Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 137
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 751103, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518576

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, which has ravaged the world, has led to a rethinking of the relationship between humans and nature and the clichés of the economic-centered model. Thus, the ecological economy has been reviewed, especially from an ethical worldview. This paper uses statistical methods to retrieve and categorize 3,646 wildlife crime cases for analysis and quantitative research. It adopts legal and ethical perspectives to analyze the subject and the subjective, incidence, and sentencing factors of wildlife crimes and uses the ecological economic ethical model to measure wildlife crimes. We argue that the existing judicial system fails to answer the difficulties of the economic ethics of wildlife crimes. It is recommended that ecological and economic ethical awareness be internalized. We suggest calling for comprehensive legislation on wildlife crimes from the perspective of ecological economic ethics to effectively prevent and reduce wildlife crime and eventually promote public health.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild , COVID-19 , Animals , China/epidemiology , Crime , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512310

ABSTRACT

Wildlife crime has huge consequences regarding global environmental changes to animals, plants and the entire ecosystem. Combatting wildlife crime effectively requires a deep understanding of human-wildlife interactions and an analysis of the influencing factors. Conservation and green criminology are important in reducing wildlife crime, protecting wildlife and the ecosystem and informing policy-makers about best practices and strategies. However, the past years have shown that wildlife crime is not easy to combat and it is argued in this article that there are underlying existential "givens" and culture-specific aspects that need to be investigated to understand why wildlife crime is still on the rise. This theoretical article explores (eco-)existential perspectives, Greening's four givens and selected African philosophical concepts, aiming to understand the complexities behind the prevalence of wildlife crime within global and African contexts.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild , Ecosystem , Animals , Crime , Existentialism , Humans
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20791, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479819

ABSTRACT

Implementation of various restrictions to eradicate viral diseases has globally affected human activity and subsequently nature. But how can the altered routines of human activity (restrictions, lockdowns) affect wildlife behaviour? This study compared the differences between human and wildlife occurrences in the study forest area with acreage of 5430.6 ha in 2018 (African swine fever outbreak, complete entrance ban), 2019 (standard pattern) and 2020 (COVID-19 restrictions) during the breeding season. The number of visitors was lower by 64% in 2018 (non-respecting of the entry ban by forest visitors) compared to standard 2019, while in 2020, the number of visitors increased to 151%. In the COVID-19 period, distinct peaks in the number of visitors were observed between 8-11 AM and 4-7 PM. The peaks of wildlife activity were recorded between 4-7 AM and 9-12 PM. Animals avoided the localities that were visited by humans during the people-influenced time (24 h after people visit), which confirmed the direct negative impact of human activities on wildlife.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever/epidemiology , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Disease Outbreaks , Human Activities , Animals , Female , Geography , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine , Temperature , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20391, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469985

ABSTRACT

Wildlife-vehicle collisions threaten both humans and wildlife, but we still lack information about the relationship between traffic volume and wildlife-vehicle collisions. The COVID-19 pandemic allowed us to investigate the effects of traffic volume on wildlife-vehicle collisions in the United States. We observed decreased traffic nationwide, particularly in densely populated states with low or high disease burdens. Despite reduced traffic, total collisions were unchanged; wildlife-vehicle collisions did decline at the start of the pandemic, but increased as the pandemic progressed, ultimately exceeding collisions in the previous year. As a result, nationwide collision rates were higher during the pandemic. We suggest that increased wildlife road use offsets the effects of decreased traffic volume on wildlife-vehicle collisions. Thus, decreased traffic volume will not always reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Animals, Wild , COVID-19 , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Animals , Animals, Wild/injuries , COVID-19/epidemiology , Conservation of Natural Resources , Humans , Pandemics , United States
7.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463837

