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1.
Drugs ; 82(1): 43-54, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) use and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and outcomes in US veterans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined 27,556 adult US veterans who tested positive for COVID-19 between March to November 2020. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models using propensity score (PS) for weight, adjustment, and matching were used to examine the odds of an event within 60 days following a COVID-19-positive case date and time to death, respectively, according to ACEI and/or ARB prescription within 6 months prior to the COVID-19-positive case date. RESULTS: The overlap PS weighted logistic regression model showed lower odds of an intensive care unit (ICU) admission (odds ratio [OR] 95% CI 0.77, 0.61-0.98) and death within 60 days (0.87, 0.79-0.97) with an ACEI or ARB prescription. Veterans with an ARB-only prescription also had lower odds of an ICU admission (0.64, 0.44-0.92). The overlap PS weighted model similarly showed a lower risk of time to all-cause mortality in veterans with an ACEI or ARB prescription (HR [95% CI]: 0.87, 0.79-0.97) and an ARB only prescription (0.78, 0.67-0.91). Veterans with an ACEI prescription had higher odds of experiencing a septic event within 60 days after the COVID-19-positive case date (1.22, 1.02-1.46). CONCLUSION: In this study of a national cohort of US veterans, we found that the use of an ACEI/ARB in patients with COVID-19 was not associated with increased mortality and other worse outcomes. Future studies should examine underlying pathways and further confirm the relationship of ACEI prescription with sepsis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/epidemiology , Veterans
2.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(23): 11031-11034, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511335

ABSTRACT

The administration of ACEI/ARB (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/Angiotension II receptor blockers) in COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) patients with hypertension exhibits a lower risk of mortality compared with ACEI/ARB non-users. In this context, an important question arises: is ACEI or ARB more suitable for the treatment of hypertensive COVID-19 patients? Taken into consideration the following four rationales, ARB may offer a more significant benefit than ACEI for the short-term treatment of hypertensive COVID-19 patients: 1. ACEI has no inhibition on non-ACE-mediated Ang II production under infection conditions, whereas ARB can function properly regardless of how Ang II is produced; 2. ACEI-induced bradykinin accumulation may instigate severe ARDS while ARB has no effects on kinin metabolism; 3. ARB alleviates viscous sputa production and inflammatory reaction significantly in contrast to ACEI; 4. ARB may attenuate the lung fibrosis induced by mechanical ventilation in severe patients and improve their prognosis significantly compared with ACEI. To examine the advantages of ARB over ACEI on hypertensive COVID-19 patients, retrospective case-control studies comparing the clinical outcomes for COVID-19 patients receiving ARB or ACEI treatment is strikingly needed in order to provide guidance for the clinical application.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Blockers/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Humans
3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258684, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480452

