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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250853, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 in domestic animals has been related to close contact with humans diagnosed with COVID-19. Objectives: To assess the exposure, infection, and persistence by SARS-CoV-2 of dogs and cats living in the same households of humans that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and to investigate clinical and laboratory alterations associated with animal infection. METHODS: Animals living with COVID-19 patients were longitudinally followed and had nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal and rectal swabs collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, blood samples were collected for laboratory analysis, and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) to investigate specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. RESULTS: Between May and October 2020, 39 pets (29 dogs and 10 cats) of 21 patients were investigated. Nine dogs (31%) and four cats (40%) from 10 (47.6%) households were infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. Animals tested positive from 11 to 51 days after the human index COVID-19 case onset of symptoms. Three dogs tested positive twice within 14, 30, and 31 days apart. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were detected in one dog (3.4%) and two cats (20%). In this study, six out of thirteen animals either infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 have developed mild but reversible signs of the disease. Using logistic regression analysis, neutering, and sharing bed with the ill owner were associated with pet infection. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been identified in dogs and cats from households with human COVID-19 cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. People with COVID-19 should avoid close contact with their pets during the time of their illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases , Cats , Dog Diseases , Dogs , Longitudinal Studies , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Virulence ; 12(1): 2777-2786, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565872

ABSTRACT

Several animal species, including ferrets, hamsters, monkeys, and raccoon dogs, have been shown to be susceptible to experimental infection by the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, which were responsible for the 2003 SARS outbreak and the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, respectively. Emerging studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 natural infection of pet dogs and cats is also possible, but its prevalence is not fully understood. Experimentally, it has been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 replicates more efficiently in cats than in dogs and that cats can transmit the virus through aerosols. With approximately 470 million pet dogs and 370 million pet cats cohabitating with their human owners worldwide, the finding of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in these household pets has important implications for potential zoonotic transmission events during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as future SARS-related outbreaks. Here, we describe some of the ongoing worldwide surveillance efforts to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in companion, captive, wild, and farmed animals, as well as provide some perspectives on these efforts including the intra- and inter-species coronavirus transmissions, evolution, and their implications on the human-animal interface along with public health. Some ongoing efforts to develop and implement a new COVID-19 vaccine for animals are also discussed. Surveillance initiatives to track SARS-CoV-2 exposures in animals are necessary to accurately determine their impact on veterinary and human health, as well as define potential reservoir sources of the virus and its evolutionary and transmission dynamics.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Animals, Zoo/virology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Reservoirs/statistics & numerical data , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Prevalence , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Viral Zoonoses/virology
3.
Virulence ; 12(1): 2777-2786, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483322

ABSTRACT

Several animal species, including ferrets, hamsters, monkeys, and raccoon dogs, have been shown to be susceptible to experimental infection by the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, which were responsible for the 2003 SARS outbreak and the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, respectively. Emerging studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 natural infection of pet dogs and cats is also possible, but its prevalence is not fully understood. Experimentally, it has been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 replicates more efficiently in cats than in dogs and that cats can transmit the virus through aerosols. With approximately 470 million pet dogs and 370 million pet cats cohabitating with their human owners worldwide, the finding of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in these household pets has important implications for potential zoonotic transmission events during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as future SARS-related outbreaks. Here, we describe some of the ongoing worldwide surveillance efforts to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in companion, captive, wild, and farmed animals, as well as provide some perspectives on these efforts including the intra- and inter-species coronavirus transmissions, evolution, and their implications on the human-animal interface along with public health. Some ongoing efforts to develop and implement a new COVID-19 vaccine for animals are also discussed. Surveillance initiatives to track SARS-CoV-2 exposures in animals are necessary to accurately determine their impact on veterinary and human health, as well as define potential reservoir sources of the virus and its evolutionary and transmission dynamics.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Animals, Zoo/virology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Reservoirs/statistics & numerical data , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Prevalence , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Viral Zoonoses/virology
4.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463837

ABSTRACT

In summer 2020, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was detected on mink farms in Utah. An interagency One Health response was initiated to assess the extent of the outbreak and included sampling animals from on or near affected mink farms and testing them for SARS-CoV-2 and non-SARS coronaviruses. Among the 365 animals sampled, including domestic cats, mink, rodents, raccoons, and skunks, 261 (72%) of the animals harbored at least one coronavirus. Among the samples that could be further characterized, 127 alphacoronaviruses and 88 betacoronaviruses (including 74 detections of SARS-CoV-2 in mink) were identified. Moreover, at least 10% (n = 27) of the coronavirus-positive animals were found to be co-infected with more than one coronavirus. Our findings indicate an unexpectedly high prevalence of coronavirus among the domestic and wild free-roaming animals tested on mink farms. These results raise the possibility that mink farms could be potential hot spots for future trans-species viral spillover and the emergence of new pandemic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Cats , Disease Hotspot , Female , Male , Mephitidae/virology , Mice , Mink/virology , Raccoons/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Utah/epidemiology
5.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463828

