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1.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(9): 3113-3123, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2205791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to synthesize a new complex of Fe(II) with isoleucine dithiocarbamate ligand and to determine its potential as an anticancer and antiviral agent for SARSCOV-2. METHODS: The synthesized complexes were then characterized by UV-vis and FT-IR spectroscopy and their melting points. The value of the conductivity of the complex compound is also determined. Anti-cancer activity was tested in vitro and molecular docking. Its potential as an antiviral against SARSCOV-2 was also carried out by molecular docking. Pharmacokinetics/ADMET properties were also carried out on the complex. RESULT: Spectral results showed the successful synthesis of Fe(II) isoleucine dithiocarbamate complex. The complex produced UV-vis spectra at 268 and 575 nm, and the IR data at 399-599 cm-1 showed the coordination between the Fe(II) atoms with sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen of the isoleucine dithiocarbamate ligand. Fe(II) isoleucine dithiocarbamate had a cytotoxicity effect on the MCF-7 cell line (IC50 =613 µg/mL). The complex significantly caused morphological changes in the breast cancer cell line, finally leading to cell apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Cytotoxic test of Fe(II) isoleucine dithiocarbamate showed moderate anticancer activity on MCF-7 cancer cells and showed antiviral activity against SARSCOV-2 by interfering with spike glycoprotein -ACE2 receptors, and inhibiting major proteases and 3Clpro.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Coordination Complexes , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coordination Complexes/pharmacology , Ferrous Compounds , Humans , Isoleucine , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nitrogen , Oxygen , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Sulfur
2.
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) ; 68(5): 14-23, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203930

ABSTRACT

A severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread around the world since was first scientifically described in December 2019. At present approximately 400 million people have suffered from the disease, almost 6 million people have died.SARS-CoV-2 uses the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed in several endocrine glands, including the pituitary, pancreas, thyroid, ovaries, and testes. Thus, the endocrine glands may be a direct target for SARS-CoV-2. The main risk factors for severity of the COVID-19 are obesity, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), vertebral fractures, which potentially predisposes patients to a severe course of COVID-19.In this review, we present current data on the course of COVID-19 in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary diseases, and also discuss treatment for endocrinopathies during to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pituitary Diseases , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200287

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has negatively impacted millions of lives, despite several vaccine interventions and strict precautionary measures. The main causative organism of this disease is the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) which infects the host via two key players: the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Some reports revealed that patients with glycemic dysregulation could have increased susceptibility to developing COVID-19 and its related neurological complications. However, no previous studies have looked at the involvement of these key molecules within the hypothalamus, which is the central regulator of glucose in the brain. By exposing embryonic mouse hypothalamic neurons to varying glucose concentrations, we aimed to investigate the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. A significant and time-dependent increase and decrease was observed on the viability of hypothalamic neurons with increasing and decreasing glucose concentrations, respectively (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). Under the same increasing and decreasing glucose conditions, the expression of hypothalamic ACE2 also revealed a significant and time-dependent increase (p < 0.01). These findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 invades the hypothalamic circuitry. In addition, it highlights the importance of strict glycemic control for COVID-19 in diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Glucose , Hypothalamus/metabolism , Mice , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 905757, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198697

ABSTRACT

In early 2020, one of the most prevalent symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection was the loss of smell (anosmia), found in 60-70% of all cases. Anosmia used to occur early, concomitantly with other symptoms, and often persisted after recovery for an extended period, sometimes for months. In addition to smell disturbance, COVID-19 has also been associated with loss of taste (ageusia). The latest research suggests that SARS-CoV-2 could spread from the respiratory system to the brain through receptors in sustentacular cells localized to the olfactory epithelium. The virus invades human cells via the obligatory receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2), and a priming protease, TMPRSS2, facilitating viral penetration. There is an abundant expression of both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in sustentacular cells. In this study, we evaluated 102 COVID-19 hospitalized patients, of which 17.60% presented anosmia and 9.80% ageusia. ACE1, ACE2, and TMPRSS2 gene expression levels in nasopharyngeal tissue were obtained by RT-qPCR and measured using ΔCT analysis. ACE1 Alu287bp association was also evaluated. Logistic regression models were generated to estimate the effects of variables on ageusia and anosmia Association of ACE2 expression levels with ageusia. was observed (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.098-1.775); however, no association was observed between TMPRSS2 and ACE1 expression levels and ageusia. No association was observed among the three genes and anosmia, and the Alu287bp polymorphism was not associated with any of the outcomes. Lastly, we discuss whetherthere is a bridge linking these initial symptoms, including molecular factors, to long-term COVID-19 health consequences such as cognitive dysfunctions.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia , COVID-19/genetics , Cognition , Gene Expression , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/genetics , Receptors, Angiotensin , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Curr Pharm Des ; 28(22): 1798-1814, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197777

