 30 days, 11 (11%) in the discontinuation group and 23 (23%) in the continuation group had signs of organ dysfunction (SOFA score ≥1) or were dead (p=0·017). There were no significant differences for mechanical ventilation (10 (10%) vs 8 (8%), p=0·87) and admission to intensive care unit (20 [19%] vs 18 [18%], p=0·96) between the discontinuation and continuation group. INTERPRETATION: Discontinuation of RAS-inhibition in COVID-19 had no significant effect on the maximum severity of COVID-19 but may lead to a faster and better recovery. The decision to continue or discontinue should be made on an individual basis, considering the risk profile, the indication for RAS inhibition, and the availability of alternative therapies and outpatient monitoring options. FUNDING: Austrian Science Fund and German Center for Cardiovascular Research.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Risk Adjustment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Withholding Treatment/statistics & numerical data
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2417, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203428

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 uses ACE2, an inhibitor of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS), for cellular entry. Studies indicate that RAAS imbalance worsens the prognosis in COVID-19. We present a consecutive retrospective COVID-19 cohort with findings of frequent pulmonary thromboembolism (17%), high pulmonary artery pressure (60%) and lung MRI perfusion disturbances. We demonstrate, in swine, that infusing angiotensin II or blocking ACE2 induces increased pulmonary artery pressure, reduces blood oxygenation, increases coagulation, disturbs lung perfusion, induces diffuse alveolar damage, and acute tubular necrosis compared to control animals. We further demonstrate that this imbalanced state can be ameliorated by infusion of an angiotensin receptor blocker and low-molecular-weight heparin. In this work, we show that a pathophysiological state in swine induced by RAAS imbalance shares several features with the clinical COVID-19 presentation. Therefore, we propose that severe COVID-19 could partially be driven by a RAAS imbalance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Angiotensin II/administration & dosage , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Protein Binding/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Swine , Virus Internalization/drug effects
8.
J Hypertens ; 39(2): 367-375, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114883

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a matter of controversies. Studies based on in-hospital exposure have suggested a beneficial effect of these drugs, unlike those based on chronic exposure. We aimed to analyse RAAS blocker prescription before and during hospital stay in patients with COVID-19, and the corresponding outcomes, to explain these discrepant results. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study conducted in 347 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 (Bichat Hospital, Paris, France, 23 January-29 April 2020), RAAS blocker exposure, as well as timing and reason for treatment modifications, were collected. The association between exposure and mortality within 30 days of hospital admission was analysed using logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities. RESULTS: Median age was 61 [interquartile range, 51-72] years, 209 (60%) were male, 169 (49%) had a history of treated hypertension, and 117 (34%) received a RAAS blocker prior to hospitalization. RAAS blockers were discontinued within the first 7 days of hospital admission in 33% of previously treated patients (mostly driven by severity of the disease), with a corresponding mortality rate of 33%. Mortality was 8% when treatment was maintained or introduced, and 12% in patients never exposed. Adjusted odds ratios for association between exposure and mortality were 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.25-1.48) based on chronic exposure and 0.25 (0.09-0.65) based on in-hospital exposure. CONCLUSION: A 'healthy user-sick stopper' bias influences RAAS blocker prescription after hospital admission for COVID-19, and explains the seemingly favourable outcome associated with in-hospital treatment.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Paris , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
JAMA ; 324(2): 168-177, 2020 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1074235

