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2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 151: e96, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238550

ABSTRACT

The recent reinforcement of CoV surveillance in animals fuelled by the COVID-19 pandemic provided increasing evidence that mammals other than bats might hide further diversity and play critical roles in human infectious diseases. This work describes the results of a two-year survey carried out in Italy with the double objective of uncovering CoV diversity associated with wildlife and of excluding the establishment of a reservoir for SARS-CoV-2 in particularly susceptible or exposed species. The survey targeted hosts from five different orders and was harmonised across the country in terms of sample size, target tissues, and molecular test. Results showed the circulation of 8 CoV species in 13 hosts out of the 42 screened. Coronaviruses were either typical of the host species/genus or normally associated with their domestic counterpart. Two novel viruses likely belonging to a novel CoV genus were found in mustelids. All samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2, with minimum detectable prevalence ranging between 0.49% and 4.78% in the 13 species reaching our threshold sample size of 59 individuals. Considering that within-species transmission in white-tailed deer resulted in raising the prevalence from 5% to 81% within a few months, this result would exclude a sustained cycle after spillback in the tested species.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Deer , One Health , Animals , Humans , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics
3.
Science ; 380(6649): 1059-1064, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243994

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 lockdowns in early 2020 reduced human mobility, providing an opportunity to disentangle its effects on animals from those of landscape modifications. Using GPS data, we compared movements and road avoidance of 2300 terrestrial mammals (43 species) during the lockdowns to the same period in 2019. Individual responses were variable with no change in average movements or road avoidance behavior, likely due to variable lockdown conditions. However, under strict lockdowns 10-day 95th percentile displacements increased by 73%, suggesting increased landscape permeability. Animals' 1-hour 95th percentile displacements declined by 12% and animals were 36% closer to roads in areas of high human footprint, indicating reduced avoidance during lockdowns. Overall, lockdowns rapidly altered some spatial behaviors, highlighting variable but substantial impacts of human mobility on wildlife worldwide.


Subject(s)
Animal Migration , Animals, Wild , COVID-19 , Mammals , Quarantine , Animals , Humans , Animals, Wild/physiology , Animals, Wild/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mammals/physiology , Mammals/psychology , Movement
4.
Science ; 380(6649): 1008-1009, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243235

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 restrictions in 2020 reduced traffic worldwide and altered animal movement.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Animal Migration , Animals, Wild , COVID-19 , Mammals , Animals , Animals, Wild/physiology , Animals, Wild/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mammals/physiology , Mammals/psychology , Movement
5.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242796

ABSTRACT

Avian coronaviruses (ACoV) have been shown to be highly prevalent in wild bird populations. More work on avian coronavirus detection and diversity estimation is needed for the breeding territories of migrating birds, where the high diversity and high prevalence of Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae have already been shown in wild birds. In order to detect ACoV RNA, we conducted PCR diagnostics of cloacal swab samples from birds, which we monitored during avian influenza A virus surveillance activities. Samples from two distant Asian regions of Russia (Sakhalin region and Novosibirsk region) were tested. Amplified fragments of the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) of positive samples were partially sequenced to determine the species of Coronaviridae represented. The study revealed a high presence of ACoV among wild birds in Russia. Moreover, there was a high presence of birds co-infected with avian coronavirus, avian influenza virus, and avian paramyxovirus. We found one case of triple co-infection in a Northern Pintail (Anas acuta). Phylogenetic analysis revealed the circulation of a Gammacoronavirus species. A Deltacoronavirus species was not detected, which supports the data regarding the low prevalence of deltacoronaviruses among surveyed bird species.


Subject(s)
Avulavirus , Gammacoronavirus , Influenza A virus , Influenza in Birds , Animals , Ducks , Gammacoronavirus/genetics , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Avulavirus/genetics , Siberia/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Birds , Animals, Wild , Influenza A virus/genetics , RNA
6.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285245, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316137

ABSTRACT

Pathogens transmitted between wildlife and domestic animals can pose a threat to endangered species, undermine conservation efforts in wildlife, and affect productivity and parasite control in domestic animals. There are several examples of pathogen transmission between European bison and other animals. The present study surveyed breeders from the vicinity of four large wisent populations in eastern Poland about observed contacts between wisent and cattle. Such contacts were noted by 37% of breeders, indicating a significant risk of contact between European bison and cattle in the study areas, even in the areas where the European bison live mainly in a forest complex, i.e., in the Borecka Forest. A higher potential risk of contacts between European bison and cattle was noted in the Bialowieska Forest and the Bieszczady Mountains than in the Borecka and Knyszynska Forests. In the Bialowieska Forest, the risk of viral pathogen transmission resulting from contacts is higher (more direct contacts), and in the case of the Bieszczady Mountains, the probability of parasitic diseases is higher. The chance of contacts between European bison and cattle depended on the distance of cattle pastures from human settlements. Moreover, such contact was possible throughout the year, not only in spring and fall. It appears possible to minimize the risk of contacts between wisent and cattle by changing management practices for both species, such as keeping grazing areas as close as possible to settlements, and reducing the time cattle graze on pastures. However, the risk of contact is much greater if European bison populations are large and are dispersed beyond forest complexes.