ABSTRACT

Defined by the World Health Organization as a global public health pandemic, coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has a global impact and has caused the death of thousands of people. The "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" virus (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiologic agent of this disease, which uses the angiotensinconverting enzyme receptor 2 (ACE2) to infect the body, so any organ that expresses the gene ACE2 is a possible target for the new coronavirus. In addition, in severe cases of COVID-19, a cytokine storm occurs, which triggers widespread systemic inflammation due to the uncontrolled release of proinflammatory cytokines. In this perspective, the modulation of purinergic receptors is highlighted in the literature as a possible therapy, considering its application in other viral infections and systemic inflammation. Therefore, this review aims to gather information on the modulation of the P2X7 receptor in the main organs directly affected by the virus and by the cytokine storm: the heart, brain, lung, liver and kidneys. Thus, demonstrating possible therapies for reducing inflammation and the level of morbidity and mortality of COVID-19. In severe cases of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 infection is capable of triggering an exacerbated release of cytokines, called a cytokine storm. With this inflammation, or less the direct infection of the virus, the whole organism can be affected. In this way, major and important organs such as the heart, lung, brain, and liver are affected, triggering different pathologies. In this perspective, purinergic signaling is highlighted in the literature for its anti-inflammatory role and has been listed in the pandemic scenario as a potential therapy. Therefore, knowing the expression of the purinergic receptor P2X7 in these tissues, the modulation of its inflammatory activity may be favorable in this severe and systemic condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cytokines , Humans , Inflammation , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7 , SARS-CoV-2
6.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271359, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196940

ABSTRACT

The viral genome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), particularly its cell-binding spike protein gene, has undergone rapid evolution during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Variants including Omicron BA.1 and Omicron BA.2 now seriously threaten the efficacy of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and vaccines that target the spike protein. Viral evolution over a much longer timescale has generated a wide range of genetically distinct sarbecoviruses in animal populations, including the pandemic viruses SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1. The genetic diversity and widespread zoonotic potential of this group complicates current attempts to develop drugs in preparation for the next sarbecovirus pandemic. Receptor-based decoy inhibitors can target a wide range of viral strains with a common receptor and may have intrinsic resistance to escape mutant generation and antigenic drift. We previously generated an affinity-matured decoy inhibitor based on the receptor target of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and deployed it in a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV) for intranasal delivery and passive prophylaxis against COVID-19. Here, we demonstrate the exceptional binding and neutralizing potency of this ACE2 decoy against SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicron BA.1 and Omicron BA.2. Tight decoy binding tracks with human ACE2 binding of viral spike receptor-binding domains across diverse clades of coronaviruses. Furthermore, in a coronavirus that cannot bind human ACE2, a variant that acquired human ACE2 binding was bound by the decoy with nanomolar affinity. Considering these results, we discuss a strategy of decoy-based treatment and passive protection to mitigate the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and future airway virus threats.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270609, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196920