ABSTRACT

Importance: It has been hypothesized that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may make patients more susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to worse outcomes through upregulation of the functional receptor of the virus, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Objective: To examine whether use of ACEI/ARBs was associated with COVID-19 diagnosis and worse outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: To examine outcomes among patients with COVID-19, a retrospective cohort study using data from Danish national administrative registries was conducted. Patients with COVID-19 from February 22 to May 4, 2020, were identified using ICD-10 codes and followed up from day of diagnosis to outcome or end of study period (May 4, 2020). To examine susceptibility to COVID-19, a Cox regression model with a nested case-control framework was used to examine the association between use of ACEI/ARBs vs other antihypertensive drugs and the incidence rate of a COVID-19 diagnosis in a cohort of patients with hypertension from February 1 to May 4, 2020. Exposures: ACEI/ARB use was defined as prescription fillings 6 months prior to the index date. Main Outcomes and Measures: In the retrospective cohort study, the primary outcome was death, and a secondary outcome was a composite outcome of death or severe COVID-19. In the nested case-control susceptibility analysis, the outcome was COVID-19 diagnosis. Results: In the retrospective cohort study, 4480 patients with COVID-19 were included (median age, 54.7 years [interquartile range, 40.9-72.0]; 47.9% men). There were 895 users (20.0%) of ACEI/ARBs and 3585 nonusers (80.0%). In the ACEI/ARB group, 18.1% died within 30 days vs 7.3% in the nonuser group, but this association was not significant after adjustment for age, sex, and medical history (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.83 [95% CI, 0.67-1.03]). Death or severe COVID-19 occurred in 31.9% of ACEI/ARB users vs 14.2% of nonusers by 30 days (adjusted HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.89-1.23]). In the nested case-control analysis of COVID-19 susceptibility, 571 patients with COVID-19 and prior hypertension (median age, 73.9 years; 54.3% men) were compared with 5710 age- and sex-matched controls with prior hypertension but not COVID-19. Among those with COVID-19, 86.5% used ACEI/ARBs vs 85.4% of controls; ACEI/ARB use compared with other antihypertensive drugs was not significantly associated with higher incidence of COVID-19 (adjusted HR, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.80-1.36]). Conclusions and Relevance: Prior use of ACEI/ARBs was not significantly associated with COVID-19 diagnosis among patients with hypertension or with mortality or severe disease among patients diagnosed as having COVID-19. These findings do not support discontinuation of ACEI/ARB medications that are clinically indicated in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Denmark , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(1): 523-526, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052579

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, millions of people have been infected with thousands of deaths. Few data regarding factors that increase the risk of infection are available. Our study aimed to evaluate all people living in retirement homes (PLRNH) and identify factors that could increase infection risk in a close community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling all PLRNH, where at least one SARS-CoV-2 infected person was present. Variables were compared with Student's t-test or Pearson chi-square test as appropriate. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate variables' influence on the infection. RESULTS: We included 452 PLRNH; 144 (31.7%) were male, with a mean age of 82.2±8.6 years. People with a positive swab for SARS-CoV-2 were 306 (67.4%). A significant difference between SARS-CoV-2 infected and not infected was observed in the percentage of those receiving chronic treatment with Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) (18.6% vs. 9.5%, p=0.012). On the contrary, there was no difference in the proportion of those receiving ACE inhibitors (ACE-I) (21.2% vs. 23.6%, p=0.562). At multivariate analysis, people with mental illness and cancer had an increased risk of being infected. Furthermore, receiving ARBs as a chronic treatment was an independent predictor of infection risk [OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.03-3.72) p=0.041]. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that, in close communities, such as retirement nursing homes, the receipt of ARBs increased the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, before changing an important chronic treatment in a fragile population, such as the elderly living in retirement nursing homes, clinicians should carefully evaluate the risk-benefit ratio.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/transmission , Drug Utilization , Female , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment
11.
Intern Med J ; 50(12): 1483-1491, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among hypertensive patients, the association between treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) and the clinical severity of COVID-19, remains uncertain. AIMS: To determine whether hypertensive patients hospitalised with COVID-19 are at risk of worse outcomes if on treatment with ACEI or ARB compared to other anti-hypertensive medications. METHODS: This is a retrospective study conducted at a single academic medical centre (Fondazione Policlinico A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy) from 1 to 31 March 2020. We compared patients on treatment with an ACEI/ARB (ACEI/ARB group) to patients receiving other anti-hypertensive medications (No-ACEI/ARB group). The end-points of the study were the all-cause in-hospital death and the combination of in-hospital death or need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: The sample included 166 COVID-19 patients; median age was 74 years and 109 (66%) were men. Overall, 111 (67%) patients were taking an ACEI or ARB. Twenty-nine (17%) patients died during the hospital stay, and 51 (31%) met the combined end-point. After adjustment for comorbidities, age and degree of severity at the presentation, ACEI or ARB treatment was an independent predictor neither of in-hospital death nor of the combination of in-hospital death/need for ICU. No differences were documented between treatment with ACEI compared to ARB. CONCLUSIONS: Among hypertensive patients hospitalised for COVID-19, treatment with ACEI or ARB is not associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization/trends , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Electronic Health Records/trends , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
12.
Nat Biotechnol ; 39(6): 705-716, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997913

