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1.
J Med Chem ; 65(1): 876-884, 2022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606194

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a global health threat, was caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 papain-like cysteine protease (PLpro) was recognized as a promising drug target because of multiple functions in virus maturation and antiviral immune responses. Inhibitor GRL0617 occupied the interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) C-terminus-binding pocket and showed an effective antiviral inhibition. Here, we described a novel peptide-drug conjugate (PDC), in which GRL0617 was linked to a sulfonium-tethered peptide derived from PLpro-specific substrate LRGG. The EM-C and EC-M PDCs showed a promising in vitro IC50 of 7.40 ± 0.37 and 8.63 ± 0.55 µM, respectively. EC-M could covalently label PLpro active site C111 and display anti-ISGylation activities in cellular assays. The results represent the first attempt to design PDCs composed of stabilized peptide inhibitors and GRL0617 to inhibit PLpro. These novel PDCs provide promising opportunities for antiviral drug design.


Subject(s)
Aniline Compounds/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Benzamides/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Drug Design , Naphthalenes/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Aniline Compounds/metabolism , Aniline Compounds/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzamides/metabolism , Benzamides/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Cytokines/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Naphthalenes/metabolism , Naphthalenes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ubiquitins/chemistry
2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(11): 164, 2020 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343003

ABSTRACT

Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are multi-copper oxidases that can degrade several xenobiotics, including textile dyes. Present study investigated the nature of laccase isoforms induced by 2,6-dimethylaniline in Cyathus bulleri cultivated on basal salt medium. Two isoforms, LacI and LacII were identified and purified by a combination of ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography. The MS spectrum of the two proteins displayed a number of non-identical and identical molecular peaks (m/z), and, the latter were mapped to protein originating from the previously reported Laccase (Lcc) 1 gene. The LacI isoform exhibited higher catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km) towards 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, guaiacol and pyrogallol and was tolerant to high levels of chloride ions and resistant to EDTA. Higher decolorization of several dyes such as Direct Scarlet B (67%), Reactive Brilliant blue-R (96%), Direct Orange 34 (50%) and Reactive Red198 (95%) by the LacI isoform makes it a good candidate for degradation of synthetic dyes. The decolorization of Direct Orange 34 by laccases is being reported for the first time. Many of the properties exhibited by this isoform make it a good candidate for large scale production and applications for use in the dyeing industry.


Subject(s)
Coloring Agents/metabolism , Cyathus/metabolism , Laccase/metabolism , Textiles , Amino Acid Sequence , Aniline Compounds/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Substrate Specificity , Sulfonic Acids/metabolism
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