Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 194
Filter
1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19412, 2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119340

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses of the genera Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus are globally widespread and circulate primarily in wild and domestic birds. Prior studies have established frequently occurring crossover events from avian to mammalian reservoirs. However, there is limited understanding of the diversity and geographical distribution of coronaviruses among birds. In this study, the surveillance of coronaviruses in birds in Russia during 2020 revealed the presence of coronaviruses in 12% of samples from birds. Targeted NGS approach was used for the evaluation of genetic diversity based on RdRp gene. While gammacoronviruses were found in both wild birds and poultry, deltacoronaviruses were found in wild birds only and represent the first detections for Russia. A number of cases with the simultaneous detection of gamma- and deltacoronaviruses in one bird was reported. The results of this study highlight the importance of further research concerning the spread and diversity of coronaviruses among birds within and migrating throughout the territory of Russia across the globe.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Gammacoronavirus , Influenza in Birds , Animals , Deltacoronavirus , Poultry , Coronavirus/genetics , Birds , Animals, Wild , Mammals , Phylogeny
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(47): e2214427119, 2022 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116820
3.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116094

ABSTRACT

Unlike farm animals, wild animals are not subject to continuous health surveillance. Individual projects designed to screen wildlife populations for specific pathogens are, therefore, also of great importance for human health. In this context, the possible formation of a reservoir for highly pathogenic zoonotic pathogens is a focus of research. Two of these pathogens that have received particular attention during the last years are the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), due to its fast global spread and high impact to the human health, and, since its introduction into Germany, the flavivirus West Nile virus (WNV). Especially in combination with invasive vertebrate species (e.g., raccoons (Procyon lotor) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Germany), risk analysis must be done to enable health authorities to assess the potential for the establishment of new wild life reservoirs for pathogens. Therefore, samples were collected from raccoons and raccoon dogs and analyzed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 and WNV infections in these populations. Molecular biological and serological data obtained imply that no SARS-CoV-2 nor WNV reservoir has been established in these two wild life species yet. Future investigations need to keep an eye on these invasive carnivore populations, especially since the close contact of these animals to humans, mainly in urban areas, would make animal-human transmission a challenge for human health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , West Nile virus , Animals , Humans , Raccoons , Raccoon Dogs , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Germany/epidemiology , Animals, Wild
4.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082053

ABSTRACT

Several studies reported a high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among white-tailed deer in North America. Monitoring cervids in all regions to better understand SARS-CoV-2 infection and circulation in other deer populations has been urged. To evaluate deer exposure and/or infection to/by SARS-CoV-2 in Poland, we sampled 90 red deer shot by hunters in five hunting districts in north-eastern Poland. Serum and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected, and then an immunofluorescent assay (IFA) to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was performed as well as real-time PCR with reverse transcription for direct virus detection. No positive samples were detected. There is no evidence of spillover of SARS-CoV-2 from the human to deer population in Poland.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deer , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Poland/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Animals, Wild
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1982): 20221080, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2070191

ABSTRACT

The ecology and life history of wild animals influences their potential to harbour infectious disease. This observation has motivated studies identifying empirical relationships between traits of wild animals and historical patterns of spillover and emergence into humans. Although these studies have identified compelling broad-scale patterns, they are generally agnostic with respect to underlying mechanisms. Here, we develop mathematical models that couple reservoir population ecology with viral epidemiology and evolution to clarify existing verbal arguments and pinpoint the conditions that favour spillover and emergence. Our results support the idea that average lifespan influences the likelihood of an animal serving as a reservoir for human infectious disease. At the same time, however, our results show that the magnitude of this effect is sensitive to the rate of viral mutation. Our results also demonstrate that viral pathogens causing persistent infections or a transient immune response within the reservoir are more likely to fuel emergence. Genetically explicit stochastic simulations enrich these mathematical results by identifying relationships between the genetic basis of transmission and the risk of spillover and emergence. Together, our results clarify the scope of applicability for existing hypotheses and refine our understanding of emergence risk.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Animals , Animals, Wild , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Ecology , Humans
6.
Int J Pharm ; 628: 122284, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069145

