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4.
Sci Total Environ ; 733: 139358, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720888

ABSTRACT

There is evidence that the current outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, is of animal origin. As with a number of zoonotic pathogens, there is a risk of spillover into novel hosts. Here, we propose a hypothesized conceptual model that illustrates the mechanism whereby the SARS-CoV-2 could spillover from infected humans to naive wildlife hosts in North America. This proposed model is premised on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from human feces through municipal waste water treatment plants into the natural aquatic environment where potential wildlife hosts become infected. We use the existing literature on human coronaviruses, including SARS CoV, to support the potential pathways and mechanisms in the conceptual model. Although we focus on North America, our conceptual model could apply to other parts of the globe as well.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Betacoronavirus , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Feces/virology , Humans , Models, Biological , North America , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Waste Water/virology , Water Pollutants
6.
Nature ; 602(7897): 481-486, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585829

ABSTRACT

Humans have infected a wide range of animals with SARS-CoV-21-5, but the establishment of a new natural animal reservoir has not been observed. Here we document that free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are highly susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV-2, are exposed to multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants from humans and are capable of sustaining transmission in nature. Using real-time PCR with reverse transcription, we detected SARS-CoV-2 in more than one-third (129 out of 360, 35.8%) of nasal swabs obtained from O. virginianus in northeast Ohio in the USA during January to March 2021. Deer in six locations were infected with three SARS-CoV-2 lineages (B.1.2, B.1.582 and B.1.596). The B.1.2 viruses, dominant in humans in Ohio at the time, infected deer in four locations. We detected probable deer-to-deer transmission of B.1.2, B.1.582 and B.1.596 viruses, enabling the virus to acquire amino acid substitutions in the spike protein (including the receptor-binding domain) and ORF1 that are observed infrequently in humans. No spillback to humans was observed, but these findings demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 viruses have been transmitted in wildlife in the USA, potentially opening new pathways for evolution. There is an urgent need to establish comprehensive 'One Health' programmes to monitor the environment, deer and other wildlife hosts globally.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/veterinary , Deer/virology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Viral Zoonoses/virology , Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Male , Ohio/epidemiology , One Health/trends , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology
7.
Virulence ; 12(1): 2777-2786, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565872

ABSTRACT

Several animal species, including ferrets, hamsters, monkeys, and raccoon dogs, have been shown to be susceptible to experimental infection by the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, which were responsible for the 2003 SARS outbreak and the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, respectively. Emerging studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 natural infection of pet dogs and cats is also possible, but its prevalence is not fully understood. Experimentally, it has been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 replicates more efficiently in cats than in dogs and that cats can transmit the virus through aerosols. With approximately 470 million pet dogs and 370 million pet cats cohabitating with their human owners worldwide, the finding of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in these household pets has important implications for potential zoonotic transmission events during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as future SARS-related outbreaks. Here, we describe some of the ongoing worldwide surveillance efforts to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in companion, captive, wild, and farmed animals, as well as provide some perspectives on these efforts including the intra- and inter-species coronavirus transmissions, evolution, and their implications on the human-animal interface along with public health. Some ongoing efforts to develop and implement a new COVID-19 vaccine for animals are also discussed. Surveillance initiatives to track SARS-CoV-2 exposures in animals are necessary to accurately determine their impact on veterinary and human health, as well as define potential reservoir sources of the virus and its evolutionary and transmission dynamics.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Animals, Zoo/virology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Reservoirs/statistics & numerical data , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Prevalence , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Viral Zoonoses/virology
8.
Comput Biol Chem ; 96: 107613, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549716