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities have a significantly increased risk for a critical course of COVID-19. As the SARS-CoV2 virus enters cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor II (ACE2), drugs which interact with the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) were suspected to influence disease severity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 1946 consecutive patients with cardiovascular comorbidities or hypertension enrolled in one of the largest European COVID-19 registries, the Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2 (LEOSS) registry. Here, we show that angiotensin II receptor blocker intake is associated with decreased mortality in patients with COVID-19 [OR 0.75 (95% CI 0,59-0.96; p = 0.013)]. This effect was mainly driven by patients, who presented in an early phase of COVID-19 at baseline [OR 0,64 (95% CI 0,43-0,96; p = 0.029)]. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly lower incidence of death in patients on an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) (n = 33/318;10,4%) compared to patients using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) (n = 60/348;17,2%) or patients who received neither an ACE-inhibitor nor an ARB at baseline in the uncomplicated phase (n = 90/466; 19,3%; p<0.034). Patients taking an ARB were significantly less frequently reaching the mortality predicting threshold for leukocytes (p<0.001), neutrophils (p = 0.002) and the inflammatory markers CRP (p = 0.021), procalcitonin (p = 0.001) and IL-6 (p = 0.049). ACE2 expression levels in human lung samples were not altered in patients taking RAAS modulators. CONCLUSION: These data suggest a beneficial effect of ARBs on disease severity in patients with cardiovascular comorbidities and COVID-19, which is linked to dampened systemic inflammatory activity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
4.
J Clin Invest ; 131(19)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDThe angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) D allele is more prevalent among African Americans compared with other races and ethnicities and has previously been associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis through excessive ACE1 activity. ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB) may counteract this mechanism, but their association with COVID-19 outcomes has not been specifically tested in the African American population.METHODSWe identified 6218 patients who were admitted into Mount Sinai hospitals with COVID-19 between February 24 and May 31, 2020, in New York City. We evaluated whether the outpatient and in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARB is associated with COVID-19 in-hospital mortality in an African American compared with non-African American population.RESULTSOf the 6218 patients with COVID-19, 1138 (18.3%) were ACE-I/ARB users. In a multivariate logistic regression model, ACE-I/ARB use was independently associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality in the entire population (OR, 0.655; 95% CI, 0.505-0.850; P = 0.001), African American population (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.249-0.779; P = 0.005), and non-African American population (OR, 0.748, 95% CI, 0.553-1.012, P = 0.06). In the African American population, in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARB was associated with improved mortality (OR, 0.378; 95% CI, 0.188-0.766; P = 0.006), whereas outpatient use was not (OR, 0.889; 95% CI, 0.375-2.158; P = 0.812). When analyzing each medication class separately, ARB in-hospital use was significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality in the African American population (OR, 0.196; 95% CI, 0.074-0.516; P = 0.001), whereas ACE-I use was not associated with impact on mortality in any population.CONCLUSIONIn-hospital use of ARB was associated with a significant reduction in in-hospital mortality among COVID-19-positive African American patients.FUNDINGNone.


Subject(s)
African Americans , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
5.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1673-1675, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437738

ABSTRACT

In the setting of the raging COVID-19 pandemic, the search for innovative therapeutics is desperately sought after. As we learn more about the characteristics and metabolic health of patients and as our understanding of COVID-19 pathophysiology and treatment progresses, so is our understanding of medication effects that might increase disease severity. As of late, ACE inhibitors have been under investigation for a potential increase in illness severity due to ACE2 upregulation. Given our knowledge of other nutrient-pharmaceutical interactions, could the ACE inhibitor impact on COVID be due to something else? In this paper, we discuss the possibility that ACE inhibitors might be affecting COVID-19 patients by causing zinc insufficiency.KEY MESSAGESZinc deficiency caused by chronic ACE inhibitor usage may exacerbate the pathogenicity of COVID-19 in susceptible patients.A multi-center study is needed to assess the zinc levels of patients with COVID-19 who are taking ACE inhibitors and other medications that may result in low zinc levels.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Zinc/deficiency , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Interactions , Female , Humans , Male , Nutritional Status/drug effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Zinc/blood
6.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 9(1): e00691, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384293

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses represent global health threat. In this century, they have already caused two epidemics and one serious pandemic. Although, at present, there are no approved drugs and therapies for the treatment and prevention of human coronaviruses, several agents, FDA-approved, and preclinical, have shown in vitro and/or in vivo antiviral activity. An in-depth analysis of the current situation leads to the identification of several potential drugs that could have an impact on the fight against coronaviruses infections. In this review, we discuss the virology of human coronaviruses highlighting the main biological targets and summarize the current state-of-the-art of possible therapeutic options to inhibit coronaviruses infections. We mostly focus on FDA-approved and preclinical drugs targeting viral conserved elements.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus/metabolism , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Azoles/administration & dosage , Azoles/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Humans , Isoindoles , Naphthoquinones/administration & dosage , Naphthoquinones/metabolism , Organoselenium Compounds/administration & dosage , Organoselenium Compounds/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy
7.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 192: 114724, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347499