ABSTRACT

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), hypertension and cardiovascular diseases are major risk factors for critical disease progression. However, the underlying causes and the effects of the main anti-hypertensive therapies-angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)-remain unclear. Combining clinical data (n = 144) and single-cell sequencing data of airway samples (n = 48) with in vitro experiments, we observed a distinct inflammatory predisposition of immune cells in patients with hypertension that correlated with critical COVID-19 progression. ACEI treatment was associated with dampened COVID-19-related hyperinflammation and with increased cell intrinsic antiviral responses, whereas ARB treatment related to enhanced epithelial-immune cell interactions. Macrophages and neutrophils of patients with hypertension, in particular under ARB treatment, exhibited higher expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines CCL3 and CCL4 and the chemokine receptor CCR1. Although the limited size of our cohort does not allow us to establish clinical efficacy, our data suggest that the clinical benefits of ACEI treatment in patients with COVID-19 who have hypertension warrant further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokine CCL3/genetics , Chemokine CCL4/genetics , Hypertension/drug therapy , Receptors, CCR1/genetics , Adult , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertension/pathology , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA-Seq , Respiratory System/drug effects , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Single-Cell Analysis
13.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1563-1571, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992140

ABSTRACT

The viral spike coat protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) engages the human ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) 2 cell surface receptor to infect the host cells. Thus, concerns arose regarding theoretically higher risk for coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in patients taking ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]). We systematically assessed case-population and cohort studies from MEDLINE (Ovid), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews PubMed, Embase, medRXIV, the World Health Organization database of COVID-19 publications, and ClinicalTrials.gov through June 1, 2020, with planned ongoing surveillance. We rated the certainty of evidence according to Cochrane methods and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. After pooling the adjusted odds ratios from the included studies, no significant increase was noted in the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by the use of ACE inhibitors (adjusted odds ratio, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.86-1.05]) or ARBs (adjusted odds ratio, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.97-1.14]). However, the random-effects meta-regression revealed that age may modify the SARS-CoV-2 infection risk in subjects with the use of ARBs (coefficient, -0.006 [95% CI, -0.016 to 0.004]), that is, the use of ARBs, as opposed to ACE inhibitors, specifically augmented the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in younger subjects (<60 years old). The use of ACE inhibitors might not increase the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severity of disease, and mortality in case-population and cohort studies. Additionally, we discovered for the first time that the use of ARBs, as opposed to ACE inhibitors, specifically augmented the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in younger subjects, without obvious effects on COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/chemically induced , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cause of Death , Female , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Survival Analysis
14.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948866

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is mediated by the binding of its spike protein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which plays a pivotal role in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The study of RAS dysregulation due to SARS-CoV-2 infection is fundamentally important for a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and risk factors associated with COVID-19 coronavirus disease and to design effective therapeutic strategies. In this context, we developed a mathematical model of RAS based on data regarding protein and peptide concentrations; the model was tested on clinical data from healthy normotensive and hypertensive individuals. We used our model to analyze the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on RAS, which we modeled through a downregulation of ACE2 as a function of viral load. We also used it to predict the effect of RAS-targeting drugs, such as RAS-blockers, human recombinant ACE2, and angiotensin 1-7 peptide, on COVID-19 patients; the model predicted an improvement of the clinical outcome for some drugs and a worsening for others. Our model and its predictions constitute a valuable framework for in silico testing of hypotheses about the COVID-19 pathogenic mechanisms and the effect of drugs aiming to restore RAS functionality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Models, Theoretical , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Angiotensin I/administration & dosage , Angiotensin I/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Humans , Peptide Fragments/administration & dosage , Peptide Fragments/pharmacology , Renin/antagonists & inhibitors , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
15.
Intern Med J ; 50(12): 1468-1474, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, enters human cells by binding of its viral protein to the aminopeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This has led to speculation whether treatment with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors was associated with an increased likelihood of a positive test for COVID-19 and risk of mortality. AIMS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether RAS inhibitors increased the likelihood of a positive test or death/severe illness in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE, PubMed and EMBASE was conducted for studies stratified by the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). Pooled analysis was performed using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Seven trials of 73 122 patients were included. Overall, 16 624 (22.7%) patients had a positive COVID-19 test and 7892 (10.8%) were on a RAS inhibitor. RAS inhibitors were not associated with higher likelihood of a positive COVID-19 test result (odds ratio (OR) 0.97 (95% CI 0.97-1.05, P = 0.48) with low heterogeneity. This was comparable when stratifying by use of each medication class. The use of RAS inhibitors was also not associated with mortality or severe illness (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.73-1.07, P = 0.21) with moderate heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: Use of ACEI or ARB was not associated with a heightened susceptibility for a positive diagnosis of COVID-19. Furthermore, they were not associated with increased illness severity or mortality due to COVID-19. Randomised controlled trials are needed to address definitively the potential benefits or harms of RAS inhibitors in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mortality/trends , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
16.
Exp Dermatol ; 29(9): 902-909, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944711