ABSTRACT

Wildlife medicine is a specialised division of veterinary medicine that is concerned with patients that are physiologically very diverse with similarly diverse life histories. The medicines to be delivered to wildlife parallel those used in other areas of veterinary medicine and human medicine, however species-specific information on drug administration is lacking for wildlife species. Currently there are numerous threats of extinction to wildlife globally due to climate change and habitat destruction. The COVID-19 pandemic has also made us acutely aware of the important link between human health and wildlife health and how zoonotic diseases can cause devastating impacts globally. Consequently, the ability to effectively treat this group of animals with therapeutic compounds is becoming increasingly more critical. Importantly, delivery of therapeutics to wildlife is a particular challenge that must be overcome. The objective is to highlight the area of wildlife therapeutics as an emerging field by presenting case studies to illustrate the opportunities for engagement of pharmaceutical scientists in this fascinating frontier of research. The case studies included are avian malaria in yellow-eyed penguins, transmissible cancers in Tasmanian devils, and the vaccination of wildlife for the control of SARS-Cov-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Biopharmaceutics
7.
Conserv Biol ; 36(5): e13938, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063651

ABSTRACT

Global wildlife trade spreads emerging infectious diseases that threaten biodiversity. The amphibian chytrid pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused population declines and species extinctions worldwide except in Asia. Fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis), exported in large numbers from Asia, are tolerant of Bd and carry hypervirulent ancestral chytrid BdAsia-1 variants. We assayed the virulence of a new isolate of BdAsia-1 on the model Australasian frog host Litoria caerulea. Infected individuals (n = 15) all showed rapid disease progression culminating in death, whereas sham-inoculated individuals (n = 10) presented no clinical signs of disease and all survived (log rank test, χ2 = 15.6, df = 1, p < 0.0001). The virulence of the new isolate of BdAsia-1 is comparable to the one we assayed previously (χ2 = 0.0, df = 1, p = 0.91). Internationally traded wildlife, even when they appear healthy, can carry hypervirulent variants of pathogens. Once new pathogen variants escape into the environment, native species that have had no opportunity to evolve resistance to them may perish. Our study suggests that hypervirulent pathogens are being spread by the international pet trade. Notifiable wildlife diseases attributable to locally endemic pathogens often fail to generate conservation concern so are rarely subject to border surveillance or import controls. Because of the danger novel variants pose, national border control agencies need to implement disease screening and quarantine protocols to ensure the safety of their endemic fauna.


Variantes Patógenas Nuevas de Quitridios y el Mercado Mundial de Anfibios Mascota Resumen El mercado mundial de fauna dispersa enfermedades infecciosas emergentes que amenazan a la biodiversidad. El quitridio patógeno de anfibios Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) ha causado declinaciones poblacionales y la extinción de especies en todo el mundo excepto Asia. El sapo Bombina orientalis, exportado en grandes cantidades desde Asia, es tolerante al Bd y carga genéticamente las variantes ancestrales hipervirulentas de quitridio BdAsia-1. Analizamos la virulencia de una nueva cepa de BdAsia-1 con el modelo de la rana australo-asiática hospedera Litoria caerulea. Todos los individuos infectados (n = 15) mostraron una progresión acelerada de la enfermedad que culminaba con la muerte, mientras que los individuos con inoculación simulada (n = 10) no presentaron señales clínicas de la enfermedad y todos sobrevivieron (prueba log de rango, χ2 = 15.6, df = 1, p < 0.0001). La virulencia de la nueva cepa de BdAsia-1 es comparable a la que analizamos previamente (χ2 = 0.0, df = 1, p = 0.91). La fauna comercializada internacionalmente, incluso cuando parece estar saludable, puede portar variantes hipervirulentas de los patógenos. Una vez que un patógeno nuevo se introduce al ambiente, pueden perecer las especies nativas que no han tenido la oportunidad de evolucionar la resistencia a estos patógenos. Nuestro estudio sugiere que los patógenos hipervirulentos se están dispersando mediante el mercado internacional de mascotas. Con frecuencia las enfermedades silvestres notificables que pueden atribuirse a los patógenos endémicos no generan interés para la conservación, así que rara vez están sujetas a la vigilancia fronteriza o el control de importación. Debido al riesgo que representan las variantes nuevas, las agencias nacionales de control fronterizo necesitan implementar evaluaciones patológicas y protocolos de cuarentena para asegurar la seguridad de su fauna endémica.