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has quickly spread around the globe. At present, there is no precise and effective treatment for the patients with COVID-19, so rapid development of drugs is urgently needed in order to contain the highly infectious disease. The virus spike protein (S protein) can recognize the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor on the host cell membrane and undergo a series of conformational changes, protease cleavage and membrane fusion to complete the virus entry, so S protein is an important target for vaccine and drug development. Here we provide a brief overview of molecular mechanisms of virus entry, as well as some potential antiviral agents that act on S/ACE2 protein-protein interaction. Specifically, we focused on experimentally validated and/or computational prediction identified inhibitors that target SARS-CoV-2 S protein, ACE2 and enzymes associated with viral infection. This review offers valuable information for the discovery and development of potential antiviral agents in combating SARS-CoV-2. In addition, with the deepening understanding of the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection, more targeted prevention and treatment drugs will be explored with the aid of the advanced technology in the future.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Glycyrrhetinic Acid/administration & dosage , Humans , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Binding/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Chain Antibodies/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): 863-872, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 entry in human cells depends on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, which can be upregulated by inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We aimed to test our hypothesis that discontinuation of chronic treatment with ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) mitigates the course o\f recent-onset COVID-19. METHODS: ACEI-COVID was a parallel group, randomised, controlled, open-label trial done at 35 centres in Austria and Germany. Patients aged 18 years and older were enrolled if they presented with recent symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and were chronically treated with ACEIs or ARBs. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to discontinuation or continuation of RAS inhibition for 30 days. Primary outcome was the maximum sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score within 30 days, where death was scored with the maximum achievable SOFA score. Secondary endpoints were area under the death-adjusted SOFA score (AUCSOFA), mean SOFA score, admission to the intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, and death. Analyses were done on a modified intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04353596. FINDINGS: Between April 20, 2020, and Jan 20, 2021, 204 patients (median age 75 years [IQR 66-80], 37% females) were randomly assigned to discontinue (n=104) or continue (n=100) RAS inhibition. Within 30 days, eight (8%) of 104 died in the discontinuation group and 12 (12%) of 100 patients died in the continuation group (p=0·42). There was no significant difference in the primary endpoint between the discontinuation and continuation group (median [IQR] maximum SOFA score 0·00 (0·00-2·00) vs 1·00 (0·00-3·00); p=0·12). Discontinuation was associated with a significantly lower AUCSOFA (0·00 [0·00-9·25] vs 3·50 [0·00-23·50]; p=0·040), mean SOFA score (0·00 [0·00-0·31] vs 0·12 [0·00-0·78]; p=0·040), and 30-day SOFA score (0·00 [10-90th percentile, 0·00-1·20] vs 0·00 [0·00-24·00]; p=0·023). At 30 days, 11 (11%) in the discontinuation group and 23 (23%) in the continuation group had signs of organ dysfunction (SOFA score ≥1) or were dead (p=0·017). There were no significant differences for mechanical ventilation (10 (10%) vs 8 (8%), p=0·87) and admission to intensive care unit (20 [19%] vs 18 [18%], p=0·96) between the discontinuation and continuation group. INTERPRETATION: Discontinuation of RAS-inhibition in COVID-19 had no significant effect on the maximum severity of COVID-19 but may lead to a faster and better recovery. The decision to continue or discontinue should be made on an individual basis, considering the risk profile, the indication for RAS inhibition, and the availability of alternative therapies and outpatient monitoring options. FUNDING: Austrian Science Fund and German Center for Cardiovascular Research.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Risk Adjustment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Withholding Treatment/statistics & numerical data
9.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 254, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CKD is common in heart failure (HF) and associated with morbidity and mortality, yet life-prolonging medications such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors (RAASi) are underused due to risk of hyperkalaemia. Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (SZC) is a potassium-binding medication that has been shown to reduce incidence of hyperkalaemia in CKD, non-CKD, and HF populations, which we propose will support maximisation of RAASi therapy. METHODS: We propose a 1:1 randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which participants will receive either SZC or placebo. We will up-titrate participants' RAASi therapy while monitoring their serum potassium levels and adjusting their SZC dose if necessary. Participants with CKD and HF will be recruited from CKD and HF clinics at St George's Hospital. The total study period will be 18 months; 130 participants will be enrolled for approximately two months each following screening. Our primary outcome will be the proportion of participants who achieve maximum RAASi dose while maintaining normokalaemia. Secondary outcomes include participants reaching maximum RAASi dose without severe hyperkalaemia; time from randomisation to hyperkalaemia; time from randomisation to severe hyperkalaemia; number of RAASi dose escalations per participant; final doses of RAASi therapy; changes in quality of life score, eGFR, ACR, serum sodium, troponin T; number and duration of hospital admissions; and within-participant change in serum potassium compared to baseline. DISCUSSION: This trial will be the first to examine the use of SZC for the maximisation of RAASi dosing in patients with advanced CKD and HF. We will assess the impact of achieving target RAASi dosing on hospital admission rates and duration of stay, with the hope that optimum RAASi treatment will translate into reduced morbidity and improved QoL. If clinical benefit is demonstrated, we hope that the joint multidisciplinary CKD-HF approach will be expanded. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number 2020-002946-18. Registered on 08 June 2020. Online record pending.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure/complications , Hyperkalemia/prevention & control , Ion Exchange Resins/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Silicates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology
10.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(2): 271-276, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310347