ABSTRACT

In summer 2020, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was detected on mink farms in Utah. An interagency One Health response was initiated to assess the extent of the outbreak and included sampling animals from on or near affected mink farms and testing them for SARS-CoV-2 and non-SARS coronaviruses. Among the 365 animals sampled, including domestic cats, mink, rodents, raccoons, and skunks, 261 (72%) of the animals harbored at least one coronavirus. Among the samples that could be further characterized, 127 alphacoronaviruses and 88 betacoronaviruses (including 74 detections of SARS-CoV-2 in mink) were identified. Moreover, at least 10% (n = 27) of the coronavirus-positive animals were found to be co-infected with more than one coronavirus. Our findings indicate an unexpectedly high prevalence of coronavirus among the domestic and wild free-roaming animals tested on mink farms. These results raise the possibility that mink farms could be potential hot spots for future trans-species viral spillover and the emergence of new pandemic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Cats , Disease Hotspot , Female , Male , Mephitidae/virology , Mice , Mink/virology , Raccoons/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Utah/epidemiology
8.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463828

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which continues to spread with devastating effects on global health and socioeconomics. The susceptibility of domestic and wild animal species to infection is a critical facet of SARS-CoV-2 ecology, since reverse zoonotic spillover events resulting in SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in animal populations could result in the establishment of new virus reservoirs. Adaptive mutations in the virus to new animal species could also complicate ongoing mitigation strategies to combat SARS-CoV-2. In addition, animal species susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection are essential as standardized preclinical models for the development and efficacy testing of vaccines and therapeutics. In this review, we summarize the current findings regarding the susceptibility of different domestic and wild animal species to experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection and provide detailed descriptions of the clinical disease and transmissibility in these animals. In addition, we outline the documented natural infections in animals that have occurred at the human-animal interface. A comprehensive understanding of animal susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 is crucial to inform public health, veterinary, and agricultural systems, and to guide environmental policies.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Host Specificity/genetics , Host Specificity/physiology , Zoonoses
9.
PLoS Biol ; 19(10): e3001422, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456048
10.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 20(11): 915-962, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging viral zoonotic diseases are one of the major obstacles to secure the "One Health" concept under the current scenario. Current prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches often associated with certain limitations and thus proved to be insufficient for customizing rapid and efficient combating strategy against the highly transmissible pathogenic infectious agents leading to the disastrous socio-economic outcome. Moreover, most of the viral zoonoses originate from the wildlife and poor knowledge about the global virome database renders it difficult to predict future outbreaks. Thus, alternative management strategy in terms of improved prophylactic vaccines and their delivery systems; rapid and efficient diagnostics and effective targeted therapeutics are the need of the hour. METHODS: Structured literature search has been performed with specific keywords in bibliographic databases for the accumulation of information regarding current nanomedicine interventions along with standard books for basic virology inputs. RESULTS: Multi-arrayed applications of nanomedicine have proved to be an effective alternative in all the aspects regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and control of zoonotic viral diseases. The current review is focused to outline the applications of nanomaterials as anti-viral vaccines or vaccine/drug delivery systems, diagnostics and directly acting therapeutic agents in combating the important zoonotic viral diseases in the recent scenario along with their potential benefits, challenges and prospects to design successful control strategies. CONCLUSION: This review provides significant introspection towards the multi-arrayed applications of nanomedicine to combat several important zoonotic viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Viral Zoonoses/diagnosis , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Viral Zoonoses/therapy , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Animals, Wild , Biosensing Techniques , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Compounding , Drug Liberation , Humans , Nanomedicine , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Polymers/metabolism , Transfection , Viruses/metabolism
11.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444333

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are widespread and highly diversified in wildlife and domestic mammals and can emerge as zoonotic or epizootic pathogens and consequently host shift from these reservoirs, highlighting the importance of veterinary surveillance. All genera can be found in mammals, with α and ß showing the highest frequency and diversification. The aims of this study were to review the literature for features of CoV surveillance in animals, to test widely used molecular protocols, and to identify the most effective one in terms of spectrum and sensitivity. We combined a literature review with analyses in silico and in vitro using viral strains and archive field samples. We found that most protocols defined as pan-coronavirus are strongly biased towards α- and ß-CoVs and show medium-low sensitivity. The best results were observed using our new protocol, showing LoD 100 PFU/mL for SARS-CoV-2, 50 TCID50/mL for CaCoV, 0.39 TCID50/mL for BoCoV, and 9 ± 1 log2 ×10-5 HA for IBV. The protocol successfully confirmed the positivity for a broad range of CoVs in 30/30 field samples. Our study points out that pan-CoV surveillance in mammals could be strongly improved in sensitivity and spectrum and propose the application of a new RT-PCR assay, which is able to detect CoVs from all four genera, with an optimal sensitivity for α-, ß-, and γ-.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Gammacoronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Animals, Wild/virology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/veterinary , Chiroptera/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Livestock/virology , Rodentia/virology
12.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 533-544, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431210