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global health emergency that has caused tremendous stress and loss of life worldwide. The viral spike glycoprotein is a critical molecule mediating transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by interacting with human ACE2. However, through the course of the pandemics, there has not been a thorough analysis of the spike protein mutations, and on how these mutants influence the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Besides, cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pets and wild animals have been reported, so the susceptibility of these animals requires great attention to investigate, as they may also link to the renewed question of a possible intermediate host for SARS-CoV-2 before it was transmitted to humans. With over 226,000 SARS-CoV-2 sequences obtained, we found 1573 missense mutations in the spike gene, and 226 of them were within the receptor-binding domain (RBD) region that directly interacts with human ACE2. Modeling the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 spike mutants and ACE2 molecules showed that most of the 74 missense mutations in the RBD region of the interaction interface had little impact on spike binding to ACE2, whereas several within the spike RBD increased the binding affinity toward human ACE2 thus making the virus likely more contagious. On the other hand, modeling the interactions between animal ACE2 molecules and SARS-CoV-2 spike revealed that many pets and wild animals' ACE2 had a variable binding ability. Particularly, ACE2 of bamboo rat had stronger binding to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, whereas that of mole, vole, Mus pahari, palm civet, and pangolin had a weaker binding compared to human ACE2. Our results provide structural insights into the impact on interactions of the SARS-CoV-2 spike mutants to human ACE2, and shed light on SARS-CoV-2 transmission in pets and wild animals, and possible clues to the intermediate host(s) for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19/virology , Mutation, Missense , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Animals, Wild/genetics , Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/transmission , Computational Biology , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Specificity/genetics , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics/veterinary , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pets/genetics , Pets/virology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics , Risk Factors
9.
Virulence ; 12(1): 2777-2786, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483322

ABSTRACT

Several animal species, including ferrets, hamsters, monkeys, and raccoon dogs, have been shown to be susceptible to experimental infection by the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, which were responsible for the 2003 SARS outbreak and the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, respectively. Emerging studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 natural infection of pet dogs and cats is also possible, but its prevalence is not fully understood. Experimentally, it has been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 replicates more efficiently in cats than in dogs and that cats can transmit the virus through aerosols. With approximately 470 million pet dogs and 370 million pet cats cohabitating with their human owners worldwide, the finding of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in these household pets has important implications for potential zoonotic transmission events during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as future SARS-related outbreaks. Here, we describe some of the ongoing worldwide surveillance efforts to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in companion, captive, wild, and farmed animals, as well as provide some perspectives on these efforts including the intra- and inter-species coronavirus transmissions, evolution, and their implications on the human-animal interface along with public health. Some ongoing efforts to develop and implement a new COVID-19 vaccine for animals are also discussed. Surveillance initiatives to track SARS-CoV-2 exposures in animals are necessary to accurately determine their impact on veterinary and human health, as well as define potential reservoir sources of the virus and its evolutionary and transmission dynamics.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Animals, Zoo/virology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Reservoirs/statistics & numerical data , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Prevalence , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Viral Zoonoses/virology
11.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463837

ABSTRACT

In summer 2020, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was detected on mink farms in Utah. An interagency One Health response was initiated to assess the extent of the outbreak and included sampling animals from on or near affected mink farms and testing them for SARS-CoV-2 and non-SARS coronaviruses. Among the 365 animals sampled, including domestic cats, mink, rodents, raccoons, and skunks, 261 (72%) of the animals harbored at least one coronavirus. Among the samples that could be further characterized, 127 alphacoronaviruses and 88 betacoronaviruses (including 74 detections of SARS-CoV-2 in mink) were identified. Moreover, at least 10% (n = 27) of the coronavirus-positive animals were found to be co-infected with more than one coronavirus. Our findings indicate an unexpectedly high prevalence of coronavirus among the domestic and wild free-roaming animals tested on mink farms. These results raise the possibility that mink farms could be potential hot spots for future trans-species viral spillover and the emergence of new pandemic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Cats , Disease Hotspot , Female , Male , Mephitidae/virology , Mice , Mink/virology , Raccoons/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Utah/epidemiology
12.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463828

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which continues to spread with devastating effects on global health and socioeconomics. The susceptibility of domestic and wild animal species to infection is a critical facet of SARS-CoV-2 ecology, since reverse zoonotic spillover events resulting in SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in animal populations could result in the establishment of new virus reservoirs. Adaptive mutations in the virus to new animal species could also complicate ongoing mitigation strategies to combat SARS-CoV-2. In addition, animal species susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection are essential as standardized preclinical models for the development and efficacy testing of vaccines and therapeutics. In this review, we summarize the current findings regarding the susceptibility of different domestic and wild animal species to experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection and provide detailed descriptions of the clinical disease and transmissibility in these animals. In addition, we outline the documented natural infections in animals that have occurred at the human-animal interface. A comprehensive understanding of animal susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 is crucial to inform public health, veterinary, and agricultural systems, and to guide environmental policies.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Host Specificity/genetics , Host Specificity/physiology , Zoonoses
13.
PLoS Biol ; 19(10): e3001422, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456048
14.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444333