ABSTRACT

Hypertrophic scar and keloid are two types of fibroproliferative conditions that result from excessive extracellular matrix production. The underlying pathological mechanism is not entirely clear. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with fibrosis in various organs. RAS components including angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptors, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) are expressed in the skin and act independently from the plasma RAS. AT1 receptors, which are usually the dominating receptor subtype, promote fibrosis and scar formation, while AT2 receptors inhibit the aforementioned AT1 receptor-coupled effects. Elevated angiotensin II (Ang II) levels acting on the AT1 receptor contribute to skin scar formation through increased expression of inflammatory factors such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibrinogenic factors such as transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), while at the same time suppressing the anti-fibrotic tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMPs). First, small clinical trials have provided evidence that inhibition of the ACE/Ang II/ AT1 receptor axis may be effective in the treatment of hypertrophic scars/keloids. This review provides a detailed overview of the current literature on the RAS in skin, wound healing and scar formation and discusses the translational potential of targeting this hormonal system for treatment and prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids.


Subject(s)
Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/etiology , Keloid/etiology , Renin-Angiotensin System , Skin/metabolism , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Animals , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/drug therapy , Fibrosis , Humans , Keloid/drug therapy , Skin/pathology , Wound Healing
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927673

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) determines the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) down-regulation and related decrease in angiotensin II degradation. Both these events trigger "cytokine storm" leading to acute lung and cardiovascular injury. A selective therapy for COVID-19 has not yet been identified. Clinical trials with remdesivir gave discordant results. Thus, healthcare systems have focused on "multi-targeted" therapeutic strategies aiming at relieving systemic inflammation and thrombotic complications. No randomized clinical trial has demonstrated the efficacy of renin angiotensin system antagonists in reducing inflammation related to COVID-19. Dexamethasone and tocilizumab showed encouraging data, but their use needs to be further validated. The still-controversial efficacy of these treatments highlighted the importance of organ injury prevention in COVID-19. Neprilysin (NEP) might be an interesting target for this purpose. NEP expression is increased by cytokines on lung fibroblasts surface. NEP activity is elevated in acute respiratory distress syndrome and it is conceivable that it is also high in COVID-19. NEP is implicated in the degradation of natriuretic peptides, bradykinin, substance P, adrenomedullin, and apelin that account for prevention of organ injury. Thus, NEP/angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan (SAC/VAL) may increase levels of these molecules and block AT1Rs required for ACE2 endocytosis in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, SAC/VAL has a positive impact on acute heart failure that is very frequently observed in deceased COVID-19 patients. The current review aims to summarize actual therapeutic strategies for COVID-19 and to examine the data supporting the potential benefits of SAC/VAL in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Neprilysin/antagonists & inhibitors , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aminobutyrates/administration & dosage , Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Animals , Biphenyl Compounds , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Drug Combinations , Humans , Neprilysin/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Tetrazoles/administration & dosage , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Valsartan/administration & dosage , Valsartan/therapeutic use
19.
PLoS Biol ; 18(11): e3000970, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914191