ABSTRACT

Animal health risk assessment is one of the key tasks of Veterinary Services. There are well-established protocols created by the World Organisation for Animal Health and Codex Alimentarius Commission for assessing risk. They cover terrestrial and aquatic animals and zoonotic infectious diseases, food safety, and the environment, taking into consideration the connections between them. Significant effort has been made in developing methods to estimate the probability, and consequences, of infectious disease incursion in diseasefree countries through legal or illegal trade or via the movements of insects and wildlife. Additional efforts have been made in the design of prevention strategies and contingency plans. Concerns about possible pandemics of avian influenza continue to be important motivation for monitoring viruses for selection of vaccine candidate strains. The recent COVID-19 pandemic was zoonotic in nature and caused extensive disruption throughout the world. Tools are becoming available for quantitative food safety risk assessments for bacteria, toxins, viruses, and antimicrobial resistance genes, including tools that allow simulations for the selection of effective control options. Applying participatory techniques facilitates the conduct of risk analysis in low- and middle-income countries. In internationally established frameworks, risk assessment is the first step towards elimination of important infectious diseases in endemic countries and it is an important contributor to the reduction of disease risks. Quantitative and qualitative socio-economic and behavioural studies have been developed to design risk management options that are acceptable and sustainable for actors throughout value chains.


L'évaluation des risques pour la santé animale constitue l'une des tâches centrales des Services vétérinaires. L'Organisation mondiale de la santé animale et la Commission du Codex Alimentarius ont élaboré à cet effet des protocoles d'évaluation des risques désormais bien établis. Ces protocoles recouvrent les stratégies de gestion du risque qui soient à la fois acceptables et applicables durablement par les acteurs intervenant à chaque point des chaînes de valeur.La determinación del riesgo zoosanitario es uno de los principales cometidos de los Servicios Veterinarios. Ya existen arraigados protocolos de determinación del riesgo, elaborados por la Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal y la Comisión del Codex Alimentarius, que abarcan desde los animales terrestres y acuáticos hasta las enfermedades infecciosas zoonóticas, pasando por las cuestiones ambientales y de inocuidad de los alimentos, y tienen en cuenta las conexiones existentes entre todos estos factores. Se ha dedicado un gran esfuerzo a dar con métodos para calcular la probabilidad y las consecuencias de que una enfermedad infecciosa penetre en un país exento de ella a resultas del comercio, ya sea legal o ilegal, o del desplazamiento de.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Animals , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/veterinary , Food Safety , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 497-509, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431209

ABSTRACT

Growth in the livestock sector is associated with heightened risk for epidemic diseases. The increasing spillover of new diseases from wildlife is being driven by wide-scale anthropogenic changes allowing for more frequent and closer wildlife-human and wildlife-livestock contacts. An increasing number of epidemics in livestock are associated with rapid transition of livestock systems from extensive to intensive, and local to global movement of livestock and their products through value chain networks with weak biosecurity. Major livestock epidemics in the past two decades have had substantial economic impacts, and the COVID-19 pandemic highlights the devastating socio-economic consequences that spillovers can have when not identified and controlled early in the process of emergence. This highlights the importance of Veterinary Services to integrated, whole-of-society efforts to control infectious diseases in animals. Emphasis within Veterinary Services must be placed on prevention and preparedness. The authors suggest four areas for continued improvement in Veterinary Services to meet this challenge. These are a) continued development of staff capacity for risk assessment and value chain analysis, together with improved policies and communication, b) appropriate adaptation of approaches to prevention and control in resource-poor settings, c) improved multi-sectoral and transboundary cooperation, which enables the sharing of resources and expertise, and d) systematic approaches that enable Veterinary Services to influence decisionmaking for trade, markets, business, public health, and livelihood development at the national and regional levels.