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 progression shows sex-dependent features. It is hypothesized that a better Covid-19 survival rate in females can be attributed to the presence of higher 17ß-estradiol (E2) levels in women than in men. Virus SARS-CoV-2 is enabled to enter the cell with the use of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The expression of several renin-angiotensin system components has been shown to exert a rhythmic pattern, and a role of the circadian system in their regulation has been implicated. Therefore, the aim of the study is to elucidate possible interference between E2 signalling and the circadian system in the regulation of the expression of ACE2 mRNA and functionally related molecules. E2 was administered at a dosage of 40 µg/kg/day for 7 days to male Wistar rats, and sampling of the lungs and colon was performed during a 24-h cycle. The daily pattern of expression of molecules facilitating SARS-CoV-2 entry into the cell, clock genes and E2 receptors was analysed. As a consequence of E2 administration, a rhythm in ACE2 and TMPRSS2 mRNA expression was observed in the lungs but not in the colon. ADAM17 mRNA expression showed a pronounced rhythmic pattern in both tissues that was not influenced by E2 treatment. ESR1 mRNA expression exerted a rhythmic pattern, which was diminished by E2 treatment. The influence of E2 administration on ESR2 and GPER1 mRNA expression was greater in the lungs than in the colon as a significant rhythm in ESR2 and GPER1 mRNA expression appeared only in the lungs after E2 treatment. E2 administration also increased the amplitude of bmal1 expression in the lungs, which implicates altered functioning of peripheral oscillators in response to E2 treatment. The daily pattern of components of the SARS-CoV-2 entrance pathway and their responsiveness to E2 should be considered in the timing of pharmacological therapy for Covid-19.


Subject(s)
ADAM17 Protein , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Colon , Estradiol , Lung , Receptors, Estradiol , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Colon/drug effects , Colon/metabolism , Estradiol/pharmacology , Female , Lung/metabolism , Male , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Estradiol/genetics , Receptors, Estradiol/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Virus Internalization
8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(36): 16604-16611, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185543

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the infectious agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, remains a global medical problem. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was identified as the primary viral entry receptor, and transmembrane serine protease 2 primes the spike protein for membrane fusion. However, ACE2 expression is generally low and variable across tissues, suggesting that auxiliary receptors facilitate viral entry. Identifying these factors is critical for understanding SARS-Cov-2 pathophysiology and developing new countermeasures. However, profiling host-virus interactomes involves extensive genetic screening or complex computational predictions. Here, we leverage the photocatalytic proximity labeling platform µMap to rapidly profile the spike interactome in human cells and identify eight novel candidate receptors. We systemically validate their functionality in SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviral uptake assays with both Wuhan and Delta spike variants and show that dual expression of ACE2 with either neuropilin-2, ephrin receptor A7, solute carrier family 6 member 15, or myelin and lymphocyte protein 2 significantly enhances viral uptake. Collectively, our data show that SARS-CoV-2 synergistically engages several host factors for cell entry and establishes µMap as a powerful tool for rapidly interrogating host-virus interactomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
9.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 126, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196306

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At present, the COVID-19 has been prevalent worldwide for more than a year and caused more than four million deaths. Liver injury was frequently observed in patients with COVID-19. Recently, a new definition of metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) was proposed by a panel of international experts, and the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 has been actively investigated. Several previous studies indicated that the patients with MAFLD had a higher prevalence of COVID-19 and a tendency to develop severe type of respiratory infection, and others indicated that liver injury would be exacerbated in the patients with MAFLD once infected with COVID-19. The mechanism underlying the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 infection has not been thoroughly investigated, and recent studies indicated that multifactorial mechanisms, such as altered host angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor expression, direct viral attack, disruption of cholangiocyte function, systemic inflammatory reaction, drug-induced liver injury, hepatic ischemic and hypoxic injury, and MAFLD-related glucose and lipid metabolic disorders, might jointly contribute to both of the adverse hepatic and respiratory outcomes. In this review, we discussed the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 based on current available literature, and summarized the recommendations for clinical management of MAFLD patients during the pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/complications , Hypoxia/complications , Liver/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Dipeptides/therapeutic use , Gene Expression Regulation , Glucose/metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/virology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1011185, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154729

