Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 98
Filter
2.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1137): 403-407, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245306

ABSTRACT

This article reviews the correlation between ACE2 and COVID-19 and the resulting acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ACE2 is a crucial component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The classical ACE-angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang II)-angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis and the ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas counter-regulatory axis play an essential role in RAS system. ACE2 antagonises the activation of the classical RAS ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis and protects against lung injury. Similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) also uses ACE2 for cell entry. ARDS is a clinical high-mortality disease which is probably due to the excessive activation of RAS caused by 2019-nCoV infection, and ACE2 has a protective effect on ARDS caused by COVID-19. Because of these protective effects of ACE2 on ARDS, the development of drugs enhancing ACE2 activity may become one of the most promising approaches for the treatment of COVID-19 in the near future. In the meantime, however, the use of RAS blockers such as ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers that inhibit the damaging (ACE-Ang II) arm of the RAS cascade in the lung may also be promising. Trial registration number: NCT04287686.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
JAMA ; 329(14): 1183-1196, 2023 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298507

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Overactivation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may contribute to poor clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Objective: To determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) initiation improves outcomes in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In an ongoing, adaptive platform randomized clinical trial, 721 critically ill and 58 non-critically ill hospitalized adults were randomized to receive an RAS inhibitor or control between March 16, 2021, and February 25, 2022, at 69 sites in 7 countries (final follow-up on June 1, 2022). INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to receive open-label initiation of an ACE inhibitor (n = 257), ARB (n = 248), ARB in combination with DMX-200 (a chemokine receptor-2 inhibitor; n = 10), or no RAS inhibitor (control; n = 264) for up to 10 days. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was organ support-free days, a composite of hospital survival and days alive without cardiovascular or respiratory organ support through 21 days. The primary analysis was a bayesian cumulative logistic model. Odds ratios (ORs) greater than 1 represent improved outcomes. RESULTS: On February 25, 2022, enrollment was discontinued due to safety concerns. Among 679 critically ill patients with available primary outcome data, the median age was 56 years and 239 participants (35.2%) were women. Median (IQR) organ support-free days among critically ill patients was 10 (-1 to 16) in the ACE inhibitor group (n = 231), 8 (-1 to 17) in the ARB group (n = 217), and 12 (0 to 17) in the control group (n = 231) (median adjusted odds ratios of 0.77 [95% bayesian credible interval, 0.58-1.06] for improvement for ACE inhibitor and 0.76 [95% credible interval, 0.56-1.05] for ARB compared with control). The posterior probabilities that ACE inhibitors and ARBs worsened organ support-free days compared with control were 94.9% and 95.4%, respectively. Hospital survival occurred in 166 of 231 critically ill participants (71.9%) in the ACE inhibitor group, 152 of 217 (70.0%) in the ARB group, and 182 of 231 (78.8%) in the control group (posterior probabilities that ACE inhibitor and ARB worsened hospital survival compared with control were 95.3% and 98.1%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this trial, among critically ill adults with COVID-19, initiation of an ACE inhibitor or ARB did not improve, and likely worsened, clinical outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02735707.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Renin-Angiotensin System , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Hospitalization , COVID-19 Drug Treatment/methods , Critical Illness , Receptors, Chemokine/antagonists & inhibitors
4.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 24(1): 24, 2023 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is hypothesized to be in the center of COVID pathophysiology as the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) represents the main entrance of the virus, thus there is a need to address the effect of chronic use of RAAS blockers, as in case of treatment of cardiovascular diseases, on the expression of ACE2. Accordingly, this study aimed to clarify the effect of ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) on ACE2 and to assess the correlation between ACE2 and several anthropometric and clinic-pathological factors. METHODS: A total of 40 healthy controls and 60 Egyptian patients suffering from chronic cardiovascular diseases were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into 40 patients treated with ACEIs and 20 patients treated with ARBs. Serum ACE2 levels were assessed by ELISA. RESULTS: Assessment of serum ACE2 level in different groups showed a significant difference between ACEIs and healthy groups and ACEIs and ARBs group, while there was no difference between ARBs and healthy. Multivariate analysis using ACE2 level as constant and age, female sex, ACEIs use and myocardial infarction (MI) showed that there was a significant effect of female sex and ACEIs use on ACE2 level with no effect of age, MI and diabetes. CONCLUSION: ACE2 levels varied between ACEIs and ARBs. It tends to be lower in ACEIs group and there is a strong positive association between ACE2 level and the female sex. This needs to be considered in Future studies to further understand the relationship between gender, sex hormones and ACE2 level. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT05418361 (June 2022).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Female , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Renin , Angiotensins , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Renin-Angiotensin System , Myocardial Infarction/chemically induced
5.
Adipocyte ; 12(1): 2194034, 2023 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284153

