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2.
Vet Rec ; 188(7): 252-253, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173865

ABSTRACT

With Covid-19 vaccines being developed at a rapid pace, Josh Loeb and Julienne Wooster ask why the most sought-after vaccines for animal diseases cannot be developed as quickly.


Subject(s)
Drug Development/organization & administration , Vaccines , Veterinary Drugs , Animal Diseases/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Time Factors
4.
Vet Rec ; 187(12): e108, 2020 12 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021103
5.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 140, 2020 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835888

ABSTRACT

Most human pathogens originate from non-human hosts and certain pathogens persist in animal reservoirs. The transmission of such pathogens to humans may lead to self-sustaining chains of transmission. These pathogens represent the highest risk for future pandemics. For their prevention, the transmission over the species barrier - although rare - should, by all means, be avoided. In the current COVID-19 pandemic, surprisingly though, most of the current research concentrates on the control by drugs and vaccines, while comparatively little scientific inquiry focuses on future prevention. Already in 2012, the World Bank recommended to engage in a systemic One Health approach for zoonoses control, considering integrated surveillance-response and control of human and animal diseases for primarily economic reasons. First examples, like integrated West Nile virus surveillance in mosquitos, wild birds, horses and humans in Italy show evidence of financial savings from a closer cooperation of human and animal health sectors. Provided a zoonotic origin can be ascertained for the COVID-19 pandemic, integrated wildlife, domestic animal and humans disease surveillance-response may contribute to prevent future outbreaks. In conclusion, the earlier a zoonotic pathogen can be detected in the environment, in wildlife or in domestic animals; and the better human, animal and environmental surveillance communicate with each other to prevent an outbreak, the lower are the cumulative costs.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Animal Diseases/epidemiology , Animal Diseases/prevention & control , Animal Diseases/transmission , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring/veterinary , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , One Health , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/transmission
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 1-29, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728129

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs), enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses, are characterized by club-like spikes that project from their surface, an unusually large RNA genome, and a unique replication strategy. CoVs cause a variety of diseases in mammals and birds ranging from enteritis in cows and pigs, and upper respiratory tract and kidney disease in chickens to lethal human respiratory infections. Most recently, the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019, is the cause of a catastrophic pandemic, COVID-19, with more than 8 million infections diagnosed worldwide by mid-June 2020. Here we provide a brief introduction to CoVs discussing their replication, pathogenicity, and current prevention and treatment strategies. We will also discuss the outbreaks of the highly pathogenic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which are relevant for understanding COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Animal Diseases/virology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Animal Diseases/diagnosis , Animal Diseases/epidemiology , Animal Diseases/prevention & control , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cattle , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine , Virion , Virus Replication
7.
Prev Vet Med ; 180: 105030, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276668

ABSTRACT

Responses to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic have included travel bans and social distancing with "shelter in place" orders, resulting in sudden changes in human activity and subsequent effects on the global and national economy. We speculate that animal health will likely be impacted by COVID-19 through the immediate consequences of sudden human confinement and inactivity, and through the long-term consequences of the upcoming economic crisis on farmer livelihoods and veterinary service capacities. We expect the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent economic crisis to impact negatively on the control of diseases that are already present in Europe, as well as on the European capacity to prevent and respond in a timely manner to new and emerging animal diseases. We also expect an increased attention to the animal health implications of coronavirus infections in animals. Mechanisms explaining these outcomes include increased wildlife-livestock contacts due to human confinement; disruption of ongoing testing schemes for endemic diseases; lower disease surveillance efforts; and lower capacity for managing populations of relevant wildlife reservoirs. The main mitigation action consists in adapting animal health management strategies to the available resources.


Subject(s)
Animal Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Activities of Daily Living , Agriculture/economics , Animal Diseases/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Economic Recession , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Social Isolation , Veterinary Medicine/organization & administration
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