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to unprecedented social and economic consequences. The risk of morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 increases dramatically in the presence of coexisting medical conditions, while the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Furthermore, there are no approved therapies for COVID-19. This study aims to identify SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, disease manifestations, and COVID-19 therapies using network medicine methodologies along with clinical and multi-omics observations. We incorporate SARS-CoV-2 virus-host protein-protein interactions, transcriptomics, and proteomics into the human interactome. Network proximity measurement revealed underlying pathogenesis for broad COVID-19-associated disease manifestations. Analyses of single-cell RNA sequencing data show that co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 is elevated in absorptive enterocytes from the inflamed ileal tissues of Crohn disease patients compared to uninflamed tissues, revealing shared pathobiology between COVID-19 and inflammatory bowel disease. Integrative analyses of metabolomics and transcriptomics (bulk and single-cell) data from asthma patients indicate that COVID-19 shares an intermediate inflammatory molecular profile with asthma (including IRAK3 and ADRB2). To prioritize potential treatments, we combined network-based prediction and a propensity score (PS) matching observational study of 26,779 individuals from a COVID-19 registry. We identified that melatonin usage (odds ratio [OR] = 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.91) is significantly associated with a 28% reduced likelihood of a positive laboratory test result for SARS-CoV-2 confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. Using a PS matching user active comparator design, we determined that melatonin usage was associated with a reduced likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 positive test result compared to use of angiotensin II receptor blockers (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.92) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.52-0.90). Importantly, melatonin usage (OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.31-0.75) is associated with a 52% reduced likelihood of a positive laboratory test result for SARS-CoV-2 in African Americans after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking history, and various disease comorbidities using PS matching. In summary, this study presents an integrative network medicine platform for predicting disease manifestations associated with COVID-19 and identifying melatonin for potential prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Datasets as Topic , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Transcriptome
20.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 77(5): 274-281, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-859321

ABSTRACT

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients with hypertension and other cardiovascular comorbidities develop more severe coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 and are at high risk of death, a controversy arose about the use of antihypertensives as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). Such drugs might increase the expression of the fundamental receptor of this new infectious agent: the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Preclinical observations indicate that the increase of ACE2 expression or the activity by ACEis and ARBs leads to a greater transformation of angiotensin (Ang)-II to Ang-(1-7), which is associated with positive effects on cardiovascular and pulmonary pathophysiology. This association has been demonstrated in observational studies in patients with cardiovascular pathology and pneumonia. It has not been possible to confirm whether users of ACEis or ARBs are more infected by the new coronavirus, due to methodological issues in studies with patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. However, the use of such antihypertensive treatments in both children and adults might reduce the virulence of infection. Therefore, changes in the antihypertensive therapy of patients at risk of contracting COVID-19 are not recommended.


Los pacientes con hipertensión y otra comorbilidad cardiovascular infectados con SARS-CoV-2 desarrollan cuadros más graves de COVID-19 y con mayor frecuencia fallecen. Este hecho ha originado una controversia acerca del uso de antihipertensivos inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina (IECA) y de antagonistas de los receptores de la angiotensina II (ARA-II), pues tales medicamentos pueden incrementar la expresión del receptor funcional de este nuevo agente infeccioso: la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina 2 (ECA2). Las observaciones preclínicas indican que el aumento de la expresión o de la actividad de la ECA2 por uso de IECA o ARA-II conduce a una mayor transformación de angiotensina 2 a a angiotensina 1-7, la cual se asocia con efectos positivos sobre la fisiopatología pulmonar y cardiovascular. En estudios observacionales de pacientes con patología cardiovascular y neumonía se ha confirmado esta asociación. La falta de evidencia contundente debida a aspectos metodológicos en estudios con pacientes infectados con SARS-CoV-2 no permite confirmar si los usuarios de IECA o ARA-II se contagian más con el nuevo coronavirus. Sin embargo, continuar con tales medicamentos antihipertensivos, tanto en adultos como en niños, podría reducir la virulencia de la infección. Por ello, no se recomienda cambiar la terapia antihipertensiva en los pacientes susceptibles a la COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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