ABSTRACT

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) operates within adipose tissue. Obesity-related changes can affect adipose RAS, predisposing to hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and possibly severe COVID-19. We evaluated the in vitro research on human adipose RAS and identified gaps in the literature. Medline (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), Web of Science, Scopus, and 1findr were searched to identify relevant studies. Fifty primary studies met our inclusion criteria for analysis. Expression of RAS components (n = 14), role in differentiation (n = 14), association with inflammation (n = 15) or blood pressure (n = 7) were investigated. We found (1) obesity-related changes in RAS were frequently studied (30%); (2) an upswing of articles investigating adipose ACE-2 expression since the COVID-19 pandemic; (3) a paucity of papers on AT2R and Ang (1-7)/MasR which counterbalance Ang II/ART1; (4) weight loss lowered adipose ACE-2 mRNA expression; and (5) angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reduced deleterious effects of angiotensin II. Overall, these studies link Ang II/ATR1 signalling to impaired adipogenesis and a pro-inflammatory dysfunctional adipose tissue, with ATR1 blockade limiting these responses. ACE-2 may mitigate Ang II effects by converting it to Ang(1-7) which binds MasR. More work is needed to understand adipose RAS in various pathologic states such as obesity and COVID-19 infection.T.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Pandemics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adipocytes/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism
6.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 24(10): 425-433, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284597

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarises the literature data and provides an overview of the role and impact of the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has a key role in the regulation of the RAAS pathway, downregulating angiotensin II and attenuating inflammation, vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Additionally, it plays an instrumental part in COVID-19 infection as it facilitates the cell entry of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and enables its replication. The use and role of RAAS inhibitors therefore during the COVID-19 pandemic have been intensively investigated. Although it was initially assumed that RAAS inhibitors may relate to worse clinical outcomes and severe disease, data from large studies and meta-analyses demonstrated that they do not have an adverse impact on clinical outcomes or prognosis. On the contrary, some experimental and retrospective observational cohort studies showed a potential protective mechanism, although this effect remains to be seen in large clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Hypertension , Aldosterone/metabolism , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Renin/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1077959, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231802

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The effect of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors in combination with COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus (DM) remains unknown. We assessed the risk of death in COVID-19 inpatients based on the presence or absence of DM, arterial hypertension (AH) and the use of RAAS inhibitors or other antihypertensives. Methods: The results of treatment of all adult PCR-confirmed COVID-19 inpatients (n = 1097, women 63.9%) from 02/12/2020 to 07/01/2022 are presented. The presence of DM at the time of admission and the category of antihypertensive drugs during hospital stay were noted. Leaving the hospital due to recovery or death was considered as a treatment outcome. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the risk of death. Patients with COVID-19 without AH were considered the reference group. Results: DM was known in 150 of 1,097 patients with COVID-19 (13.7%). Mortality among DM inpatients was higher: 20.0% vs. 12.4% respectively (p=0.014). Male gender, age, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and antihypertensives were independently associated with the risk of dying in patients without DM. In DM group such independent association was confirmed for FPG and treatment of AH. We found a reduction in the risk of death for COVID-19 inpatients without DM, who received RAAS inhibitors compared with the corresponding risk of normotensive inpatients, who did not receive antihypertensives: OR 0.22 (95% CI 0.07-0.72) adjusted for age, gender and FPG. Conclusion: This result raises a question about the study of RAAS inhibitors effect in patients with Covid-19 without AH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Adult , Humans , Male , Female , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Renin-Angiotensin System , COVID-19/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Inpatients , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/chemically induced , COVID-19 Testing
10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(17): e026143, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001999