La croissance du secteur de l'élevage est associée à un risque accru de maladies épidémiques. Les changements anthropiques à grande échelle sont à l'origine du nombre croissant de maladies émergentes atteignant de nouvelles espèces réceptives (spillover) à partir de réservoirs sauvages, à la faveur de contacts plus fréquents et plus rapprochés entre la faune sauvage et les humains, d'une part, et entre la faune sauvage et les animaux domestiques, d'autre part. On considère qu'un nombre croissant d'épidémies affectant le bétail sont dues à la transition rapide des systèmes d'élevage extensif vers des systèmes intensifs, et aux mouvements du bétail et des produits de l'élevage de l'échelle locale à l'échelle mondiale par le biais de réseaux de chaînes de valeur dotés d'un faible niveau de biosécurité. Au cours des deux dernières décennies, d'importantes épidémies affectant le bétail ont eu un impact économique considérable ; en outre, la pandémie de COVID-19 a mis en évidence les conséquences socio-économiques dévastatrices des atteintes de nouvelles espèces réceptives par des agents pathogènes, lorsque ces maladies ne sont pas détectées et maîtrisées dès le processus d'émergence. Cela souligne l'importance cruciale des Services vétérinaires dans les efforts de lutte contre les maladies infectieuses chez les animaux, qui doivent être intégrés et mobiliser la société entière. Les Services vétérinaires doivent mettre un accent particulier sur la prévention et la préparation. Les auteurs proposent quatre aspects d'amélioration continue pour que les Services vétérinaires puissent relever ce défi. Il s'agit : a) du développement permanent des compétences des personnels vétérinaires en matière d'évaluation du risque et d'analyse des chaînes de valeur, et leur articulation avec de meilleures politiques et une communication plus performante ; b) une adaptation adéquate des méthodes de prévention et de contrôle dans les configurations faiblement dotées en ressources ; c) une meilleure coopération multisectorielle et transfrontalière afin de partager les ressources et les compétences ; d) des dispositifs systémiques permettant aux Services vétérinaires d'influencer les prises de décision en matière d'échanges internationaux, de marchés, de commerce, de santé publique et de développement des moyens de subsistance, à l'échelle nationale et régionale.El crecimiento del sector pecuario está condicionado por la existencia de un mayor riesgo de enfermedades epidémicas. La creciente diseminación de nuevas enfermedades a partir de animales silvestres es consecuencia de transformaciones antrópicas a gran escala que posibilitan un contacto más frecuente y estrecho de la fauna silvestre con el ser humano y el ganado. Cada vez son más las epidemias del ganado que tienen que ver con la rápida transición de los sistemas pecuarios de un régimen de producción extensiva a otro de producción intensiva y con el paso de la dimensión local a la mundial de la circulación de animales y sus derivados a través de redes de cadenas de valor que presentan una endeble seguridad biológica. En los últimos dos decenios ha habido grandes epidemias que han afectado al ganado y tenido importantes consecuencias económicas. La pandemia de COVID-19 es un elocuente ejemplo de los devastadores efectos socioeconómicos que puede tener la extensión de un patógeno cuando no se detecta y controla en un momento lo bastante precoz del proceso de emergencia. Ello pone de relieve la importancia que revisten los Servicios Veterinarios para que toda la sociedad pueda reaccionar de forma integrada a la hora de combatir las enfermedades infecciosas de los animales. Dentro de los Servicios Veterinarios, conviene poner el acento en la prevención y la preparación. Para lograr este objetivo los autores señalan cuatro ámbitos que exigen una constante mejora: a) el desarrollo continuo de la capacidad del personal en materia de determinación de riesgos y análisis de cadenas de valor, ligado a la mejora de las políticas y la comunicación; b) la adecuada adaptación de los métodos de prevención y control en contextos de escasos recursos; c) una mejor cooperación multisectorial y transfronteriza, que permita poner en común recursos y competencias técnicas; y d) enfoques sistemáticos que hagan posible que los Servicios Veterinarios influyan en los procesos decisorios relativos al desarrollo del comercio, los mercados, las empresas, la salud pública y los medios de sustento a escala tanto nacional como regional.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Animals , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/veterinary , Humans , Livestock , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1837): 20200358, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429384