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are widespread and highly diversified in wildlife and domestic mammals and can emerge as zoonotic or epizootic pathogens and consequently host shift from these reservoirs, highlighting the importance of veterinary surveillance. All genera can be found in mammals, with α and ß showing the highest frequency and diversification. The aims of this study were to review the literature for features of CoV surveillance in animals, to test widely used molecular protocols, and to identify the most effective one in terms of spectrum and sensitivity. We combined a literature review with analyses in silico and in vitro using viral strains and archive field samples. We found that most protocols defined as pan-coronavirus are strongly biased towards α- and ß-CoVs and show medium-low sensitivity. The best results were observed using our new protocol, showing LoD 100 PFU/mL for SARS-CoV-2, 50 TCID50/mL for CaCoV, 0.39 TCID50/mL for BoCoV, and 9 ± 1 log2 ×10-5 HA for IBV. The protocol successfully confirmed the positivity for a broad range of CoVs in 30/30 field samples. Our study points out that pan-CoV surveillance in mammals could be strongly improved in sensitivity and spectrum and propose the application of a new RT-PCR assay, which is able to detect CoVs from all four genera, with an optimal sensitivity for α-, ß-, and γ-.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Gammacoronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Animals, Wild/virology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/veterinary , Chiroptera/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Livestock/virology , Rodentia/virology
15.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438748

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is responsible for the worst pandemic of the 21st century. Like all human coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 originated in a wildlife reservoir, most likely from bats. As SARS-CoV-2 has spread across the globe in humans, it has spilled over to infect a variety of non-human animal species in domestic, farm, and zoo settings. Additionally, a broad range of species, including one neotropical monkey, have proven to be susceptible to experimental infection with SARS-CoV-2. Together, these findings raise the specter of establishment of novel enzootic cycles of SARS-CoV-2. To assess the potential exposure of free-living non-human primates to SARS-CoV-2, we sampled 60 neotropical monkeys living in proximity to Manaus and São José do Rio Preto, two hotspots for COVID-19 in Brazil. Our molecular and serological tests detected no evidence of SAR-CoV-2 infection among these populations. While this result is reassuring, sustained surveillance efforts of wildlife living in close association with human populations is warranted, given the stochastic nature of spillover events and the enormous implications of SARS-CoV-2 spillover for human health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring/veterinary , Primates/virology , Alouatta/virology , Animals , Animals, Wild/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Callicebus/virology , Callithrix/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Zoonoses/transmission
16.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438741

ABSTRACT

Diverse coronavirus (CoV) strains can infect both humans and animals and produce various diseases. CoVs have caused three epidemics and pandemics in the last two decades, and caused a severe impact on public health and the global economy. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to understand the emergence and evolution of endemic and emerging CoV diversity in humans and animals. For diverse bird species, the Infectious Bronchitis Virus is a significant one, whereas feline enteric and canine coronavirus, recombined to produce feline infectious peritonitis virus, infects wild cats. Bovine and canine CoVs have ancestral relationships, while porcine CoVs, especially SADS-CoV, can cross species barriers. Bats are considered as the natural host of diverse strains of alpha and beta coronaviruses. Though MERS-CoV is significant for both camels and humans, humans are nonetheless affected more severely. MERS-CoV cases have been reported mainly in the Arabic peninsula since 2012. To date, seven CoV strains have infected humans, all descended from animals. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) are presumed to be originated in Rhinolopoid bats that severely infect humans with spillover to multiple domestic and wild animals. Emerging alpha and delta variants of SARS-CoV-2 were detected in pets and wild animals. Still, the intermediate hosts and all susceptible animal species remain unknown. SARS-CoV-2 might not be the last CoV to cross the species barrier. Hence, we recommend developing a universal CoV vaccine for humans so that any future outbreak can be prevented effectively. Furthermore, a One Health approach coronavirus surveillance should be implemented at human-animal interfaces to detect novel coronaviruses before emerging to humans and to prevent future epidemics and pandemics.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Epidemics/prevention & control , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Coronaviridae/metabolism , Coronaviridae/pathogenicity , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phylogeny , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/transmission
17.
Int Health ; 12(2): 77-85, 2020 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Strategies are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of zoonotic disease emergence in southern China, where pathogens with zoonotic potential are known to circulate in wild animal populations. However, the risk factors leading to emergence are poorly understood, which presents a challenge in developing appropriate mitigation strategies for local communities. METHODS: Residents in rural communities of Yunnan, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces were recruited and enrolled in this study. Data were collected through ethnographic interviews and field observations, and thematically coded and analysed to identify both risk and protective factors for zoonotic disease emergence at the individual, community and policy levels. RESULTS: Eighty-eight ethnographic interviews and 55 field observations were conducted at nine selected sites. Frequent human-animal interactions and low levels of environmental biosecurity in local communities were identified as risks for zoonotic disease emergence. Policies and programmes existing in the communities provide opportunities for zoonotic risk mitigation. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored the relationship among zoonotic risk and human behaviour, environment and policies in rural communities in southern China. It identifies key behavioural risk factors that can be targeted for development of tailored risk-mitigation strategies to reduce the threat of novel zoonoses.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Rural Population , Virus Diseases/transmission , Zoonoses/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Qualitative Research , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Young Adult , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
18.
Virol Sin ; 36(3): 402-411, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372824

ABSTRACT

Outbreaks of severe virus infections with the potential to cause global pandemics are increasingly concerning. One type of those commonly emerging and re-emerging pathogens are coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2). Wild animals are hosts of different coronaviruses with the potential risk of cross-species transmission. However, little is known about the reservoir and host of coronaviruses in wild animals in Qinghai Province, where has the greatest biodiversity among the world's high-altitude regions. Here, from the next-generation sequencing data, we obtained a known beta-coronavirus (beta-CoV) genome and a novel delta-coronavirus (delta-CoV) genome from faecal samples of 29 marmots, 50 rats and 25 birds in Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, China in July 2019. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the beta-CoV shared high nucleotide identity with Coronavirus HKU24. Although the novel delta-CoV (MtCoV) was closely related to Sparrow deltacoronavirus ISU42824, the protein spike of the novel delta-CoV showed highest amino acid identity to Sparrow coronavirus HKU17 (73.1%). Interestingly, our results identified a novel host (Montifringilla taczanowskii) for the novel delta-CoV and the potential cross-species transmission. The most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of MtCoVs along with other closest members of the species of Coronavirus HKU15 was estimated to be 289 years ago. Thus, this study increases our understanding of the genetic diversity of beta-CoVs and delta-CoVs, and also provides a new perspective of the coronavirus hosts.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Animals , Birds/virology , China , Coronavirus/classification , Marmota/virology , Rats/virology , Tibet
20.
Vet Med Sci ; 7(5): 1980-1988, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351271

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This research aims to explore the factors motivate consumers to eat game meat during a multi-state disease outbreak. METHODS: It proposes a segmentation of consumers based on their attitudes toward and reveals the consumers' food beliefs that motivate their actions. Three segments of game meat consumers were identified: identity seekers, health seekers, and taste seekers. RESULTS: A survey of the potential impact that the COVID-19 crisis has on these three clusters' future food choices showed that the identity and health seekers are more open to a change in food choices. However, the taste seekers are less likely to be influenced by external factors. CONCLUSIONS: This research indicates that for the policymakers, the key is to take game meat consumers as an effective intervention entry point. It is crucial to facilitate healthy food choices and to promote socially- and culturally-appropriate food beliefs by improving public awareness of the risks of game meat, and invest in organic food. RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS: This research provides new insights into the food beliefs of game meat consumers via motivation-based segmentation.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/psychology , Meat/standards , Motivation , Adult , Analysis of Variance , Animals , Anxiety , COVID-19/etiology , China , Choice Behavior , Cluster Analysis , Discriminant Analysis , Educational Status , Female , Food, Organic , Health Behavior , Humans , Income , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste
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