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 remains a global health crisis even with effective vaccines and the availability of FDA approved therapies. Efforts to understand the complex disease pathology and develop effective strategies to limit mortality and morbidity are needed. Recent studies reveal circulating Galectin-9 (gal-9), a soluble beta-galactoside binding lectin with immunoregulatory properties, are elevated in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals with moderate to severe disease. Moreover, in silico studies demonstrate gal-9 can potentially competitively bind the ACE2 receptor on susceptible host cells. Here, we determined whether early introduction of exogenous gal-9 following SARS-CoV-2 infection in humanized ACE2 transgenic mice (K18-hACE2) may reduce disease severity. Mice were infected and treated with a single dose of a human recombinant form of gal-9 (rh-gal-9) and monitored for morbidity. Subgroups of mice were humanely euthanized at 2- and 5- days post infection (dpi) for viral levels by plaque assay, immune changes measures by flow cytometry, and soluble mediators by protein analysis from lung tissue and bronchoalveolar Lavage fluid (BALF). Mice treated with rh-gal-9 during acute infection had improved survival compared to PBS treated controls. At 5 dpi, rh-gal-9 treated mice had enhanced viral clearance in the BALF, but not in the lung parenchyma. Increased T and dendritic cells and decreased neutrophil frequencies in the lung at 5 dpi were observed, whereas BALF had elevated levels of type-I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. These results suggest a role for rh-gal-9 in limiting acute COVID-19. Further studies are required to determine the optimal design of gal-9 treatment to effectively ameliorate COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mice , Humans , Animals , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , Mice, Transgenic , Galectins
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 928704, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154680

ABSTRACT

In the lungs of infected individuals, the downstream molecular signaling pathways induced by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are incompletely understood. Here, we describe and examine predictions of a model in which NOTCH may represent a central signaling axis in lung infection in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). A pathway involving NOTCH signaling, furin, ADAM17, and ACE2 may be capable of increasing SARS-CoV-2 viral entry and infection. NOTCH signaling can also upregulate IL-6 and pro-inflammatory mediators induced to hyperactivation in COVID-19. Furthermore, if NOTCH signaling fails to turn down properly and stays elevated, airway regeneration during lung healing can be inhibited-a process that may be at play in COVID-19. With specific NOTCH inhibitor drugs in development and clinical trials for other diseases being conducted, the roles of NOTCH in all of these processes central to both infection and healing merit contemplation if such drugs might be applied to COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Lung , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(10): e1010479, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154303

ABSTRACT

Exacerbated and persistent innate immune response marked by pro-inflammatory cytokine expression is thought to be a major driver of chronic COVID-19 pathology. Although macrophages are not the primary target cells of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans, viral RNA and antigens in activated monocytes and macrophages have been detected in post-mortem samples, and dysfunctional monocytes and macrophages have been hypothesized to contribute to a protracted hyper-inflammatory state in COVID-19 patients. In this study, we demonstrate that CD169, a myeloid cell specific I-type lectin, facilitated ACE2-independent SARS-CoV-2 fusion and entry in macrophages. CD169-mediated SARS-CoV-2 entry in macrophages resulted in expression of viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs with minimal viral protein expression and no infectious viral particle release, suggesting a post-entry restriction of the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle. Intriguingly this post-entry replication block was alleviated by exogenous ACE2 expression in macrophages. Restricted expression of viral genomic and subgenomic RNA in CD169+ macrophages elicited a pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1ß) in a RIG-I, MDA-5 and MAVS-dependent manner, which was suppressed by remdesivir treatment. These findings suggest that de novo expression of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in macrophages contributes to the pro-inflammatory cytokine signature and that blocking CD169-mediated ACE2 independent infection and subsequent activation of macrophages by viral RNA might alleviate COVID-19-associated hyperinflammatory response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Macrophages , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Mol Biol Cell ; 33(14): ar147, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151826

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes its Spike (S) glycoprotein to bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor for cellular entry. ACE2 is a critical negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system and plays a protective role in preventing tissue injury. Expression of ACE2 has been shown to decrease upon infection by SARS-CoV. However, whether SARS-CoV-2 down-regulates ACE2 and the underlying mechanism and biological impact of this down-regulation have not been well defined. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 infection down-regulates ACE2 in vivo in an animal model, and in cultured cells in vitro, by inducing clathrin- and AP2-dependent endocytosis, leading to its degradation in the lysosome. SARS-CoV-2 S-treated cells and ACE2 knockdown cells exhibit similar alterations in downstream gene expression, with a pattern indicative of activated cytokine signaling that is associated with respiratory distress and inflammatory diseases often observed in COVID-19 patients. Finally, we have identified a soluble ACE2 fragment with a stronger binding to SARS-CoV-2 S that can efficiently block ACE2 down-regulation and viral infection. Thus, our study suggests that ACE2 down-regulation represents an important mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2-associated pathology, and blocking this process could be a promising therapeutic strategy.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Protein Binding
14.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1350-1367, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153223