ABSTRACT

Background Published randomized controlled trials are underpowered for binary clinical end points to assess the safety and efficacy of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) in adults with COVID-19. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to assess the safety and efficacy of RASi in adults with COVID-19. Methods and Results MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register were searched for randomized controlled trials that randomly assigned patients with COVID-19 to RASi continuation/commencement versus no RASi therapy. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at ≤30 days. A total of 14 randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and enrolled 1838 participants (aged 59 years, 58% men, mean follow-up 26 days). Of the trials, 11 contributed data. We found no effect of RASi versus control on all-cause mortality (7.2% versus 7.5%; relative risk [RR], 0.95; [95% CI, 0.69-1.30]) either overall or in subgroups defined by COVID-19 severity or trial type. Network meta-analysis identified no difference between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors versus angiotensin II receptor blockers. RASi users had a nonsignificant reduction in acute myocardial infarction (2.1% versus 3.6%; RR, 0.59; [95% CI, 0.33-1.06]), but increased risk of acute kidney injury (7.0% versus 3.6%; RR, 1.82; [95% CI, 1.05-3.16]), in trials that initiated and continued RASi. There was no increase in need for dialysis or differences in congestive cardiac failure, cerebrovascular events, venous thromboembolism, hospitalization, intensive care admission, inotropes, or mechanical ventilation. Conclusions This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers versus control in patients with COVID-19 found no difference in all-cause mortality, a borderline decrease in myocardial infarction, and an increased risk of acute kidney injury with RASi. Our findings provide strong evidence that RASi can be used safely in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Myocardial Infarction , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Adult , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Renin-Angiotensin System
12.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969391

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) used in the treatment of hypertension and potentially in SARS-CoV-2 infection exhibit inverse agonist effects at angiotensin AR1 receptors, suggesting the receptor may have evolved to accommodate naturally occurring angiotensin 'antipeptides'. Screening of the human genome has identified a peptide (EGVYVHPV) encoded by mRNA, complementary to that encoding ANG II itself, which is an inverse agonist. Thus, opposite strands of DNA encode peptides with opposite effects at AR1 receptors. Agonism and inverse agonism at AR1 receptors can be explained by a receptor 'switching' between an activated state invoking receptor dimerization/G protein coupling and an inverse agonist state mediated by an alternative/second messenger that is slow to reverse. Both receptor states appear to be driven by the formation of the ANG II charge-relay system involving TyrOH-His/imidazole-Carboxylate (analogous to serine proteases). In this system, tyrosinate species formed are essential for activating AT1 and AT2 receptors. ANGII is also known to bind to the zinc-coordinated metalloprotease angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) used by the COVID-19 virus to enter cells. Here we report in silico results demonstrating the binding of a new class of anionic biphenyl-tetrazole sartans ('Bisartans') to the active site zinc atom of the endopeptidase Neprilysin (NEP) involved in regulating hypertension, by modulating humoral levels of beneficial vasoactive peptides in the RAS such as vasodilator angiotensin (1-7). In vivo and modeling evidence further suggest Bisartans can inhibit ANG II-induced pulmonary edema and may be useful in combatting SARS-CoV-2 infection by inhibiting ACE2-mediated viral entry to cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Neprilysin/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Mas , Receptors, Angiotensin/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc/pharmacology
15.
Crit Care Med ; 50(9): 1306-1317, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860941

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are associated with improved outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 according to sex and to report sex-related differences in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study comparing the effects of ARB or ACE inhibitors versus no ARBs or ACE inhibitors in males versus females. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 downregulates ACE-2, potentially increasing angiotensin II (a pro-inflammatory vasoconstrictor). Sex-based differences in RAS dysregulation may explain sex-based differences in responses to ARBs because the ACE2 gene is on the X chromosome. We recorded baseline characteristics, comorbidities, prehospital ARBs or ACE inhibitor treatment, use of organ support and mortality, and measured RAS components at admission and days 2, 4, 7, and 14 in a subgroup ( n = 46), recorded d -dimer ( n = 967), comparing males with females. SETTING: ARBs CORONA I is a multicenter Canadian observational cohort of patients hospitalized with acute COVID-19. This analysis includes patients admitted to 10 large urban hospitals across the four most populated provinces. PATIENTS: One-thousand six-hundred eighty-six patients with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 (February 2020 to March 2021) for acute COVID-19 illness were included. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Males on ARBs before admission had decreased use of ventilation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52; p = 0.007) and vasopressors (aOR = 0.55; p = 0.011) compared with males not on ARBs or ACE inhibitors. No significant effects were observed in females for these outcomes. The test for interaction was significant for use of ventilation ( p = 0.006) and vasopressors ( p = 0.044) indicating significantly different responses to ARBs according to sex. Males had significantly higher plasma ACE-1 at baseline and angiotensin II at day 7 and 14 than females. CONCLUSIONS: ARBs use was associated with less ventilation and vasopressors in males but not females. Sex-based differences in RAS dysregulation may contribute to sex-based differences in outcomes and responses to ARBs in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Hypertension , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Canada , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Sex Characteristics
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820297