ABSTRACT

In the light of the urgency raised by the COVID-19 pandemic, global investment in wildlife virology is likely to increase, and new surveillance programmes will identify hundreds of novel viruses that might someday pose a threat to humans. To support the extensive task of laboratory characterization, scientists may increasingly rely on data-driven rubrics or machine learning models that learn from known zoonoses to identify which animal pathogens could someday pose a threat to global health. We synthesize the findings of an interdisciplinary workshop on zoonotic risk technologies to answer the following questions. What are the prerequisites, in terms of open data, equity and interdisciplinary collaboration, to the development and application of those tools? What effect could the technology have on global health? Who would control that technology, who would have access to it and who would benefit from it? Would it improve pandemic prevention? Could it create new challenges? This article is part of the theme issue 'Infectious disease macroecology: parasite diversity and dynamics across the globe'.


Subject(s)
Disease Reservoirs/virology , Global Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/veterinary , Ecology , Humans , Laboratories , Machine Learning , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Viruses , Zoonoses/epidemiology
15.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 626-632, 2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414833

ABSTRACT

Viruses can be transmitted from animals to humans (and vice versa) and across animal species. As such, host-virus interactions and transmission have attracted considerable attention. Non-human primates (NHPs), our closest evolutionary relatives, are susceptible to human viruses and certain pathogens are known to circulate between humans and NHPs. Here, we generated global statistics on VI-NHPs based on a literature search and public data mining. In total, 140 NHP species from 12 families are reported to be infected by 186 DNA and RNA virus species, 68.8% of which are also found in humans, indicating high potential for crossing species boundaries. The top 10 NHP species with high centrality in the NHP-virus network include two great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and eight Old World monkeys (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. leonina, Papio cynocephalus, Cercopithecus ascanius, C. erythrotis, Chlorocebus aethiops, and Allochrocebus lhoesti). Given the wide distribution of Old World monkeys and their frequent contact with humans, there is a high risk of virus circulation between humans and such species. Thus, we suggest recurring epidemiological surveillance of NHPs, specifically Old World monkeys that are in frequent contact with humans, and other effective measures to prevent potential circulation and transmission of viruses. Avoidance of false positives and sampling bias should also be a focus in future work.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Primates/virology , Public Health , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Viruses/classification , Animals , Animals, Wild , Global Health , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/virology
16.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 5(10): 1361-1366, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397872

ABSTRACT

To inform efforts at preventing future pandemics, we assessed how socio-demographic attributes correlated with wildlife consumption as COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) first spread across Asia. Self-reported wildlife consumption was most strongly related to COVID-19 awareness; those with greater awareness were 11-24% less likely to buy wildlife products. A hypothetical intervention targeting increased awareness, support for wildlife market closures and reduced medical impacts of COVID-19 could halve future wildlife consumption rates across several countries and demographics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Animals , Animals, Wild , Demography , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int Health ; 12(2): 77-85, 2020 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Strategies are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of zoonotic disease emergence in southern China, where pathogens with zoonotic potential are known to circulate in wild animal populations. However, the risk factors leading to emergence are poorly understood, which presents a challenge in developing appropriate mitigation strategies for local communities. METHODS: Residents in rural communities of Yunnan, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces were recruited and enrolled in this study. Data were collected through ethnographic interviews and field observations, and thematically coded and analysed to identify both risk and protective factors for zoonotic disease emergence at the individual, community and policy levels. RESULTS: Eighty-eight ethnographic interviews and 55 field observations were conducted at nine selected sites. Frequent human-animal interactions and low levels of environmental biosecurity in local communities were identified as risks for zoonotic disease emergence. Policies and programmes existing in the communities provide opportunities for zoonotic risk mitigation. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored the relationship among zoonotic risk and human behaviour, environment and policies in rural communities in southern China. It identifies key behavioural risk factors that can be targeted for development of tailored risk-mitigation strategies to reduce the threat of novel zoonoses.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Rural Population , Virus Diseases/transmission , Zoonoses/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Qualitative Research , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Young Adult , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378258