Subject(s)
Bison , Animals , Humans , Animals, Domestic , Animals, Wild , Endangered Species , Forests , Poland/epidemiology
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 887: 164055, 2023 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320305

ABSTRACT

Face masks are an indispensable low-cost public healthcare necessity for containing viral transmission. After the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) became a pandemic, there was an unprecedented demand for, and subsequent increase in face mask production and use, leading to global ecological challenges, including excessive resource consumption and significant environmental pollution. Here, we review the global demand volume for face masks and the associated energy consumption and pollution potential throughout their life cycle. First, the production and distribution processes consume petroleum-based raw materials and other energy sources and release greenhouse gases. Second, most methods of mask waste disposal result in secondary microplastic pollution and the release of toxic gases and organic substances. Third, face masks discarded in outdoor environments represent a new plastic pollutant and pose significant challenges to the environment and wildlife in various ecosystems. Therefore, the long-term impacts on environmental and wildlife health aspects related to the production, use, and disposal of face masks should be considered and urgently investigated. Here, we propose five reasonable countermeasures to alleviate these global-scale ecological crises induced by mask use during and following the COVID-19 pandemic era: increasing public awareness; improving mask waste management; innovating waste disposal methods; developing biodegradable masks; and formulating relevant policies and regulations. Implementation of these measures will help address the pollution caused by face masks.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild , COVID-19 , Humans , Animals , Ecosystem , Masks , Pandemics , Plastics , Environmental Pollution
8.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285893, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320026

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), resulting in a global lockdown in 2020. This stagnation in human activities ('anthropause') has been reported to affect the behaviour of wildlife in various ways. The sika deer Cervus nippon in Nara Park, central Japan, has had a unique relationship with humans, especially tourists, in which the deer bow to receive food and sometimes attack if they do not receive it. We investigated how a decrease and subsequent increase in the number of tourists visiting Nara Park affects the number of deer observed in the park and their behaviour (bows and attacks against humans). Compared with the pre-pandemic years, the number of deer in the study site decreased from an average of 167 deer in 2019 to 65 (39%) in 2020 during the pandemic period. Likewise, the number of deer bows decreased from 10.2 per deer in 2016-2017 to 6.4 (62%) in 2020-2021, whereas the proportion of deer showing aggressive behaviour did not change significantly. Moreover, the monthly numbers of deer and their bows both corresponded with the fluctuation in the number of tourists during the pandemic period of 2020 and 2021, whereas the number of attacks did not. Thus, the anthropause caused by the coronavirus altered the habitat use and behaviour of deer that have continuous interactions with humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deer , Animals , Humans , Animals, Wild , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Communicable Disease Control , Human Activities , Japan/epidemiology
9.
Microb Biotechnol ; 16(7): 1397-1411, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313257

ABSTRACT

This Lilliput explores the current epidemiological and virological arguments for a zoonotic origin of the COVID-19 pandemic. While the role of bats, pangolins and racoon dogs as viral reservoirs has not yet been proven, a spill-over of a coronavirus infection from animals into humans at the Huanan food market in Wuhan has a much greater plausibility than alternative hypotheses such as a laboratory virus escape, deliberate genetic engineering or introduction by cold chain food products. This Lilliput highlights the dynamic nature of the animal-human interface for viral cross-infections from humans into feral white tail deer or farmed minks (reverse zoonosis). Surveillance of viral infections at the animal-human interface is an urgent task since live animal markets are not the only risks for future viral spill-overs. Climate change will induce animal migration which leads to viral exchanges between animal species that have not met in the past. Environmental change and deforestation will also increase contact between animals and humans. Developing an early warning system for emerging viral infections becomes thus a societal necessity not only for human but also for animal and environmental health (One Health concept). Microbiologists have developed tools ranging from virome analysis in key suspects such as viral reservoirs (bats, wild game animals, bushmeat) and in humans exposed to wild animals, to wastewater analysis to detect known and unknown viruses circulating in the human population and sentinel studies in animal-exposed patients with fever. Criteria need to be developed to assess the virulence and transmissibility of zoonotic viruses. An early virus warning system is costly and will need political lobbying. The accelerating number of viral infections with pandemic potential over the last decades should provide the public pressure to extend pandemic preparedness for the inclusion of early viral alert systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Deer , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Dogs , Humans , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Animals, Wild
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(3): 1-9, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305357