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world, predominantly due to lung and cardiovascular injury. The virus responsible for COVID-19-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-gains entry into host cells via ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). ACE2 is a primary enzyme within the key counter-regulatory pathway of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which acts to oppose the actions of Ang (angiotensin) II by generating Ang-(1-7) to reduce inflammation and fibrosis and mitigate end organ damage. As COVID-19 spans multiple organ systems linked to the cardiovascular system, it is imperative to understand clearly how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may affect the multifaceted RAS. In addition, recognition of the role of ACE2 and the RAS in COVID-19 has renewed interest in its role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in general. We provide researchers with a framework of best practices in basic and clinical research to interrogate the RAS using appropriate methodology, especially those who are relatively new to the field. This is crucial, as there are many limitations inherent in investigating the RAS in experimental models and in humans. We discuss sound methodological approaches to quantifying enzyme content and activity (ACE, ACE2), peptides (Ang II, Ang-[1-7]), and receptors (types 1 and 2 Ang II receptors, Mas receptor). Our goal is to ensure appropriate research methodology for investigations of the RAS in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and COVID-19 to ensure optimal rigor and reproducibility and appropriate interpretation of results from these investigations.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prognosis , Research Design , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology
15.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1526-1536, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153220

ABSTRACT

ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Yet, little is known about the clinical and biologic correlates of circulating ACE2 levels in humans. We assessed the clinical and proteomic correlates of plasma (soluble) ACE2 protein levels in human heart failure. We measured plasma ACE2 using a modified aptamer assay among PHFS (Penn Heart Failure Study) participants (n=2248). We performed an association study of ACE2 against ≈5000 other plasma proteins measured with the SomaScan platform. Plasma ACE2 was not associated with ACE inhibitor and angiotensin-receptor blocker use. Plasma ACE2 was associated with older age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, worse New York Heart Association class, a history of coronary artery bypass surgery, and higher pro-BNP (pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels. Plasma ACE2 exhibited associations with 1011 other plasma proteins. In pathway overrepresentation analyses, top canonical pathways associated with plasma ACE2 included clathrin-mediated endocytosis signaling, actin cytoskeleton signaling, mechanisms of viral exit from host cells, EIF2 (eukaryotic initiation factor 2) signaling, and the protein ubiquitination pathway. In conclusion, in humans with heart failure, plasma ACE2 is associated with various clinical factors known to be associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including older age, male sex, and diabetes mellitus, but is not associated with ACE inhibitor and angiotensin-receptor blocker use. Plasma ACE2 protein levels are prominently associated with multiple cellular pathways involved in cellular endocytosis, exocytosis, and intracellular protein trafficking. Whether these have a causal relationship with ACE2 or are relevant to novel coronavirus-2 infection remains to be assessed in future studies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Disease Progression , Heart Failure/enzymology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Academic Medical Centers , Analysis of Variance , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Proteomics/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , United States
18.
19.
Elife ; 112022 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145048

ABSTRACT

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to other species threatens wildlife conservation and may create novel sources of viral diversity for future zoonotic transmission. A variety of computational heuristics have been developed to pre-emptively identify susceptible host species based on variation in the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor used for viral entry. However, the predictive performance of these heuristics remains unknown. Using a newly compiled database of 96 species, we show that, while variation in ACE2 can be used by machine learning models to accurately predict animal susceptibility to sarbecoviruses (accuracy = 80.2%, binomial confidence interval [CI]: 70.8-87.6%), the sites informing predictions have no known involvement in virus binding and instead recapitulate host phylogeny. Models trained on host phylogeny alone performed equally well (accuracy = 84.4%, CI: 75.5-91.0%) and at a level equivalent to retrospective assessments of accuracy for previously published models. These results suggest that the predictive power of ACE2-based models derives from strong correlations with host phylogeny rather than processes which can be mechanistically linked to infection biology. Further, biased availability of ACE2 sequences misleads projections of the number and geographic distribution of at-risk species. Models based on host phylogeny reduce this bias, but identify a very large number of susceptible species, implying that model predictions must be combined with local knowledge of exposure risk to practically guide surveillance. Identifying barriers to viral infection or onward transmission beyond receptor binding and incorporating data which are independent of host phylogeny will be necessary to manage the ongoing risk of establishment of novel animal reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2.