Subject(s)
Chytridiomycota , Amphibians , Animals , Animals, Wild , Anura , Conservation of Natural Resources , Extinction, Biological , Humans
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(42): e2202871119, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062401

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the latest zoonotic RNA virus epidemic of concern. Learning how it began and spread will help to determine how to reduce the risk of future events. We review major RNA virus outbreaks since 1967 to identify common features and opportunities to prevent emergence, including ancestral viral origins in birds, bats, and other mammals; animal reservoirs and intermediate hosts; and pathways for zoonotic spillover and community spread, leading to local, regional, or international outbreaks. The increasing scientific evidence concerning the origins of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is most consistent with a zoonotic origin and a spillover pathway from wildlife to people via wildlife farming and the wildlife trade. We apply what we know about these outbreaks to identify relevant, feasible, and implementable interventions. We identify three primary targets for pandemic prevention and preparedness: first, smart surveillance coupled with epidemiological risk assessment across wildlife-livestock-human (One Health) spillover interfaces; second, research to enhance pandemic preparedness and expedite development of vaccines and therapeutics; and third, strategies to reduce underlying drivers of spillover risk and spread and reduce the influence of misinformation. For all three, continued efforts to improve and integrate biosafety and biosecurity with the implementation of a One Health approach are essential. We discuss new models to address the challenges of creating an inclusive and effective governance structure, with the necessary stable funding for cross-disciplinary collaborative research. Finally, we offer recommendations for feasible actions to close the knowledge gaps across the One Health continuum and improve preparedness and response in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , One Health , Animals , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
10.
Science ; 375(6576): 31-33, 2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042845

ABSTRACT

Risky research on lab-modified self-spreading viruses has yet to present credible paths to upsides.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild , Organisms, Genetically Modified , Pest Control, Biological , Vaccines, Attenuated , Viral Vaccines , Viruses , Animals , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , International Cooperation , Policy , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Viruses/genetics
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 819: 153043, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1619721

ABSTRACT

Wet markets sell fresh food and are a global phenomenon. They are important for food security in many regions worldwide but have come under scrutiny due to their potential role in the emergence of infectious diseases. The sale of live wildlife has been highlighted as a particular risk, and the World Health Organisation has called for the banning of live, wild-caught mammalian species in markets unless risk assessment and effective regulations are in place. Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a global scoping review of peer-reviewed information about the sale of live, terrestrial wildlife in markets that are likely to sell fresh food, and collated data about the characteristics of such markets, activities involving live wildlife, the species sold, their purpose, and animal, human, and environmental health risks that were identified. Of the 56 peer-reviewed records within scope, only 25% (n = 14) focussed on disease risks; the rest focused on the impact of wildlife sale on conservation. Although there were some global patterns (for example, the types of markets and purpose of sale of wildlife), there was wide diversity and huge epistemic uncertainty in all aspects associated with live, terrestrial wildlife sale in markets such that the feasibility of accurate assessment of the risk of emerging infectious disease associated with live wildlife trade in markets is currently limited. Given the value of both wet markets and wildlife trade and the need to support food affordability and accessibility, conservation, public health, and the social and economic aspects of livelihoods of often vulnerable people, there are major information gaps that need to be addressed to develop evidence-based policy in this environment. This review identifies these gaps and provides a foundation from which information for risk assessments can be collected.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild , Communicable Diseases , Animals , Commerce , Public Health , Zoonoses
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(35): e2122851119, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001002

ABSTRACT

Disease transmission prediction across wildlife is crucial for risk assessment of emerging infectious diseases. Susceptibility of host species to pathogens is influenced by the geographic, environmental, and phylogenetic context of the specific system under study. We used machine learning to analyze how such variables influence pathogen incidence for multihost pathogen assemblages, including one of direct transmission (coronaviruses and bats) and two vector-borne systems (West Nile Virus [WNV] and birds, and malaria and birds). Here we show that this methodology is able to provide reliable global spatial susceptibility predictions for the studied host-pathogen systems, even when using a small amount of incidence information (i.e., [Formula: see text] of information in a database). We found that avian malaria was mostly affected by environmental factors and by an interaction between phylogeny and geography, and WNV susceptibility was mostly influenced by phylogeny and by the interaction between geographic and environmental distances, whereas coronavirus susceptibility was mostly affected by geography. This approach will help to direct surveillance and field efforts providing cost-effective decisions on where to invest limited resources.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Disease Susceptibility , Animals , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Animals, Wild/virology , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Bird Diseases/transmission , Chiroptera/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Databases, Factual , Environment , Epidemiological Monitoring , Geography , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Incidence , Machine Learning , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/transmission , Malaria/veterinary , Phylogeny , Risk Assessment , West Nile Fever/epidemiology , West Nile Fever/transmission , West Nile Fever/veterinary , West Nile virus
15.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 844, 2022 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000941

ABSTRACT

Host-virus associations have co-evolved under ecological and evolutionary selection pressures that shape cross-species transmission and spillover to humans. Observed virus-host associations provide relevant context for newly discovered wildlife viruses to assess knowledge gaps in host-range and estimate pathways for potential human infection. Using models to predict virus-host networks, we predicted the likelihood of humans as hosts for 513 newly discovered viruses detected by large-scale wildlife surveillance at high-risk animal-human interfaces in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Predictions indicated that novel coronaviruses are likely to infect a greater number of host species than viruses from other families. Our models further characterize novel viruses through prioritization scores and directly inform surveillance targets to identify host ranges for newly discovered viruses.


Subject(s)
Viruses , Zoonoses , Africa , Animals , Animals, Wild , Host Specificity , Humans , Zoonoses/epidemiology
16.
Vet Rec ; 191(4): 144-145, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1999912

ABSTRACT

Georgina Mills reports on a study that used citizen science to assess the impact of litter from Covid-19 on wildlife.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild , COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Environmental Monitoring , Pandemics , Waste Products
17.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997800

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is presumed to have originated from wildlife and shares homology with other bat coronaviruses. Determining the susceptibility of North American bat species to SARS-CoV-2 is of utmost importance for making decisions regarding wildlife management, public health, and conservation. In this study, Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) were experimentally infected with two strains of SARS-CoV-2 (parental WA01 and Delta variant), evaluated for clinical disease, sampled for viral shedding and antibody production, and analyzed for pathology. None of the bats (n = 18) developed clinical disease associated with infection, shed infectious virus, or developed histopathological lesions associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. All bats had low levels of viral RNA in oral swabs, six bats had low levels of viral RNA present in the lungs during acute infection, and one of the four bats that were maintained until 28 days post-infection developed a neutralizing antibody response. These findings suggest that Brazilian free-tailed bats are permissive to infection by SARS-CoV-2, but they are unlikely to contribute to environmental maintenance or transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , Animals, Wild , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
18.
Acta Trop ; 235: 106621, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966262

ABSTRACT

Over 70% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic and 72% of them have wildlife reservoirs with consequent global health impacts. Both SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 emerged certainly through wildlife market routes. We assessed wildlife handlers' zoonotic risk perceptions and preventive health behaviour measures toward COVID-19 during pandemic waves, and its drivers at wildlife markets using Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs. A cross-sectional study was conducted at purposively selected wildlife markets in Nigeria between November 2020 and October 2021. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariable logistic regressions analyses were performed at 95% confidence interval. Of the 600 targeted handlers in 97 wildlife markets, 97.2% (n = 583) participated. Consumers were the majority (65.3%), followed by hunters (18.4) and vendors (16.3%). Only 10.3% hunters, 24.3% vendors and 21.0% consumers associated COVID-19 with high zoonotic risk. Also, only few handlers practiced social/physical distancing at markets. Avoidance of handshaking or hugging and vaccination was significantly (p = 0.001) practiced by few handlers as preventive health behaviours at the markets. All the socio-demographic variables were significantly (p<0.05) associated with their knowledge, risk perceptions, and practice of preventive health behaviours toward COVID-19 at univariate analysis. Poor markets sanitation, hygiene, and biosecurity (OR=3.35, 95% CI: 2.33, 4.82); and poor butchering practices and exchange of wildlife species between shops [(OR=1.87; 95% CI: 1.34, 2.60) and (OR=2.03; 95% CI: 1.43, 2.88), respectively] were more likely to significantly influence COVID-19 emergence and spread at the markets. To tackle the highlighted gaps, collaborations between the public health, anthropologists, and veterinary and wildlife authorities through the One Health approach are advocated to intensify awareness and health education programmes that will improve perceptions and behaviours toward the disease and other emerging diseases control and prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , One Health , Animals , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Behavior , Health Education , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 848: 157614, 2022 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956331

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19) pandemic in December 2019, there have been global surges of single-use plastic use. Due to the importance of personal protective equipment (PPE) and sanitation items in protecting against virus transmission and from testing, facemasks, respirators, disposable gloves and disposable wet wipes have become global staples in households and institutions. Widespread use and insufficient infrastructure, combined with improper waste management have resulted in an emerging category of litter. With widespread presence in the environment, such items pose a direct threat to wildlife as animals can interact with them in a series of ways. We examined the scope of COVID-19 pandemic-related debris, including PPE and sanitation items, on wildlife from April 2020 to December 2021. We document the geographic occurrence of incidents, debris types, and consequences of incidents that were obtained from social media searches, unpublished reports from colleagues, and reports available from the citizen science database "Birds and Debris". There were 114 unique sightings of wildlife interactions with pandemic-related debris (38 from 2020 and 76 from 2021). Within the context of this dataset, most incidents involved birds (83.3 %), while fewer affected mammals (10.5 %), invertebrates (3.5 %), fish (1.8 %), and sea turtles (0.9 %). Sightings originated in 23 countries, and consisted mostly of entanglements (42.1 %) and nest incorporations (40.4 %). We verified sightings by contacting the original observers and were able to identify replicated sightings and increase the resolution of the data collected compared with previously published results. Due to the complexities associated with global use and accessibility of digital platforms, we likely underestimate the number of animals harmed by debris. Overall, the global scope of this study demonstrates that online and social media platforms are a valuable way to collect biologically relevant citizen science data and track rapidly emerging environmental challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mammals , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 69(6): 768-776, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932595

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the urgency and importance of monitoring, managing and addressing zoonotic diseases, and the acute challenges of doing so with sufficient inter-jurisdictional coordination in a dynamic global context. Although wildlife pathogens are well-studied clinically and ecologically, there is very little systematic scholarship on their management or on policy implications. The current global pandemic therefore presents a unique social science research imperative: to understand how decisions are made about preventing and responding to wildlife diseases, especially zoonoses, and how those policy processes can be improved as part of early warning systems, preparedness and rapid response. To meet these challenges, we recommend intensified research efforts towards: (i) generating functional insights about wildlife and zoonotic disease policy processes, (ii) enabling social and organizational learning to mobilize those insights, (iii) understanding epistemic instability to address populist anti-science and (iv) anticipating evolving and new zoonotic emergences, especially their human dimensions. Since policy processes for zoonoses can be acutely challenged during the early stages of an epidemic or pandemic, such insights can provide a pragmatic, empirically-based roadmap for enhancing their robustness and efficacy, and benefiting long-term decision-making efforts.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild , COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL