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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(11): e025289, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874925

ABSTRACT

Background Renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor-COVID-19 studies, observational in design, appear to use biased methods that can distort the interaction between RAAS inhibitor use and COVID-19 risk. This study assessed the extent of bias in that research and reevaluated RAAS inhibitor-COVID-19 associations in studies without critical risk of bias. Methods and Results Searches were performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases (December 1, 2019 to October 21, 2021) identifying studies that compared the risk of infection and/or severe COVID-19 outcomes between those using or not using RAAS inhibitors (ie, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II type-I receptor blockers). Weighted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs were extracted and pooled in fixed-effects meta-analyses, only from studies without critical risk of bias that assessed severe COVID-19 outcomes. Of 169 relevant studies, 164 had critical risks of bias and were excluded. Ultimately, only two studies presented data relevant to the meta-analysis. In 1 351 633 people with uncomplicated hypertension using a RAAS inhibitor, calcium channel blocker, or thiazide diuretic in monotherapy, the risk of hospitalization (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor: HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.66-0.87; P<0.001; angiotensin II type-I receptor blockers: HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.97; P=0.015) and intubation or death (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor: HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48-0.85; P=0.002; angiotensin II type-I receptor blockers: HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.58-0.95; P=0.019) with COVID-19 was lower in those using a RAAS inhibitor. However, these protective effects are probably not clinically relevant. Conclusions This study reveals the critical risk of bias that exists across almost an entire body of COVID-19 research, raising an important question: Were research methods and/or peer-review processes temporarily weakened during the surge of COVID-19 research or is this lack of rigor a systemic problem that also exists outside pandemic-based research? Registration URL: www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/; Unique identifier: CRD42021237859.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aldosterone , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Renin , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Trials ; 22(1): 573, 2021 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 binds to membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) which may result in downregulation of membrane-bound ACE2. ACE2 is a key regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and is responsible for degrading angiotensin II and thereby counteracting its pro-inflammatory, pro-fibrotic effects mediated through the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). As AT1R is directly blocked by angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), these agents may offer a safe, low-cost solution for reducing COVID-19 respiratory outcomes. METHODS AND DISCUSSION: CLARITY is a pragmatic, adaptive, two-arm, multi-centre, comparative effectiveness phase III randomised controlled trial that examines whether ARBs reduce COVID-19 severity among high-risk patients. Recruiting in India and Australia, the trial will compare treatment with a maximum tolerated daily dose of an ARB to standard of care. Treatment allocation is blinded in India but open-label in Australia due to interruptions to placebo supply in the latter. The primary endpoint is a 7-point ordinal scale of clinical states, ranging from no limitation of activities (category 1) to death (category 7), assessed on day 14. Secondary outcomes include the 7-point scale assessed at day 28 and 28- and 90-day mortality. The design adapts the sample size based on accumulating data via frequent interim analyses and the use of predictive probability to determine whether the current sample size is sufficient or continuing accrual would be futile. The trial commenced recruitment on 18 August 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04394117 . Registered on 19 May 2020. Clinical Trial Registry of India: CTRI/2020/07/026831).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e053961, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788959

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in a racially diverse sample from the US Southeast and examine the association of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor use with COVID-19 outcome. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: This study is a retrospective cohort of 1024 patients with reverse-transcriptase PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection, admitted to a 1242-bed teaching hospital in Alabama. Data on RAAS inhibitors use, demographics and comorbidities were extracted from hospital medical records. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: In-hospital mortality, a need of intensive care unit, respiratory failure, defined as invasive mechanical ventilation (iMV) and 90-day same-hospital readmissions. RESULTS: Among 1024 patients (mean (SD) age, 57 (18.8) years), 532 (52.0%) were African Americans, 514 (50.2%) male, 493 (48.1%) had hypertension, 365 (36%) were taking RAAS inhibitors. During index hospitalisation (median length of stay of 7 (IQR (4-15) days) 137 (13.4%) patients died; 170 (19.2%) of survivors were readmitted. RAAS inhibitor use was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (adjusted HR, 95% CI (0.56, (0.36 to 0.88), p=0.01) and no effect modification by race was observed (p for interaction=0.81). Among patients with hypertension, baseline RAAS use was associated with reduced risk of iMV, adjusted OR, 95% CI (aOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.95, p=0.03). Patients with heart failure were twice as likely to die from COVID-19, compared with patients without heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: In a retrospespective study of racially diverse patients, hospitalised with COVID-19, prehospitalisation use of RAAS inhibitors was associated with 40% reduction in mortality irrespective of race.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies
4.
Am J Ther ; 29(1): e74-e84, 2020 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778978

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infects its target cells via angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor, a membrane-bound protein found on the surface of many human cells. Treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptors blockers (ARB) has been shown to increase angiotensin converting enzyme 2 expression by up to 5-fold. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: These findings coupled with observations of the high prevalence and mortality among SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with underlying cardiovascular disease have led to a speculation that ACEIs/ARBs may predispose to higher risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the literature and performed a meta-analysis of the association between prior use of ACEIs and ARBs and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or hospitalization due to COVID-19 disease. DATA SOURCES: We searched Ovid MEDLINE(R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Daily, Ovid Embase, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, Scopus, and Medrxiv.org preprint server until June 18, 2020. THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES: Ten studies (6 cohorts and 4 case control) that enrolled a total of 23,892 patients and 853,369 controls were eligible for inclusion in our meta-analysis. One study was excluded from the analysis because of high risk of bias. Prior use of ACEIs was not associated with an increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 or hospitalization due to COVID-19 disease, odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval (0.91-1.05), I2 = 15%. Similarly, prior use of ARBs was not associated with an increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2, odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval (0.98-1.10), I2 = 0%. CONCLUSION: Cumulative evidence suggests that prior use of ACEIs or ARBs is not associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 or hospitalization due to COVID-19 disease. Our results provide a reassurance to the public not to discontinue prescribed ACEIs/ARBs because of fear of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 123, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The influence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the critically ill COVID-19 patients with pre-existing hypertension remains uncertain. This study examined the impact of previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) on the critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Data from an international, prospective, observational cohort study involving 354 hospitals spanning 54 countries were included. A cohort of 737 COVID-19 patients with pre-existing hypertension admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in 2020 were targeted. Multi-state survival analysis was performed to evaluate in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay up to 90 days following ICU admission. RESULTS: A total of 737 patients were included-538 (73%) with pre-existing hypertension had received ACEi/ARBs before ICU admission, while 199 (27%) had not. Cox proportional hazards model showed that previous ACEi/ARB use was associated with a decreased hazard of in-hospital death (HR, 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.94). Sensitivity analysis adjusted for propensity scores showed similar results for hazards of death. The average length of hospital stay was longer in ACEi/ARB group with 21.2 days (95% CI 19.7-22.8 days) in ICU and 6.7 days (5.9-7.6 days) in general ward compared to non-ACEi/ARB group with 16.2 days (14.1-18.6 days) and 6.4 days (5.1-7.9 days), respectively. When analysed separately, results for ACEi or ARB patient groups were similar for both death and discharge. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill COVID-19 patients with comorbid hypertension, use of ACEi/ARBs prior to ICU admission was associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality following adjustment for baseline characteristics although patients with ACEi/ARB showed longer length of hospital stay. Clinical trial registration The registration number: ACTRN12620000421932; The date of registration: 30, March 2020; The URL of the registration: https://www.australianclinicaltrials.gov.au/anzctr/trial/ACTRN12620000421932 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies
6.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 79(3): 311-314, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730738

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Early during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic, concerns were raised regarding potential adverse outcomes in patients taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). These concerns were based on animal studies showing increased ACE-2 expression in mice treated with ACEI/ARB. This is a single-center, retrospective, cohort study of 289 patients diagnosed with 2019 Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) hospitalized between March of 2020 and June of 2020. The study was intended to investigate the impact of ACEIs and/or ARBs on in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, postadmission hemodialysis requirement, and the need for mechanical ventilation in patients with COVID-19. This cohort of 289 patients included 139 of 289 women (48%) with a mean age of 61 ± 19 years. Patients using ACEIs/ARBs were older (69.68 vs. 57.9 years; P < 0.0001), more likely to have a history of hypertension (97% vs. 36%; P < 0.0001), diabetes mellitus (48% vs. 20.9%; P < 0.0001), chronic heart failure (11.39% vs. 4.29%; P < 0.0512), coronary artery disease (20.25% vs. 7.14%; P < 0.0025), stroke/Transient Ischemic Attack (7.59% vs. 2.38%; P < 0.0761), chronic kidney disease (11.39% vs. 3.33%; P < 0.0167), atrial fibrillation/flutter (18.99% vs. 7.14%; P < 0.0080), and dementia (22.7% vs. 11.4%; P < 0.0233) compared with the nonuser group. There was significantly higher in-hospital mortality in patients using ACEIs/ARBs than nonusers, respectively (32.9% vs. 15.2%; P < 0.0015). However, a multivariate logistics regression analysis performed to adjust for common confounders demonstrated no significant difference in all-cause in-patient mortality (P 0.7141). Admission to ICU, postadmission hemodialysis requirement, and mechanical ventilation showed no significant differences between the 2 groups (P = NS). This study suggests that the use of ACEIs and ARBs in patients with COVID-19 was not found to significantly increase all-cause in-hospital mortality, ICU admissions, and hemodialysis and mechanical ventilation requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Mice , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Am Heart J ; 247: 76-89, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) are commonly used among patients hospitalized with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated whether continuation versus discontinuation of RAASi were associated with short term clinical or biochemical outcomes. METHODS: The RAAS-COVID-19 trial was a randomized, open label study in adult patients previously treated with RAASi who are hospitalized with COVID-19 (NCT04508985). Participants were randomized 1:1 to discontinue or continue RAASi. The primary outcome was a global rank score calculated from baseline to day 7 (or discharge) incorporating clinical events and biomarker changes. Global rank scores were compared between groups using the Wilcoxon test statistic and the negative binomial test (using incident rate ratio [IRR]) and the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: Overall, 46 participants were enrolled; 21 participants were randomized to discontinue RAASi and 25 to continue. Patients' mean age was 71.5 years and 43.5% were female. Discontinuation of RAASi, versus continuation, resulted in a non-statistically different mean global rank score (discontinuation 6 [standard deviation [SD] 6.3] vs continuation 3.8 (SD 2.5); P = .60). The negative binomial analysis identified that discontinuation increased the risk of adverse outcomes (IRR 1.67 [95% CI 1.06-2.62]; P = .027); RAASi discontinuation increased brain natriuretic peptide levels (% change from baseline: +16.7% vs -27.5%; P = .024) and the incidence of acute heart failure (33% vs 4.2%, P = .016). CONCLUSION: RAASi continuation in participants hospitalized with COVID-19 appears safe; discontinuation increased brain natriuretic peptide levels and may increase risk of acute heart failure; where possible, RAASi should be continued.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Adult , Aged , Aldosterone , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Renin-Angiotensin System
10.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 143: 106955, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641722

ABSTRACT

Interactions between anti-hypertensive agents (ACEI), comorbidities, inflammation, and stress status may impact hospital stay duration in COVID-19 patients. This retrospective study analyzed epidemiological data, comorbidities, metabolic/inflammatory markers, and clinical information from 165 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. In a multiple linear regression model, an IL-6 higher than 100 mg/L, glucose at admission (baseline levels at the hospital entry), and the interaction between ACEI administration and LDH predicted the days of hospital admission (P < 0.001). In conclusion, hypertensive patients suffering more severe inflammatory condition assessed by LDH levels clinically benefited more and reduced the hospital stay when prescribed ACEI agents than those with lower systemic baseline inflammation at admission.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents , COVID-19 , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Elife ; 102021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622815

ABSTRACT

Background: Potential therapy and confounding factors including typical co-administered medications, patient's disease states, disease prevalence, patient demographics, medical histories, and reasons for prescribing a drug often are incomplete, conflicting, missing, or uncharacterized in spontaneous adverse drug event (ADE) reporting systems. These missing or incomplete features can affect and limit the application of quantitative methods in pharmacovigilance for meta-analyses of data during randomized clinical trials. Methods: Data from patients with hypertension were retrieved and integrated from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System; 134 antihypertensive drugs out of 1131 drugs were filtered and then evaluated using the empirical Bayes geometric mean (EBGM) of the posterior distribution to build ADE-drug profiles with an emphasis on the pulmonary ADEs. Afterward, the graphical least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (GLASSO) captured drug associations based on pulmonary ADEs by correcting hidden factors and confounder misclassification. Selected drugs were then compared using the Friedman test in drug classes and clusters obtained from GLASSO. Results: Following multiple filtering stages to exclude insignificant and noise-driven reports, we found that drugs from antihypertensives agents, urologicals, and antithrombotic agents (macitentan, bosentan, epoprostenol, selexipag, sildenafil, tadalafil, and beraprost) form a similar class with a significantly higher incidence of pulmonary ADEs. Macitentan and bosentan were associated with 64% and 56% of pulmonary ADEs, respectively. Because these two medications are prescribed in diseases affecting pulmonary function and may be likely to emerge among the highest reported pulmonary ADEs, in fact, they serve to validate the methods utilized here. Conversely, doxazosin and rilmenidine were found to have the least pulmonary ADEs in selected drugs from hypertension patients. Nifedipine and candesartan were also found by signal detection methods to form a drug cluster, shown by several studies an effective combination of these drugs on lowering blood pressure and appeared an improved side effect profile in comparison with single-agent monotherapy. Conclusions: We consider pulmonary ADE profiles in multiple long-standing groups of therapeutics including antihypertensive agents, antithrombotic agents, beta-blocking agents, calcium channel blockers, or agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system, in patients with hypertension associated with high risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We found that several individual drugs have significant differences between their drug classes and compared to other drug classes. For instance, macitentan and bosentan from endothelin receptor antagonists show major concern while doxazosin and rilmenidine exhibited the least pulmonary ADEs compared to the outcomes of other drugs. Using techniques in this study, we assessed and confirmed the hypothesis that drugs from the same drug class could have very different pulmonary ADE profiles affecting outcomes in acute respiratory illness. Funding: GJW and MJD accepted funding from BioNexus KC for funding on this project, but BioNexus KC had no direct role in this article.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Data Mining/methods , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Hypertension/drug therapy , Pharmacovigilance , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , Calcium Channel Blockers/adverse effects , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Hypertension/complications , SARS-CoV-2
12.
ASN Neuro ; 13: 17590914211057635, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511685

ABSTRACT

Among the plethora of debilitating neurological disorders of COVID-19 syndrome in survivors, the scope of SARS-CoV-2-induced dysautonomia (DNS) is yet to be understood, though the implications are enormous. Herein, we present an inclusive mini-review of SARS-CoV-2-induced DNS and its associated complications. Although, the direct link between Covid-19 and DSN is still speculative, the hypothetical links are thought to be either a direct neuronal injury of the autonomic pathway or a para/post-infectious immune-induced mechanism. SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced stress may activate the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) leading to neuro-hormonal stimulation and activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines with further development of sympathetic storm. Sympathetic over-activation in Covid-19 is correlated with increase in capillary pulmonary leakage, alveolar damage, and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 can spread through pulmonary mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors to medullary respiratory center in a retrograde manner resulting in sudden respiratory failure. Taken together, DSN in Covid-19 is developed due to sympathetic storm and inhibition of Parasympathetic nervous system-mediated anti-inflammatory effect with development of cytokine storm. Therefore, sympathetic and cytokine storms together with activation of Renin-Angiotensin-System are the chief final pathway involved in the development of DSN in Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Female , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Prospective Studies
13.
N Engl J Med ; 385(20): 1845-1855, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with symptomatic heart failure, sacubitril-valsartan has been found to reduce the risk of hospitalization and death from cardiovascular causes more effectively than an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor. Trials comparing the effects of these drugs in patients with acute myocardial infarction have been lacking. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with myocardial infarction complicated by a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, pulmonary congestion, or both to receive either sacubitril-valsartan (97 mg of sacubitril and 103 mg of valsartan twice daily) or ramipril (5 mg twice daily) in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes or incident heart failure (outpatient symptomatic heart failure or heart failure leading to hospitalization), whichever occurred first. RESULTS: A total of 5661 patients underwent randomization; 2830 were assigned to receive sacubitril-valsartan and 2831 to receive ramipril. Over a median of 22 months, a primary-outcome event occurred in 338 patients (11.9%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 373 patients (13.2%) in the ramipril group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 1.04; P = 0.17). Death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure occurred in 308 patients (10.9%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 335 patients (11.8%) in the ramipril group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.07); death from cardiovascular causes in 168 (5.9%) and 191 (6.7%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.08); and death from any cause in 213 (7.5%) and 242 (8.5%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.05). Treatment was discontinued because of an adverse event in 357 patients (12.6%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and 379 patients (13.4%) in the ramipril group. CONCLUSIONS: Sacubitril-valsartan was not associated with a significantly lower incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or incident heart failure than ramipril among patients with acute myocardial infarction. (Funded by Novartis; PARADISE-MI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02924727.).


Subject(s)
Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Ramipril/therapeutic use , Valsartan/therapeutic use , Aged , Aminobutyrates/adverse effects , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Biphenyl Compounds/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypotension/chemically induced , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Ramipril/adverse effects , Stroke Volume , Valsartan/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
15.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1673-1675, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437738

ABSTRACT

In the setting of the raging COVID-19 pandemic, the search for innovative therapeutics is desperately sought after. As we learn more about the characteristics and metabolic health of patients and as our understanding of COVID-19 pathophysiology and treatment progresses, so is our understanding of medication effects that might increase disease severity. As of late, ACE inhibitors have been under investigation for a potential increase in illness severity due to ACE2 upregulation. Given our knowledge of other nutrient-pharmaceutical interactions, could the ACE inhibitor impact on COVID be due to something else? In this paper, we discuss the possibility that ACE inhibitors might be affecting COVID-19 patients by causing zinc insufficiency.KEY MESSAGESZinc deficiency caused by chronic ACE inhibitor usage may exacerbate the pathogenicity of COVID-19 in susceptible patients.A multi-center study is needed to assess the zinc levels of patients with COVID-19 who are taking ACE inhibitors and other medications that may result in low zinc levels.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Zinc/deficiency , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Interactions , Female , Humans , Male , Nutritional Status/drug effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Zinc/blood
16.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 243, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Conflicting findings and the analysis of unpublished and retracted data have led to controversy on the safety of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in people with COVID-19 infection. This meta-analysis examined the association of prescription of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) with the outcome from COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted to find published studies that reported the outcome of COVID-19 in relation to prescription of ACEI or ARB. Two authors (MF and AD) independently screened and extracted data and assessed study quality and strength of association using standardised tools. The endpoints for the meta-analyses were severe or critical disease outcome and mortality based on standardised criteria. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies including 8389 people prescribed ACEI or ARB and 20,989 people not prescribed these medications were included. The quality of studies varied, and the overall strength of association was poor with a high risk of confounding bias. Patients prescribed ACEI or ARB had a greater prevalence of risk factors. Meta-analysis found an association between prescription of ACEI or ARB with severe or critical disease outcome (risk ratio, RR, 1.23, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.06 to 1.42, p = 0.006, I2 = 88%) but this association was lost in sensitivity analyses. There was no association between ACEI or ARB prescription and mortality (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.50, p = 0.19, I2 = 82%). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that people prescribed ACEI or ARB more commonly had severe or critical disease outcome, but not mortality, in published cohorts of patients diagnosed with COVID-19. This finding is most likely due to a greater prevalence of risk factors in these patients rather than due to exposure to angiotensin pathway inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , COVID-19 , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Angiotensins , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Thorax ; 76(4): 370-379, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388537

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of ACE inhibitor (ACE-I)/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use on rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection and adverse outcomes. METHODS: This nationwide case-control and cohort study included all individuals in Denmark tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA with PCR from 27 February 2020 to 26 July 2020. We estimated confounder-adjusted ORs for a positive test among all SARS-CoV-2 tested, and inverse probability of treatment weighted 30-day risk and risk ratios (RRs) of hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality comparing current ACE-I/ARB use with calcium channel blocker (CCB) use and with non-use. RESULTS: The study included 13 501 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive and 1 088 695 PCR-negative individuals. Users of ACE-I/ARB had a marginally increased rate of a positive PCR when compared with CCB users (aOR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.37), but not when compared with non-users (aOR 1.00 95% CI 0.92 to 1.09).Among PCR-positive individuals, 1466 (11%) were ACE-I/ARB users. The weighted risk of hospitalisation was 36.5% in ACE-I/ARB users and 43.3% in CCB users (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.02). The risk of ICU admission was 6.3% in ACE-I/ARB users and 5.4% in CCB users (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.16), while the 30-day mortality was 12.3% in ACE-I/ARB users and 13.9% in CCB users (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.30). The associations were similar when ACE-I/ARB users were compared with non-users. CONCLUSIONS: ACE-I/ARB use was associated neither with a consistently increased rate nor with adverse outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our findings support the current recommendation of continuing use of ACE-Is/ARBs during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: EUPAS34887.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged
19.
Korean J Intern Med ; 36(Suppl 1): S123-S131, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369806

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There are concerns that the use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers may increase the risk of being infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or progressing to a severe clinical course after infection. This this study aimed to investigate the influence of RAS blockers on the risk and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study analyzing nationwide claims data of 215,184 adults who underwent SARS-CoV-2 tests in South Korea. The SARS-CoV-2 positive rates and clinical outcomes were evaluated according to the use of RAS blockers in patients with hypertension (n = 64,243). RESULTS: In total, 38,919 patients with hypertension were on RAS blockers. The SARS-CoV-2 positive rates were significantly higher in the RAS blocker group than in the control group after adjustments (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 1.36; p < 0.001), and matching by propensity score (adjusted OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.32; p = 0.017). Among the 1,609 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with hypertension, the use of RAS blockers was not associated with poor outcomes, such as mortality (adjusted OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.17; p = 0.265), and a composite of admission to the intensive care unit and mortality (adjusted OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.22; p = 0.669). Analysis in the propensity scorematched population showed consistent results. CONCLUSION: In this Korean nationwide claims dataset, the use of RAS blockers was associated with a higher risk to SARS-CoV-2 infection but not with higher mortality or other severe clinical courses.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Administrative Claims, Healthcare , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
20.
Drugs Aging ; 38(10): 921-930, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is ongoing debate about the associations between drug therapies targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and adverse outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the associations between using medications for the cardiovascular system and the risks associated with COVID-19 in middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: A total of 77,221 participants (aged 50-86 years) from UK Biobank were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The medications included angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB), ß-blockers, calcium channel blockers (CCB), statins, and aspirin. COVID-19 outcomes comprised a positive test result and severity of COVID-19 (defined as mild, hospitalization or death). We evaluated the risk among total participants and for sub-groups based on sex. Propensity score matching was performed 1:1 and logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: Among the middle- and older aged participants, no significant associations between any class of medications and the likelihood of COVID-19 infection were observed. ACEI were associated with a higher mortality risk from COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.32) and CCB were associated with a lower hospitalization risk for COVID-19 (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.96) among the male patients with COVID-19, while a lower mortality risk from COVID-19 (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.96) was observed with ARB among the female patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggested sex differences in the risk of death from COVID-19 with the use of ACEI and ARB among middle-aged and older adults. Sex differences in the risk of hospitalization for COVID-19 with the use of CCB was observed as well. It is of clinical importance that clinicians adopt different CVD treatment approaches for female and male patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics
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