The COVID-19 pandemic affects humans, but also many of the animals we interact with. So far, humans have transmitted the SARS-CoV-2 virus to pet dogs and cats, a wide range of zoo animals, and even wildlife. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to animals can lead to outbreaks amongst certain species, which can endanger animal populations and create new sources of human infections. Thus, careful monitoring of animal infections may help protect both animals and humans. Identifying which animals are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 would help scientists monitor these species for outbreaks and viral circulation. Unfortunately, testing whether SARS-CoV-2 can infect different species in the laboratory is both time-consuming and expensive. To overcome this obstacle, researchers have used computational methods and existing data about the structure and genetic sequences of ACE2 receptors ­ the proteins on the cell surface that SARS-CoV-2 uses to enter the cell ­ to predict SARS-COV-2 susceptibility in different species. However, it remained unclear how accurate this approach was at predicting susceptibility in different animals, or whether their correct predictions indicated causal links between ACE2 variability and SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility. To assess the usefulness of this approach, Mollentze et al. started by using data on the ACE2 receptors from 96 different species and building a machine learning model to predict how susceptible those species might be to SARS-CoV-2. The susceptibility of these species had either been observed in natural infections ­ in zoos, for example ­ or had been assessed in the laboratory, so Mollentze et al. were able to use this information to determine how good both their model and previous approaches based on the sequence of ACE2 receptors were. The results showed that while the model was quite accurate (it correctly predicted susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 about 80% of the time), its predictions were based on regions of the ACE2 receptors that were not known to interact with the virus. Instead, the regions that the machine learning model relied on were ones that tend to vary more the more distantly related two species are. This indicates that existing computational approaches are likely not relying on information about how ACE2 receptors interact with SARS-CoV-2 to predict susceptibility. Instead, they are simply using information on how closely related the different animal species are, which is much easier to source than data about ACE2 receptors. Indeed, the sequences of the ACE2 receptors in many species are unknown and the species for which this information is available come only from a few geographic areas. Mollentze et al. also showed that limiting the predictions about susceptibility to these species could mislead scientists when deciding which species and geographic areas to surveil for possible viral circulation. Instead, it may be more effective and cost-efficient to use animal relatedness to predict susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. This makes it possible to make predictions for nearly all mammals, while being just as accurate as models based on ACE2 receptor data. However, Mollentze et al. point out that this approach would still fail to narrow down the number of animals that need to be monitored enough for it to be practical. Considering additional factors like how often the animals interact with humans or how prone they are to transmit the virus among themselves may help narrow it down more. Further research is therefore needed to identify the best multifactor approaches to identifying which animal populations should be monitored.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Disease Susceptibility
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143206

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), which include Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD), have a higher prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the literature. The effects of AITD-associated cytokines on SARS-CoV-2 infection-mediating molecule levels might be involved in the pathogenesis of susceptibility. We speculated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) might attenuate this process since H2S has antiviral effects. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that angiotensin-converting enzyme-II (ACE2) expression was higher in the HT group and neuropilin 1 (NRP1) expression was higher in HT and GD groups than in the normal group, while transmembrane protease serine type 2 (TMPRSS2) expression was lower in HT and GD groups. When culturing primary thyrocytes with cytokines or sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) plus cytokines, we found that ACE2 and NRP1 mRNA levels were upregulated while TMPRSS2 levels were downregulated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). After pretreatment with NaHS in thyrocytes, ACE2 and NRP1 expression were downregulated compared to IFN-γ or TNF-α treatment, and NaHS had no effect on TMPRSS2 expression. Our findings suggested that IFN-γ and TNF-α, which are elevated in AITDs, promoted ACE2 and NRP1 expression and inhibited TMPRSS2 expression. H2S might protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection by downregulating ACE2 and NRP1 levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graves Disease , Hydrogen Sulfide , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Interferon-gamma/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Hydrogen Sulfide/pharmacology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism
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