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented challenge. Meeting this has resulted in changes to working practices and the impact on the management of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is largely unknown. We performed a retrospective, observational study contrasting patients diagnosed with HFrEF attending specialist heart failure clinics at a UK hospital, whose subsequent period of optimisation of medical therapy was during the COVID-19 pandemic, with patients diagnosed the previous year. The primary outcome was the change in equivalent dosing of ramipril and bisoprolol at 6-months. Secondary outcomes were the number and type of follow-up consultations, hospitalisation for heart failure and all-cause mortality. In total, 60 patients were diagnosed with HFrEF between 1 December 2019 and 30 April 2020, compared to 54 during the same period of the previous year. The absolute number of consultations was higher (390 vs 270; p = 0.69), driven by increases in telephone consultations, with a reduction in appointments with hospital nurse specialists. After 6-months, we observed lower equivalent dosing of ramipril (3.1 ± 3.0 mg vs 4.4 ± 0.5 mg; p = 0.035) and similar dosing of bisoprolol (4.1 ± 0.5 mg vs 4.9 ± 0.5 mg; p = 0.27), which persisted for ramipril (mean difference 1.0 mg, 95% CI 0.018-2.09; p = 0.046) and bisoprolol (mean difference 0.52 mg, 95% CI -0.23-1.28; p = 0.17) after adjustment for baseline dosing. We observed no differences in the proportion of patients who died (5.0% vs 7.4%; p = 0.59) or were hospitalised with heart failure (13.3% vs 9.3%; p = 0.49). Our study suggests the transition to telephone appointments and re-deployment of heart failure nurse specialists was associated with less successful optimisation of medical therapy, especially renin-angiotensin inhibitors, compared with usual care.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Bisoprolol/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Ramipril/administration & dosage , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Bisoprolol/adverse effects , Chronic Disease , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Ramipril/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Hypertens ; 39(2): 367-375, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114883