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which continues to spread with devastating effects on global health and socioeconomics. The susceptibility of domestic and wild animal species to infection is a critical facet of SARS-CoV-2 ecology, since reverse zoonotic spillover events resulting in SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in animal populations could result in the establishment of new virus reservoirs. Adaptive mutations in the virus to new animal species could also complicate ongoing mitigation strategies to combat SARS-CoV-2. In addition, animal species susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection are essential as standardized preclinical models for the development and efficacy testing of vaccines and therapeutics. In this review, we summarize the current findings regarding the susceptibility of different domestic and wild animal species to experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection and provide detailed descriptions of the clinical disease and transmissibility in these animals. In addition, we outline the documented natural infections in animals that have occurred at the human-animal interface. A comprehensive understanding of animal susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 is crucial to inform public health, veterinary, and agricultural systems, and to guide environmental policies.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Host Specificity/genetics , Host Specificity/physiology , Zoonoses
6.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438741

ABSTRACT

Diverse coronavirus (CoV) strains can infect both humans and animals and produce various diseases. CoVs have caused three epidemics and pandemics in the last two decades, and caused a severe impact on public health and the global economy. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to understand the emergence and evolution of endemic and emerging CoV diversity in humans and animals. For diverse bird species, the Infectious Bronchitis Virus is a significant one, whereas feline enteric and canine coronavirus, recombined to produce feline infectious peritonitis virus, infects wild cats. Bovine and canine CoVs have ancestral relationships, while porcine CoVs, especially SADS-CoV, can cross species barriers. Bats are considered as the natural host of diverse strains of alpha and beta coronaviruses. Though MERS-CoV is significant for both camels and humans, humans are nonetheless affected more severely. MERS-CoV cases have been reported mainly in the Arabic peninsula since 2012. To date, seven CoV strains have infected humans, all descended from animals. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) are presumed to be originated in Rhinolopoid bats that severely infect humans with spillover to multiple domestic and wild animals. Emerging alpha and delta variants of SARS-CoV-2 were detected in pets and wild animals. Still, the intermediate hosts and all susceptible animal species remain unknown. SARS-CoV-2 might not be the last CoV to cross the species barrier. Hence, we recommend developing a universal CoV vaccine for humans so that any future outbreak can be prevented effectively. Furthermore, a One Health approach coronavirus surveillance should be implemented at human-animal interfaces to detect novel coronaviruses before emerging to humans and to prevent future epidemics and pandemics.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Epidemics/prevention & control , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Coronaviridae/metabolism , Coronaviridae/pathogenicity , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phylogeny , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/transmission
12.
MEDICC Rev ; 22(4): 81-82, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1008394

ABSTRACT

Despite fast-tracked research, the precise origin, transmission and evolution of COVID-19 are still unknown. While the bat genus Rhinolophus is likely the primary source of the zoonotic-origin pathogen SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19, its transmission route into the human population is still being studied.[1,2] Coronaviruses (CoV) affect humans and various animal species. Bats were the original hosts of the CoV that causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), for example, with masked palm civet cats and dromedaries, respectively, the intermediate hosts of those two viruses. Research is ongoing regarding intermediate species for SARS-CoV-2, but one possibility is the large stray cat and dog population around the live animal market in Wuhan, China, where the pandemic is thought to have started.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Animals , Camelus/virology , Cats/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Dogs/virology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Mink/virology , Viverridae/virology
14.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(4): e2196, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932481

ABSTRACT

The current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has been rapidly spreading worldwide, causing serious global concern. The role that animal hosts play in disease transmission is still understudied and researchers wish to find suitable animal models for fundamental research and drug discovery. In this systematic review, we aimed to compile and discuss all articles that describe experimental or natural infections with SARS-CoV-2, from the initial discovery of the virus in December 2019 through to October 2020. We systematically searched four databases (Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Web of Science). The following data were extracted from the included studies: type of infection (natural or experimental), age, sample numbers, dose, route of inoculation, viral replication, detection method, clinical symptoms and transmission. Fifty-four studies were included, of which 34 were conducted on animal reservoirs (naturally or experimentally infected), and 20 involved models for testing vaccines and therapeutics. Our search revealed that Rousettus aegyptiacus (fruit bats), pangolins, felines, mink, ferrets and rabbits were all susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, while dogs were weakly susceptible and pigs, poultry, and tree shrews were not. In addition, virus replication in mice, mink, hamsters and ferrets resembled subclinical human infection, so these animals might serve as useful models for future studies to evaluate vaccines or antiviral agents and to study host-pathogen interactions. Our review comprehensively summarized current evidence on SARS-CoV-2 infection in animals and their usefulness as models for studying vaccines and antiviral drugs. Our findings may direct future studies for vaccine development, antiviral drugs and therapeutic agents to manage SARS-CoV-2-caused diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Reservoirs/virology , SARS Virus/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Susceptibility/veterinary , Disease Susceptibility/virology
15.
Virol J ; 17(1): 143, 2020 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810398

ABSTRACT

On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by a pathogen called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a pandemic. This ongoing pandemic has now been reported in 215 countries with more than 23 million confirmed cases and more than 803 thousand deaths worldwide as of August 22, 2020. Although efforts are undergoing, there is no approved vaccine or any specific antiretroviral drug to treat COVID-19 so far. It is now known that SARS-CoV-2 can affect not only humans but also pets and other domestic and wild animals, making it a one health global problem. Several published scientific evidence has shown that bats are the initial reservoir hosts of SARS-CoV-2, and pangolins are suggested as an intermediate hosts. So far, little is known concerning the role of pets and other animals in the transmission of COVID-19. Therefore, updated knowledge about the potential role of pets in the current outbreak will be of paramount importance for effective prevention and control of the disease. This review summarized the current evidence about the role of pets and other animals in the transmission of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Pandemics/veterinary , Pets/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Global Health , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/virology
16.
Vet Med Sci ; 7(2): 322-347, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796056

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are documented in a wide range of animal species, including terrestrial and aquatic, domestic and wild. The geographic distribution of animal CoVs is worldwide and prevalences were reported in several countries across the five continents. The viruses are known to cause mainly gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases with different severity levels. In certain cases, CoV infections are responsible of huge economic losses associated or not to highly public health impact. Despite being enveloped, CoVs are relatively resistant pathogens in the environment. Coronaviruses are characterized by a high mutation and recombination rate, which makes host jumping and cross-species transmission easy. In fact, increasing contact between different animal species fosters cross-species transmission, while agriculture intensification, animal trade and herd management are key drivers at the human-animal interface. If contacts with wild animals are still limited, humans have much more contact with farm animals, during breeding, transport, slaughter and food process, making CoVs a persistent threat to both humans and animals. A global network should be established for the surveillance and monitoring of animal CoVs.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/classification , Public Health , Animals , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Public Health/economics , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/trends
17.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(19): 2903-2905, 2020 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779925

ABSTRACT

Several lines of evidence suggest the presence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater. The use of sewage water for irrigation is common in many developing countries, and it is only partially treated in the majority of countries with less than 10% of collected wastewater receiving any form of treatment globally. Wastewater is unsafe for human and animal consumption and contains impurities and microbial pathogens. Here, we pose the question of whether the reuse of untreated or partially treated wastewater for irrigation can expose susceptible populations and pets, leading to COVID-19 disease recurrence in the community? It is imperative to study the ecological relationships between humans, animals, and environmental health in relation to COVID-19 to contribute to a "One Health Concept" to design preventative strategies and attain optimal health for people, animals, and the environment.


Subject(s)
Agricultural Irrigation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Waste Water/virology , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Humans , Pandemics/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sewage/virology , Water Purification/methods
18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 16(12): 3043-3054, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759864

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is suspected to have been first contracted via animal-human interactions; it has further spread across the world by efficient human-to-human transmission. Recent reports of COVID-19 in companion animals (dogs and cats) and wild carnivores such as tigers have created a dilemma regarding its zoonotic transmission. Although in silico docking studies, sequence-based computational studies, and experimental studies have shown the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in cats, ferrets, and other domestic/wild animals, the results are not conclusive of infection under natural conditions. Identifying the potential host range of SARS-CoV-2 will not only help prevent the possibility of human-to-animal and animal-to-human transmission but also assist in identifying efficient animal models that can mimic the clinical symptoms, transmission potential, and pathogenesis of the disease. Such an efficient animal model will accelerate the process of development and evaluation of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and other remedies for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Zoonoses/transmission
20.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 71-83, 2020 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596356

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses that include human epidemic pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome virus (MERS-CoV), and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARS-CoV), among others (e.g., COVID-19, the recently emerging coronavirus disease). The role of animals as potential reservoirs for such pathogens remains an unanswered question. No systematic reviews have been published on this topic to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection in animals and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: 6,493articles were retrieved (1960-2019). After screening by abstract/title, 50 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 42 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From a total of 34 studies (n=20,896 animals), the pool prevalence by RT-PCR for MERS-CoV was 7.2% (95%CI 5.6-8.7%), with 97.3% occurring in camels, in which pool prevalence was 10.3% (95%CI 8.3-12.3). Qatar was the country with the highest MERS-CoV RT-PCR pool prevalence: 32.6% (95%CI 4.8-60.4%). From 5 studies and 2,618 animals, for SARS-CoV, the RT-PCR pool prevalence was 2.3% (95%CI 1.3-3.3). Of those, 38.35% were reported on bats, in which the pool prevalence was 14.1% (95%CI0.0-44.6%). DISCUSSION: A considerable proportion of infected animals tested positive, particularly by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). This essential condition highlights the relevance of individual animals as reservoirs of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In this meta-analysis, camels and bats were found to be positive by RT-PCR in over 10% of the cases for both; thus, suggesting their relevance in the maintenance of wild zoonotic transmission.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Camelus/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/veterinary , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Reservoirs , Host Specificity , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Prevalence , Primate Diseases/epidemiology , Primate Diseases/virology , Primates/virology , RNA, Viral/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Rodent Diseases/virology , Rodentia/virology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/immunology , Serologic Tests , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Zoonoses
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