ABSTRACT

The global illegal wildlife trade directly threatens biodiversity and leads to disease outbreaks and epidemics. In order to avoid the loss of endangered species and ensure public health security, it is necessary to intervene in illegal wildlife trade and promote public awareness of the need for wildlife conservation. Anthropomorphism is a basic and common psychological process in humans that plays a crucial role in determining how a person interacts with other non-human agents. Previous research indicates that anthropomorphizing nature entities through metaphors could increase individual behavioral intention of wildlife conservation. However, relatively little is known about the mechanism by which anthropomorphism influences behavioral intention and whether social context affects the effect of anthropomorphism. This research investigated the impact of negative emotions associated with a pandemic situation on the effectiveness of anthropomorphic strategies for wildlife conservation across two experimental studies. Experiment 1 recruited 245 college students online and asked them to read a combination of texts and pictures as anthropomorphic materials. The results indicated that anthropomorphic materials could increase participants' empathy and decrease their wildlife product consumption intention. Experiment 2 recruited 140 college students online and they were required to read the same materials as experiment 1 after watching a video related to epidemics. The results showed that the effect of wildlife anthropomorphization vanished if participants' negative emotion was aroused by the video. The present research provides experimental evidence that anthropomorphic strategies would be useful for boosting public support for wildlife conservation. However, policymakers and conservation organizations must be careful about the negative effects of the pandemic context, as the negative emotions produced by it seems to weaken the effectiveness of anthropomorphic strategies.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild , Epidemics , Animals , Biodiversity , Conservation of Natural Resources , Empathy , Endangered Species
19.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374532

ABSTRACT

To date, no evidence supports the fact that animals play a role in the epidemiology of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, several animal species are naturally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Besides pets (cats, dogs, Syrian hamsters, and ferrets) and farm animals (minks), different zoo animal species have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (large felids and non-human primates). After the summer of 2020, a second wave of SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred in Barcelona (Spain), reaching a peak of positive cases in November. During that period, four lions (Panthera leo) at the Barcelona Zoo and three caretakers developed respiratory signs and tested positive for the SARS-CoV-2 antigen. Lion infection was monitored for several weeks and nasal, fecal, saliva, and blood samples were taken at different time-points. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in nasal samples from all studied lions and the viral RNA was detected up to two weeks after the initial viral positive test in three out of four animals. The SARS-CoV-2 genome was also detected in the feces of animals at different times. Virus isolation was successful only from respiratory samples of two lions at an early time-point. The four animals developed neutralizing antibodies after the infection that were detectable four months after the initial diagnosis. The partial SARS-CoV-2 genome sequence from one animal caretaker was identical to the sequences obtained from lions. Chronology of the events, the viral dynamics, and the genomic data support human-to-lion transmission as the origin of infection.


Subject(s)
Animal Diseases/virology , COVID-19/veterinary , Lions , SARS-CoV-2 , Animal Diseases/diagnosis , Animal Diseases/immunology , Animal Diseases/transmission , Animals , Animals, Wild , Animals, Zoo , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Genome, Viral , Genomics/methods , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spain
20.
Virol Sin ; 36(3): 402-411, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372824

ABSTRACT

Outbreaks of severe virus infections with the potential to cause global pandemics are increasingly concerning. One type of those commonly emerging and re-emerging pathogens are coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2). Wild animals are hosts of different coronaviruses with the potential risk of cross-species transmission. However, little is known about the reservoir and host of coronaviruses in wild animals in Qinghai Province, where has the greatest biodiversity among the world's high-altitude regions. Here, from the next-generation sequencing data, we obtained a known beta-coronavirus (beta-CoV) genome and a novel delta-coronavirus (delta-CoV) genome from faecal samples of 29 marmots, 50 rats and 25 birds in Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, China in July 2019. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the beta-CoV shared high nucleotide identity with Coronavirus HKU24. Although the novel delta-CoV (MtCoV) was closely related to Sparrow deltacoronavirus ISU42824, the protein spike of the novel delta-CoV showed highest amino acid identity to Sparrow coronavirus HKU17 (73.1%). Interestingly, our results identified a novel host (Montifringilla taczanowskii) for the novel delta-CoV and the potential cross-species transmission. The most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of MtCoVs along with other closest members of the species of Coronavirus HKU15 was estimated to be 289 years ago. Thus, this study increases our understanding of the genetic diversity of beta-CoVs and delta-CoVs, and also provides a new perspective of the coronavirus hosts.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Animals , Birds/virology , China , Coronavirus/classification , Marmota/virology , Rats/virology , Tibet
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...