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a matter of controversies. Studies based on in-hospital exposure have suggested a beneficial effect of these drugs, unlike those based on chronic exposure. We aimed to analyse RAAS blocker prescription before and during hospital stay in patients with COVID-19, and the corresponding outcomes, to explain these discrepant results. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study conducted in 347 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 (Bichat Hospital, Paris, France, 23 January-29 April 2020), RAAS blocker exposure, as well as timing and reason for treatment modifications, were collected. The association between exposure and mortality within 30 days of hospital admission was analysed using logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities. RESULTS: Median age was 61 [interquartile range, 51-72] years, 209 (60%) were male, 169 (49%) had a history of treated hypertension, and 117 (34%) received a RAAS blocker prior to hospitalization. RAAS blockers were discontinued within the first 7 days of hospital admission in 33% of previously treated patients (mostly driven by severity of the disease), with a corresponding mortality rate of 33%. Mortality was 8% when treatment was maintained or introduced, and 12% in patients never exposed. Adjusted odds ratios for association between exposure and mortality were 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.25-1.48) based on chronic exposure and 0.25 (0.09-0.65) based on in-hospital exposure. CONCLUSION: A 'healthy user-sick stopper' bias influences RAAS blocker prescription after hospital admission for COVID-19, and explains the seemingly favourable outcome associated with in-hospital treatment.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Paris , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 103: 106330, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Retrospective studies have shown that angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are associated with a reduced risk of complications and mortality in persons with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Thus, we aimed to examine the efficacy of ramipril, an ACE-inhibitor, in preventing ICU admission, mechanical ventilation and/or mortality while also minimizing the risk of transmission and use of personal protective equipment (PPE). METHODS: RAMIC is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, allocation-concealed, placebo-controlled trial comparing the efficacy of treatment with ramipril 2.5 mg orally daily compared to placebo for 14 days. The study population includes adult patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to a hospital or assessed in an emergency department or ambulatory clinic. Key exclusion criteria include ICU admission or need for mechanical ventilation at screening, use of an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor-II blocker within 7 days, glomerular filtration rate < 40 mL/min or a systolic blood pressure (BP) < 100 mmHg or diastolic BP < 65 mmHg. Patients are randomized 2:1 to receive ramipril (2.5 mg) or placebo daily. Informed consent and study visits occur virtually to minimize the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and preserve PPE. The primary composite endpoint of ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation and death are adjudicated virtually. CONCLUSIONS: RAMIC is designed to assess the efficacy of treatment with ramipril for 14 days to decrease ICU admission, mechanical ventilator use and mortality in patients with COVID-19 and leverages virtual study visits and endpoint adjudication to mitigate risk of infection and to preserve PPE (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04366050).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ramipril , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Mortality , Ramipril/administration & dosage , Ramipril/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
14.
Phytother Res ; 35(2): 629-636, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1098919

ABSTRACT

Currently, over 100 countries are fighting against a common enemy, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, which causes COVID-19. This has created a demand for a substance whose effectiveness has already been demonstrated in a similar scenario. Glycyrrhizin (GZ) is a promising agent against SARS-CoV-2 as its antiviral activity against SARS-CoV has already been confirmed. It is worthwhile to extrapolate from its proven therapeutic effects as there is a high similarity in the structure and genome of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. There are many possible mechanisms through which GZ acts against viruses: increasing nitrous oxide production in macrophages, affecting transcription factors and cellular signalling pathways, directly altering the viral lipid-bilayer membrane, and binding to the ACE2 receptor. In this review, we discuss the possible use of GZ in the COVID-19 setting, where topical administration appears to be promising, with the nasal and oral cavity notably being the potent location in terms of viral load. The most recently published papers on the distribution of ACE2 in the human body and documented binding of GZ to this receptor, as well as its antiviral activity, suggest that GZ can be used as a therapeutic for COVID-19 and as a preventive agent against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemoprevention/methods , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Administration, Intranasal , Administration, Topical , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/administration & dosage , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Therapies, Investigational/methods
15.
Cardiol Young ; 30(9): 1339-1342, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082976
16.
JAMA ; 324(2): 168-177, 2020 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1074235

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: It has been hypothesized that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may make patients more susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to worse outcomes through upregulation of the functional receptor of the virus, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether use of ACEI/ARBs was associated with COVID-19 diagnosis and worse outcomes in patients with COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: To examine outcomes among patients with COVID-19, a retrospective cohort study using data from Danish national administrative registries was conducted. Patients with COVID-19 from February 22 to May 4, 2020, were identified using ICD-10 codes and followed up from day of diagnosis to outcome or end of study period (May 4, 2020). To examine susceptibility to COVID-19, a Cox regression model with a nested case-control framework was used to examine the association between use of ACEI/ARBs vs other antihypertensive drugs and the incidence rate of a COVID-19 diagnosis in a cohort of patients with hypertension from February 1 to May 4, 2020. EXPOSURES: ACEI/ARB use was defined as prescription fillings 6 months prior to the index date. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: In the retrospective cohort study, the primary outcome was death, and a secondary outcome was a composite outcome of death or severe COVID-19. In the nested case-control susceptibility analysis, the outcome was COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: In the retrospective cohort study, 4480 patients with COVID-19 were included (median age, 54.7 years [interquartile range, 40.9-72.0]; 47.9% men). There were 895 users (20.0%) of ACEI/ARBs and 3585 nonusers (80.0%). In the ACEI/ARB group, 18.1% died within 30 days vs 7.3% in the nonuser group, but this association was not significant after adjustment for age, sex, and medical history (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.83 [95% CI, 0.67-1.03]). Death or severe COVID-19 occurred in 31.9% of ACEI/ARB users vs 14.2% of nonusers by 30 days (adjusted HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.89-1.23]). In the nested case-control analysis of COVID-19 susceptibility, 571 patients with COVID-19 and prior hypertension (median age, 73.9 years; 54.3% men) were compared with 5710 age- and sex-matched controls with prior hypertension but not COVID-19. Among those with COVID-19, 86.5% used ACEI/ARBs vs 85.4% of controls; ACEI/ARB use compared with other antihypertensive drugs was not significantly associated with higher incidence of COVID-19 (adjusted HR, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.80-1.36]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Prior use of ACEI/ARBs was not significantly associated with COVID-19 diagnosis among patients with hypertension or with mortality or severe disease among patients diagnosed as having COVID-19. These findings do not support discontinuation of ACEI/ARB medications that are clinically indicated in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Denmark , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(1): 523-526, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052579

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, millions of people have been infected with thousands of deaths. Few data regarding factors that increase the risk of infection are available. Our study aimed to evaluate all people living in retirement homes (PLRNH) and identify factors that could increase infection risk in a close community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling all PLRNH, where at least one SARS-CoV-2 infected person was present. Variables were compared with Student's t-test or Pearson chi-square test as appropriate. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate variables' influence on the infection. RESULTS: We included 452 PLRNH; 144 (31.7%) were male, with a mean age of 82.2±8.6 years. People with a positive swab for SARS-CoV-2 were 306 (67.4%). A significant difference between SARS-CoV-2 infected and not infected was observed in the percentage of those receiving chronic treatment with Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) (18.6% vs. 9.5%, p=0.012). On the contrary, there was no difference in the proportion of those receiving ACE inhibitors (ACE-I) (21.2% vs. 23.6%, p=0.562). At multivariate analysis, people with mental illness and cancer had an increased risk of being infected. Furthermore, receiving ARBs as a chronic treatment was an independent predictor of infection risk [OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.03-3.72) p=0.041]. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that, in close communities, such as retirement nursing homes, the receipt of ARBs increased the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, before changing an important chronic treatment in a fragile population, such as the elderly living in retirement nursing homes, clinicians should carefully evaluate the risk-benefit ratio.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/transmission , Drug Utilization , Female , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment
18.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(3): 465-481, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043627

ABSTRACT

The key link between renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and COVID-19 is ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), which acts as a double-edged sword, because ACE2 increases the tissue anti-inflammatory response but it is also the entry receptor for the virus. There is an important controversy on several drugs that regulate RAS activity and possibly ACE2, and are widely used, particularly by patients most vulnerable to severe COVID-19. In the lung of healthy rats, we observed that candesartan (an angiotensin type-1, AT1, receptor blocker; ARB) and captopril (an ACE inhibitor; ACEI) up-regulated expression of tissue ACE2 and RAS anti-inflammatory axis receptors (AT2 and Mas receptors). This effect was particularly pronounced in rats with metabolic syndrome (obesity, increased blood pressure and hyperglycemia) and aged rats. Treatment of cultures of human type-II pneumocytes with candesartan or captopril induced up-regulation of ACE2 expression in cells. Treatment with viral spike protein induced a decrease in full-length (i.e. transmembrane) ACE2, an increase in levels of a short intracellular ACE2 polypeptide and an increase in ADAM17 activity in cells, together with an increase in levels of soluble ACE2 and major proinflammatory cytokines in the culture medium. Spike protein-induced changes and levels of spike protein internalization in cells were inhibited by pretreatment with the above-mentioned drugs. The results suggest that these drugs increase ACE2 levels and promote the anti-inflammatory RAS axis in the lung. Furthermore, possible up-regulation of viral entry by the drug-induced increase in expression of transmembrane ACE2 is counteracted by additional mechanisms, particularly by drug-induced inhibition of ADAM17 activity.


Subject(s)
Benzimidazoles/administration & dosage , Biphenyl Compounds/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Captopril/administration & dosage , Tetrazoles/administration & dosage , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Rats , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
19.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(7): 1041-1050, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014129

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of concomitant long-term medication-with a focus on ACE inhibitors and oral anticoagulation-on clinical outcomes in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using claims data of the biggest German health insurance company AOK, covering 26.9 million people all over Germany. In particular, patient-related characteristics and co-medication were evaluated. A multivariable logistic regression model was adopted to identify independent predictors for the primary outcome measure of all-cause mortality or need for invasive or non-invasive ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. RESULTS: 6637 patients in 853 German hospitals were included. The primary outcome occurred in 1826 patients (27.5%). 1372 patients (20.7%) died, 886 patients (13.3%) needed respiratory support, and 53 patients (0.8%) received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. 34 of these patients survived (64.2%). The multivariable model demonstrated that pre-existing oral anticoagulation therapy with either vitamin-K antagonists OR 0.57 (95% CI 0.40-0.83, p = 0.003) or direct oral anticoagulants OR 0.71 (95% CI 0.56-0.91, p = 0.007)-but not with antiplatelet therapy alone OR 1.10 (95% CI 0.88-1.23, p = 0.66)-was associated with a lower event rate. This finding was confirmed in a propensity match analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In a multivariable analysis, a therapy with both direct oral anticoagulants or vitamin-K antagonists-but not with antiplatelet therapy-was associated with improved clinical outcomes. ACE inhibitors did not impact outcomes. Prospective randomized trials are needed to verify this hypothesis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Administration, Oral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies
20.
Therapie ; 75(4): 319-325, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005554

ABSTRACT

Some concerns about the prescription of drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE1) inhibitors, ACEi; angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, ARB) have emerged due to SARS COV2 and COVID-19 pandemic. These very legitimate questions are directly the consequence of the recent recognition of the fundamental role of ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) in COVID-19 infection. Indeed, SARS COV2 utilizes ACE2 as a membrane receptor to enter target cells. Consequently, the putative impact of drugs modulating the renin-angiotensin system on the risk of developing severe or fatal severe acute respiratory syndrome in case of COVID-19 infection emerged. As a membrane-bound enzyme (carboxypeptidase), ACE2 inactivates angiotensin II and therefore physiologically counters its effects. Due to a different structure compared with ACE1, ACE2 is insensitive to ACEIs. In vitro, both ARBs and ACEi appear able to upregulate ACE2 tissue expression and activity but these results were not confirmed in Humans. The exact impact of both ARBs and ACEis on COVID-19 infection is definitively known and preliminary results are even in favor of a protective role confers by these drugs. Due to the crucial role of ACE2, some groups support the hypothesis that a modulation of ACE2 expression could represent a valuable therapeutic target could confer protective properties against inflammatory tissue damage in COVID-19 infection. So, studies are currently ongoing to test the impact of elevated ACE2 membrane expression, administration of ARB and infusion of soluble ACE2. In summary, based on the currently available evidences and as recommended by several medical societies, ACEi or ARB should not be systematically discontinued because to date no safety signal was raised with the use of these drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/administration & dosage , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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