ABSTRACT

The pathogens that cause most emerging infectious diseases in humans originate in animals, particularly wildlife, and then spill over into humans. The accelerating frequency with which humans and domestic animals encounter wildlife because of activities such as land-use change, animal husbandry, and markets and trade in live wildlife has created growing opportunities for pathogen spillover. The risk of pathogen spillover and early disease spread among domestic animals and humans, however, can be reduced by stopping the clearing and degradation of tropical and subtropical forests, improving health and economic security of communities living in emerging infectious disease hotspots, enhancing biosecurity in animal husbandry, shutting down or strictly regulating wildlife markets and trade, and expanding pathogen surveillance. We summarize expert opinions on how to implement these goals to prevent outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Zoonoses , Animals , Humans , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Pandemics , Animals, Wild , Animals, Domestic , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks
11.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2488, 2023 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293756

ABSTRACT

Wildlife is reservoir of emerging viruses. Here we identified 27 families of mammalian viruses from 1981 wild animals and 194 zoo animals collected from south China between 2015 and 2022, isolated and characterized the pathogenicity of eight viruses. Bats harbor high diversity of coronaviruses, picornaviruses and astroviruses, and a potentially novel genus of Bornaviridae. In addition to the reported SARSr-CoV-2 and HKU4-CoV-like viruses, picornavirus and respiroviruses also likely circulate between bats and pangolins. Pikas harbor a new clade of Embecovirus and a new genus of arenaviruses. Further, the potential cross-species transmission of RNA viruses (paramyxovirus and astrovirus) and DNA viruses (pseudorabies virus, porcine circovirus 2, porcine circovirus 3 and parvovirus) between wildlife and domestic animals was identified, complicating wildlife protection and the prevention and control of these diseases in domestic animals. This study provides a nuanced view of the frequency of host-jumping events, as well as assessments of zoonotic risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Viruses , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Animals, Zoo/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Mammals/virology , Pangolins/virology , Phylogeny , Zoonoses/virology
12.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 261(6): 789-797, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297819

ABSTRACT

Contemporary human and animal viruses have a broad or narrow host range-those with a broad host range are potentially transmitted from animals to humans (ie, zoonosis) or humans to animals (ie, reverse zoonosis). This Currents in One Health article reviews the recent reverse zoonoses involving Coronaviridae, Poxviridae, arboviruses, and, for nonhuman primate species, the human respiratory viruses. The prevention and control of reverse zoonoses are also reviewed. Coronaviruses continue to emerge as new zoonotic agents, including a canine coronavirus, CCoV-HuPn-2018, circulating in people at low levels, and a pangolin coronavirus, MjHKU4r-CoV-1, circulating in Malayan pangolins. Moreover, the risk for SARS-CoV-2 variants to mutate in animal reservoirs and reinfect humans is ongoing. In the case of mpox, the risk of reverse zoonosis is low and there are vaccines for use in humans at risk. The situation with arboviruses is as varied as the number of human arboviruses, and only yellow fever virus and dengue virus have licensed vaccines in the Americas. As for reverse zoonoses in endangered species, solutions require changing human behavior and policies at all levels impacting wildlife. Overall, continuous surveillance and viral discovery in humans and animals remain core components of a one-health approach to reduce and, where possible, eliminate zoonotic and reverse zoonotic diseases. Viral zoonosis and viral reverse zoonosis focusing on recent influenza A virus disease events in humans and other species are the subjects of the companion Currents in One Health by Kibenge, AJVR, June 2023.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , One Health , Humans , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Zoonoses , COVID-19/veterinary , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Animals, Wild
13.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0282912, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295958

ABSTRACT

Protected areas (PAs) can help address biodiversity loss by promoting conservation while fostering economic development through sustainable tourism. Nature-based tourism can generate economic benefits for communities in and around PAs; however, its impacts do not lend themselves to conventional impact evaluation tools. We utilize a Monte Carlo simulation approach with econometric estimations using microdata to estimate the full economic impact of nature-based tourism on the economies surrounding three terrestrial and two marine PAs. Simulations suggest that nature-based tourism creates significant economic benefits for communities around PAs, including the poorest households, and many of these benefits are indirect, via income and production spillovers. An additional tourist increases annual real income in communities near the PAs by US$169-$2,400, significantly more than the average tourist's expenditure. Conversely, lost tourism due to the COVID-19 pandemic and economic costs of human-wildlife conflict have disproportionately large negative impacts on local incomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tourism , Animals , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Animals, Wild , Biodiversity , Conservation of Natural Resources
14.
J Anim Ecol ; 92(6): 1244-1255, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302382

ABSTRACT

Wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVCs) cause millions of vertebrate mortalities globally, threatening population viability and influencing wildlife behaviour and survival. Traffic volume and speed can influence wildlife mortality on roads, but roadkill risk is species specific and depends on ecological traits. The COVID-19 pandemic, and associated UK-wide lockdowns, offered a unique opportunity to investigate how reducing traffic volume alters WVC. These periods of reduced human mobility have been coined the 'anthropause'. We used the anthropause to identify which ecological traits may render species vulnerable to WVC. We did this by comparing the relative change in WVC of species with differing traits before and during the anthropause. We used Generalised Additive Model predictions to assess which of the 19 species most frequently observed as WVC in the UK exhibited changes in road mortality during two lockdown periods, March-May 2020 and December 2020-March 2021, relative to the same time periods in previous years (2014-2019). Compositional data analysis was used to identify ecological traits associated with changes in the relative number of observations during lockdown periods compared to previous years. WVC were, across all species, 80% lower during the anthropause than predicted. Compositional data analysis revealed proportionally fewer reports of nocturnal mammals, urban visitors, mammals with greater brain mass and birds with a longer flight initiation distance. Species that have several of these traits, and correspondingly significantly lower than predicted WVC during lockdowns, included badgers Meles meles, foxes Vulpes vulpes, and pheasants, Phasianus colchicus; we posit they stand to benefit most from reduced traffic, and, of the species studied here, have highest mortality under 'normal' traffic levels. This study identifies traits and species that may have experienced a temporary reprieve during the anthropause, and highlights the impacts of traffic-induced mortality on species numbers and ultimately on trait frequency in a road-dominated landscape. By taking advantage of reductions in traffic offered by the anthropause, we can understand how vehicles influence wildlife survival and behaviour and may be exerting a selective force for certain species and traits.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Pandemics , Accidents, Traffic , Communicable Disease Control , Foxes , United Kingdom
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(47): e2214427119, 2022 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260206
16.
Sci Adv ; 9(13): eadd0688, 2023 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286334

ABSTRACT

Human land modification is a known driver of animal-to-human transmission of infectious agents (zoonotic spillover). Infection prevalence in the reservoir is a key predictor of spillover, but landscape-level associations between the intensity of land modification and infection rates in wildlife remain largely untested. Bat-borne coronaviruses have caused three major disease outbreaks in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We statistically link high-resolution land modification data with bat coronavirus surveillance records and show that coronavirus prevalence significantly increases with the intensity of human impact across all climates and levels of background biodiversity. The most significant contributors to the overall human impact are agriculture, deforestation, and mining. Regions of high predicted bat coronavirus prevalence coincide with global disease hotspots, suggesting that infection prevalence in wildlife may be an important factor underlying links between human land modification and zoonotic disease emergence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Animals , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prevalence , Animals, Wild , Phylogeny
17.
Lancet Planet Health ; 7(4): e329-e335, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281077

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented economic and health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have shown the global necessity of mitigating the underlying drivers of zoonotic spillover events, which occur at the human-wildlife and domesticated animal interface. Spillover events are associated to varying degrees with high habitat fragmentation, biodiversity loss through land use change, high livestock densities, agricultural inputs, and wildlife hunting-all facets of food systems. As such, the structure and characteristics of food systems can be considered key determinants of modern pandemic risks. This means that emerging infectious diseases should be more explicitly addressed in the discourse of food systems to mitigate the likelihood and impacts of spillover events. Here, we adopt a scenario framework to highlight the many connections among food systems, zoonotic diseases, and sustainability. We identify two overarching dimensions: the extent of land use for food production and the agricultural practices employed that shape four archetypal food systems, each with a distinct risk profile with respect to zoonotic spillovers and differing dimensions of sustainability. Prophylactic measures to curb the emergence of zoonotic diseases are therefore closely linked to diets and food policies. Future research directions should explore more closely how they impact the risk of spillover events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Animals , Humans , Pandemics , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Animals, Wild
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 879: 163106, 2023 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274842

ABSTRACT

Expansion of urban areas, landscape transformation and increasing human outdoor activities strongly affect wildlife behaviour. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in particular led to drastic changes in human behaviour, exposing wildlife around the world to either reduced or increased human presence, potentially altering animal behaviour. Here, we investigate behavioural responses of wild boar (Sus scrofa) to changing numbers of human visitors to a suburban forest near Prague, Czech Republic, during the first 2.5 years of the COVID-19 epidemic (April 2019-November 2021). We used bio-logging and movement data of 63 GPS-collared wild boar and human visitation data based on an automatic counter installed in the field. We hypothesised that higher levels of human leisure activity will have a disturbing effect on wild boar behaviour manifested in increased movements and ranging, energy spent, and disrupted sleep patterns. Interestingly, whilst the number of people visiting the forest varied by two orders of magnitude (from 36 to 3431 people weekly), even high levels of human presence (>2000 visitors per week) did not affect weekly distance travelled, home range size, and maximum displacement of wild boar. Instead, individuals spent 41 % more energy at high levels of human presence (>2000 visitors per week), with more erratic sleep patterns, characterised by shorter and more frequent sleeping bouts. Our results highlight multifaceted effects of increased human activities ('anthropulses'), such as those related to COVID-19 countermeasures, on animal behaviour. High human pressure may not affect animal movements or habitat use, especially in highly adaptable species such as wild boar, but may disrupt animal activity rhythms, with potentially detrimental fitness consequences. Such subtle behavioural responses can be overlooked if using only standard tracking technology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Animals , Humans , Swine , Animals, Wild , Ecosystem , Sus scrofa
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271984

ABSTRACT

To conduct rational hunting management, a certain number of wild animals must be harvested yearly. However, some countries have a problem with managing the harvested meat. An example is Poland, where game consumption is estimated at 0.08 kg/person/year. This situation leads to environmental pollution as a result of meat exports. The level of environmental pollution depends on the type of transport and distance. However, the use of meat in the country of harvesting would generate less pollution than its export. Three constructs were used in the study, which aimed to determine whether the respondents show food neophobia, whether they are willing to seek diversity in food, and what their attitudes towards game meat are. All the scales used were previously validated. Four-hundred and fifty-three questionnaires were collected using the PAPI method. It was found that the respondents showed ambivalent attitudes towards game meat to the greatest extent (76.6%), 16.34% had positive attitudes, and 7.06% had negative attitudes. It seems essential that most of the respondents were highly inclined to look for variety in food (55.85%). Regarding food neophobia, there were 51.43% of people with medium neophobia, while also many people with a low level of neophobia-43.05%. Such results allow speculation that the respondents are open to the new food, they are looking for it, and the low level of game meat consumption is primarily due to the lack of knowledge and awareness about the value of this meat.


Subject(s)
Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder , Animals , Meat , Animals, Wild , Food Preferences , Attitude , Allergens , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 261(7): 1045-1053, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270116

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To provide epidemiological information on the occurrence of animal and human rabies in the US during 2021 and summaries of 2021 rabies surveillance for Canada and Mexico. PROCEDURES: State and territorial public health departments and USDA Wildlife Services provided data on animals submitted for rabies testing in 2021. Data were analyzed temporally and geographically to assess trends in domestic animal and wildlife rabies cases. RESULTS: During 2021, 54 US jurisdictions reported 3,663 rabid animals, representing an 18.2% decrease from the 4,479 cases reported in 2020. Texas (n = 456 [12.4%]), Virginia (297 [8.1%]), Pennsylvania (287 [7.8%]), North Carolina (248 [6.8%]), New York (237 [6.5%]), California (220 [6.0%]), and New Jersey (201 [5.5%]) together accounted for > 50% of all animal rabies cases reported in 2021. Of the total reported rabid animals, 3,352 (91.5%) involved wildlife, with bats (n = 1,241 [33.9%]), raccoons (1,030 [28.1%]), skunks (691 [18.9%]), and foxes (314 [8.6%]) representing the primary hosts confirmed with rabies. Rabid cats (216 [5.9%]), cattle (40 [1.1%]), and dogs (36 [1.0%]) accounted for 94% of rabies cases involving domestic animals in 2021. Five human rabies deaths were reported in 2021. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The number of animal rabies cases reported in the US decreased significantly during 2021; this is thought to be due to factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Cattle Diseases , Chiroptera , Dog Diseases , Rabies , Animals , Cats , Cattle , Dogs , Humans , Animals, Domestic , Animals, Wild , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Foxes , Mephitidae , New York , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/veterinary , Raccoons , United States/epidemiology
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