ABSTRACT

Blockers of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) have been reported to increase the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2, the cellular receptor of SARS-CoV-2, and thus the risk and course of COVID-19. Therefore, we investigated if angiotensin (Ang) II and RAS blockers affected ACE2 expression and SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in human epithelial bronchial Calu-3 cells. By infectivity and spike-mediated cell-cell fusion assays, we showed that Ang II acting on the angiotensin type 1 receptor markedly increased ACE2 at mRNA and protein levels, resulting in enhanced SARS-CoV-2 cell entry. These effects were abolished by irbesartan and not affected by the blockade of ACE-1-mediated Ang II formation with ramipril, and of ACE2- mediated Ang II conversion into Ang 1-7 with MLN-4760. Thus, enhanced Ang II production in patients with an activated RAS might expose to a greater spread of COVID-19 infection in lung cells. The protective action of Angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists (ARBs) documented in these studies provides a mechanistic explanation for the lack of worse outcomes in high-risk COVID-19 patients on RAS blockers.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Up-Regulation
17.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(5): 102484, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: To assess the impact of pre-admission renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor (RAASi) and statin use on mortality following COVID-19 hospitalization in adults with pre-existing diabetes. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of adults with diabetes admitted to ninety-nine participating hospitals in the United Kingdom, France and Spain during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Logistic regression models adjusted for demographic factors and comorbidity were used to describe associations with mortality in hospital or within 28 days of admission and individual or combined RAASi and statin therapy prescription followed by a country level meta-analysis. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 3474 (42.6%) individuals. Prescribing patterns varied by country: 25-50% neither RAASi nor statin therapy, 14-36% both RAASi and statin therapy, 9-24% RAASi therapy alone, 12-36% statin alone. Overall, 20-37% of patients died within 28 days. Meta-analysis found no evidence of an association between mortality and prescription of RAASi therapy (OR 1.09, CI 0.78-1.52 (I2 22.2%)), statin (OR 0.97, CI 0.59-1.61 (I2 72.9%)) or both (OR 1.14, CI 0.67-1.92 (I2 78.3%)) compared to those prescribed neither drug class. CONCLUSIONS: This large multicentre, multinational study found no evidence of an association between mortality from COVID-19 infection in people with diabetes and use of either RAASi, statin or combination therapy. This provides reassurance that clinicians should not change their RAASi and statin therapy prescribing practice in people with diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Diabetes Mellitus , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hyperkalemia , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adult , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hyperkalemia/complications , Hyperkalemia/drug therapy , Hyperkalemia/epidemiology , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies
18.
J Card Fail ; 28(7): 1222-1226, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data regarding the management of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with virtual visits in comparison with in-office visits. We sought to compare the changes in GDMT (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors) and loop diuretics across visit types. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study included 13,481 outpatient visits performed for 5439 unique patients with HFrEF between March 16, 2020, and March 15, 2021. The rates of initiation and discontinuation of GDMT were documented, and multivariable logistic regression was performed to test associations with outcomes between modes of visit. The rates of medication initiation were higher in office (11.7%) compared with video (9.6%) or telephone (7.2%) visits. In multivariable adjusted analysis, the initiation of at least 1 GDMT class was similar between in-office visits and video visits (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82-1.14, P = .703). Telephone visits were associated with less frequent initiation of at least 1 class of GDMT in comparison with in-office visits (adjusted OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.55-0.75; P < .001) and video visits (adjusted OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.55-0.81, P < .001). Despite similar rates of baseline loop diuretic use, patients seen with both video visits (adjusted OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.52-0.94, P = .018) and telephone visits (adjusted OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.49-0.83, P < .001) were less likely to have a loop diuretic initiated when compared with in-office visits. CONCLUSIONS: The initiation of GDMT for HFrEF was similar between in-office and video visits and lower with telephone visits, whereas the initiation of a loop diuretic was less frequent in both types of virtual visits. These data suggest that video streaming capabilities should be encouraged for virtual visits.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Telemedicine , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Outpatients , Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stroke Volume , Telephone
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745038

ABSTRACT

This review article is focused on antihypertensive drugs, namely angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), and their immunomodulatory properties reported in hypertensive patients as well as in experimental settings involving studies on animal models and cell lines. The immune regulatory action of ACEI and ARB is mainly connected with the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine secretion, diminished expression of adhesion molecules, and normalization of CRP concentration in the blood plasma. The topic has significant importance in future medical practice in the therapy of patients with comorbidities with underlying chronic inflammatory responses. Thus, this additional effect of immune regulatory action of ACEI and ARB may also benefit the treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome, allergies, or autoimmune disorders.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Animals , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Humans
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL