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1.
Brain Nerve ; 74(7): 873-878, 2022 Jul.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954941

ABSTRACT

Olfactory and taste dysfunctions are characteristic symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, their frequencies and pathogeneses keep changing because of rapid mutations of the viral strains. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, a receptor for the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 in the olfactory epithelium, is involved in the development of olfactory dysfunction. In general, olfactory dysfunctions resolve in a few weeks. However, there are cases wherein the symptoms persist for several months or longer, and parosmia or phantosmia affects the patient's quality of life. It is also assumed that the damage owing to COVID-19 extends to olfactory nerve cells, resulting in sensorineural olfactory dysfunction similar to post-infectious olfactory dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell/physiology , Taste , Taste Disorders/complications
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7340, 2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947414

ABSTRACT

Gustatory (GD) and olfactory (OD) dysfunctions are the most frequent neurological manifestations of COVID-19. We used mental imagery as an experimental psychological paradigm to access olfactory and gustatory brain representations in 80 Italian COVID-19 adult patients (68.75% reported both OD and GD). COVID-19 patients with OD + GD have a significantly and selectively decreased vividness of odor and taste imagery, indicating that COVID-19 has an effect on their chemosensory mental representations. OD + GD length and type influenced the status of mental chemosensory representations. OD + GD were become all COVID-19 negative at the time of testing. Data suggest that patients are not explicitly aware of long-term altered chemosensory processing. However, differences emerge when their chemosensory function is implicitly assessed using self-ratings. Among patients developing OD + GD, self-ratings of chemosensory function (taste, flavor) were significantly lower as compared to those who did not. At the level of mental representation, such differences can be further detected, in terms of a reduced ability to mentally activate an odor or taste mental image. Our study shows that COVID-19 infection not only frequently causes hyposmia and dysgeusia, but that may also alter the mental representations responsible for olfactory and gustatory perception.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste Disorders/etiology
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4213, 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947345

ABSTRACT

A considerable number of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 continue to experience symptoms after the acute phase. Here, we report findings from a nationwide questionnaire study in Denmark including 61,002 RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases and 91,878 test-negative controls aged 15-years or older. Six to twelve months after the test, the risks of 18 out of 21 symptoms were elevated among test-positives. The largest adjusted risk differences (RD) were observed for dysosmia (RD = 10.92%, 95% CI 10.68-11.21%), dysgeusia (RD = 8.68%, 95% CI 8.43-8.93%), fatigue/exhaustion (RD = 8.43%, 95%CI 8.14-8.74%), dyspnea (RD = 4.87%, 95% CI 4.65-5.09%) and reduced strength in arms/legs (RD = 4.68%, 95% CI 4.45-4.89%). During the period from the test and until completion of the questionnaire, new diagnoses of anxiety (RD = 1.15%, 95% CI 0.95-1.34%) or depression (RD = 1.00%, 95% CI 0.81-1.19%) were also more common among test-positives. Even in a population where the majority of test-positives were not hospitalized, a considerable proportion experiences symptoms up to 12 months after infection. Being female or middle-aged increases risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(6)2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916381

ABSTRACT

Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a rare but serious medical condition with important psychiatric comorbidity and specific psychological correlates. Psychopathology related with BMS represents a real challenge for clinical decision-making. In this case, depression is the leading psychiatric diagnosis associated with patient's BMS somatic pain and is driven by anxiety and a dissociative functioning. Facing a complex psychosomatic symptomatology, we offer new clinical perspectives for the screening of psychological traits of BMS. Moreover, we highlight the need to foster interdisciplinarity to improve differential diagnosis and defining an optimal care path. This case report stimulates a reflection on management challenges for the consultation-liaison psychiatry and shows the importance of a person-centred approach when communicating the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Burning Mouth Syndrome , Depressive Disorder, Major , Olfaction Disorders , Anxiety/complications , Burning Mouth Syndrome/complications , Burning Mouth Syndrome/diagnosis , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/complications , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Seizures/complications
5.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(6): e1010667, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910704

ABSTRACT

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a highly neurotropic coronavirus belonging to the genus Betacoronavirus. Similar to pathogenic coronaviruses to which humans are susceptible, such as SARS-CoV-2, PHEV is transmitted primarily through respiratory droplets and close contact, entering the central nervous system (CNS) from the peripheral nerves at the site of initial infection. However, the neuroinvasion route of PHEV are poorly understood. Here, we found that BALB/c mice are susceptible to intranasal PHEV infection and showed distinct neurological manifestations. The behavioral study and histopathological examination revealed that PHEV attacks neurons in the CNS and causes significant smell and taste dysfunction in mice. By tracking neuroinvasion, we identified that PHEV invades the CNS via the olfactory nerve and trigeminal nerve located in the nasal cavity, and olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) were susceptible to viral infection. Immunofluorescence staining and ultrastructural observations revealed that viral materials traveling along axons, suggesting axonal transport may engage in rapid viral transmission in the CNS. Moreover, viral replication in the olfactory system and CNS is associated with inflammatory and immune responses, tissue disorganization and dysfunction. Overall, we proposed that PHEV may serve as a potential prototype for elucidating the pathogenesis of coronavirus-associated neurological complications and olfactory and taste disorders.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Olfaction Disorders , Animals , Betacoronavirus 1/physiology , Humans , Mice , Olfaction Disorders/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Swine
6.
Nature ; 606(7915): S12-S13, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908124
7.
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 57(6): 683-691, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903517

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the relationship between pathogens in the olfactory cleft area and olfactory disorders in patients with upper respiratory inflammation (URI) during the prevention and control of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods: A total of 234 URI patients including acute upper respiratory infection, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), allergic rhinitis (AR) were continuously selected from September 2020 to March 2021 in Beijing Anzhen Hospital and 98 healthy adults were enrolled as controls. The secretions from the olfactory cleft of all subjects were collected with nasal swabs under nasal endoscopy. Multiple real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection method was used to detect nucleic acids of 33 types of respiratory pathogenic microorganism. Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test was performed on all patients with URI. URI patients with olfactory dysfunction were followed up for 9 (8, 10) months (M (Q1, Q3)). SPSS 20.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Among the 98 controls, 9 (9.18%) were positive for pathogenic microorganisms, including 1 (1.02%) rhinovirus, 1 (1.02%) parainfluenza virus type 3, 3 (3.06%) enterovirus, 1 (1.02%) staphylococcus aureus and 3 (3.06%) Moraxella catarrhalis. Among the 234 URI patients, 111 (47.44%) had olfactory disorders and 123 (52.56%) had normal sense of smell. In the olfactory disorder group (111 cases), 38 cases (34.23%) were positive for pathogenic microorganisms, and 4 cases (3.60%) were mixed infection, including 11 cases of rhinovirus (9.91%), 5 cases of coronavirus 229E (4.50%), 2 cases of coronavirus OC43/NL63 (1.80%), 3 cases of parainfluenza virus type 1 (2.70%), 2 cases of enterovirus (1.80%), 1 case of influenza B virus type BV (0.90%), 11 cases of Staphylococcus aureus (9.91%), 7 cases of Moraxella catarrhalis (6.31%), and 1 case of Klebsiella pneumoniae (0.90%). In the normal smell group (123 cases), 18 cases (14.63%) were positive for pathogenic microorganisms, and 1 case (0.81%) was mixed infection, including 3 cases of rhinovirus (2.44%), 4 cases of coronavirus 229E (3.25%), 1 case of Influenza virus type 3 (0.81%), 3 cases of enterovirus (2.44%), 3 cases of Staphylococcus aureus (2.44%), 4 cases of Moraxella catarrhalis (3.25%), and 1 case of Klebsiella pneumoniae (0.81%). Univariate analysis between the two groups found that there were significant differences in the detection rate of pathogenic microorganisms, rhinovirus and Staphylococcus aureus between the groups (all P<0.05). The detection rate of parainfluenza virus type 1, Staphylococcus aureus, and rhinovirus were different between the patients with olfactory disorder and normal olfactory function in the three subgroups of acute upper respiratory tract infection, CRS and AR, respectively (χ2 value was 3.88, 4.53 and 4.73, respectively, all P<0.05). During the follow-up period, among the 111 patients with olfactory disorder, 71 (63.96%) patients' olfactory function returned to normal, 32 (28.83%) patients' olfactory function improved but not completely returned to normal, 8 (7.21%) patients' olfactory function did not improve. Conclusions: During the prevention and control of COVID-19, rhinovirus or Staphylococcus aureus infection or colonization of URI patients is closely related to olfactory disorders. Parainfluenza virus type 1 infection can cause relatively persistent olfactory disorders in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection. Staphylococcus aureus and rhinovirus colonization are related to the occurrence of olfactory dysfunction in CRS and AR patients respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Olfaction Disorders , Respiratory Tract Infections , Sinusitis , Adult , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation , Rhinovirus , Smell
8.
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 57(6): 774-777, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903516
9.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(8): 742-746, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900378

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the olfactory, sinonasal and mucociliary functions of patients with post-coronavirus disease 2019 long-term persistent olfactory dysfunction. METHOD: Three groups of 30 patients each were formed: patients with a history of coronavirus disease 2019 infection with self-reported, persistent, sudden-onset olfactory dysfunction (group 1), patients with a history of coronavirus disease 2019 infection without any self-reported olfactory dysfunction (group 2) and healthy controls with no history of coronavirus disease 2019 infection (group 3). Saccharin time, Sniffin' Sticks, Turkish Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation and Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 scores were compared. RESULTS: Turkish Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation scores were similar between groups (p = 0.252). Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 scores were higher in group 1 than groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). Saccharin time was significantly longer in group 1 than groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Group 1 had lower olfactory scores than groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: Mucociliary clearance time was significantly prolonged in patients with post-coronavirus disease 2019 persistent olfactory dysfunction. Coronavirus disease 2019 infection was likely to cause asymptomatic olfactory dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nasal Obstruction , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mucociliary Clearance , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Saccharin , Smell
10.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 142(6): 515-519, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the most common symptoms in COVID-19 patients is olfactory and taste dysfunction. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the olfactory threshold, and identification using objective tests in the Iranian population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study was a prospective cohort study conducted in 2020-2021 on clinically recovering COVID-19 patients. Olfactory function was evaluated at the baseline, 4-6 weeks, and 12 weeks later. Olfactory threshold assessment was performed using the Saba Sabalan kit. The Iranian version of the Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (IR-SIT) was used for olfactory identification. The olfactory threshold was categorized as poor (<8) and good olfaction (≥8). RESULTS: In the present study, 111 patients were examined, including 55 men and 56 women (mean age 41.4 and 53.4 years, respectively). The mean olfactory threshold was better for men (7.2) than for women (6.6). Analysis showed age to have a negative relationship with good olfaction at baseline (OR = 0.93, p = .05). Using IR-SIT, only 29.7% had normal olfactory function. Using linear regression, smoking was found to be significantly related to baseline IR-SIT score (adjusted Beta <0.001, p = .03). CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Objective tests are appropriate methods for assessing olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. Further studies are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
11.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 35(5): 402-411, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893036

ABSTRACT

Objective: The scientific community knows little about the long-term influence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on olfactory dysfunction (OD). With the COVID-19 pandemic ongoing worldwide, the risk of imported cases remains high. In China, it is necessary to understand OD in imported cases. Methods: A prospective follow-up design was adopted. A total of 11 self-reported patients with COVID-19 and OD from Xi'an No. 8 Hospital were followed between August 19, 2021, and December 12, 2021. Demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiological findings, and treatment outcomes were analyzed at admission. We surveyed the patients via telephone for recurrence and sequelae at the 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Results: Eleven patients with OD were enrolled; of these, 54.5% (6/11) had hyposmia and 45.5% (5/11) had anosmia. 63.6% (7/11) reported OD before or on the day of admission as their initial symptom; of these, 42.9% (3/7) described OD as the only symptom. All patients in the study received combined treatment with traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine, and 72.7% (8/11) had partially or fully recovered at discharge. In terms of OD recovery at the 12-month follow-up, 45.5% (5/11) reported at least one sequela, 81.8% (9/11) had recovered completely, 18.2% (2/11) had recovered partially, and there were no recurrent cases. Conclusions: Our data revealed that OD frequently presented as the initial or even the only symptom among imported cases. Most OD improvements occurred in the first 2 weeks after onset, and patients with COVID-19 and OD had favorable treatment outcomes during long-term follow-up. A better understanding of the pathogenesis and appropriate treatment of OD is needed to guide clinicians in the care of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9776, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890259

ABSTRACT

Parosmia, distorted smell sensations, is a common consequence of respiratory virus infections. The phenomenon is not well understood in terms of its impact and long-term outcomes. We examined self-reported experiences of parosmia in a population-based sample from the Betula study that was conducted in Umeå in northern Sweden (baseline data collected in 1998-2000). We used a baseline sample of 2168 individuals aged 35-90 years and with no cognitive impairment at baseline. We investigated the prevalence of parosmia experiences and, using regression analyses, its relationship to other olfactory and cognitive variables and quality of life. Benefitting from the longitudinal study design, we also assessed the persistence of parosmia over 5 and 10 years prospectively. Parosmia experiences were prevalent in 4.8% of the population and it often co-occurred with phantosmia ("olfactory hallucinations"), but was not associated with lower self-rated overall quality of life or poor performance on olfactory or cognitive tests. For some individuals, parosmia was retained 5 years (17.0%) or even 10 years later (10.3%). Thus, parosmia experiences are commonly reported in the population, and can be persistent for some individuals, but might be mostly benign in nature. Our work complements research on clinical-level parosmia, which is typically more severe, and recent parosmia reports during the COVID-19 pandemic, where long-term outcomes are still unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Smell
13.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(8): 747-749, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882700

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed: to evaluate the association between coronavirus disease 2019 infection and olfactory and taste dysfunction in patients presenting to the out-patient department with influenza-like illness, who underwent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing for coronavirus; and to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of olfactory and taste dysfunction and other symptoms in these patients. METHODS: Patients presenting with influenza-like illness to the study centre in September 2020 were included in the study. The symptoms of patients who tested positive for coronavirus on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing were compared to those with negative test results. RESULTS: During the study period, 909 patients, aged 12-70 years, presented with influenza-like illness; of these, 316 (34.8 per cent) tested positive for coronavirus. Only the symptoms of olfactory and taste dysfunction were statistically more significant in patients testing positive for coronavirus than those testing negative. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic, patients presenting to the out-patient department with sudden loss of sense of smell or taste may be considered as positive for coronavirus disease 2019, until proven otherwise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology
15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(6)2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869702

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Disruption to taste and smell are common symptoms of COVID-19 infection. The current literature overlooks taste symptoms and tends to focus on the sense of smell. Persisting cases (>28 days) of taste dysfunction are increasingly recognised as a major future healthcare challenge. This study focuses on the severity and recovery of COVID-19 induced taste loss and association with olfactory symptoms, lifestyle and oral health factors. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey comparing 182 rapid taste recovery participants (≤28 days) with 47 participants with prolonged taste recovery >28 days. Analyses of taste loss in association with smell loss, age, sex, illness severity, diet, BMI, vitamin-D supplementation, antidepressants, alcohol use, smoking, brushing frequency, flossing, missing teeth, appliances and number of dental restorations were conducted. Differences in the severity of the loss of sour, sweet, salt, bitter and umami tastes were explored. Results: Both the severity and the duration of taste and smell loss were closely correlated (p < 0.001). Salt taste was significantly less affected than all other taste qualities (p < 0.001). Persisting taste loss was associated with older age (mean ± 95% CI = 31.73 ± 1.23 years vs. 36.66 ± 3.59 years, p < 0.001) and reduced likelihood of using floss (odds ratio ± 95% CI = 2.22 (1.15-4.25), p = 0.047). Conclusions: Smell and taste loss in COVID-19 are closely related, although a minority of individuals can experience taste or smell dysfunction in the absence of the other. The taste of salt may be less severely affected than other taste qualities and future work exploring this finding objectively is indicated. The association of flossing with rapid taste recovery adds to the growing evidence of a link between good periodontal health and favourable COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Supplements , Health Behavior , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology , Vitamin D
16.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(2): 313-316, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the prevalence of gustatory and olfactory impairment and its correlation with the severity of SARS-Cov-2 infection as per WHO guidelines. METHODS: A total of 241 patients of both gender having age from 15-80 years were included in the study. It was cross Sectional study conducted at SARS-COV-2 Isolation wards of Pakistan institute of medical science Islamabad from 15thSeptember 2020 to 15th January 2021. Convenient sampling technique was used to collect data. A proforma was designed for this purpose. Participants were divided into 3 groups on the basis of age. Group-1 (15-30 years), group-2 (31-50 years) and group 3 (51-80 years). Further the participants were graded into mild, moderate and severe stages of Sars-Cov-2 infection according to WHO guidelines. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS version 20. RESULTS: In this study 66% were male and 34% population were the female. Regarding the age groups 72% population were from the group-3. Results of study shows 47% in mild stage, 45% in moderate stage and 8% severe stage. The results regarding the Gustatory and Olfactory impairment showed that 126 had gustatory impairment while 130 patients had olfactory impairment. CONCLUSIONS: We found strong relationship of olfactory and gustatory changes associated with SARS-COV-2 patients. It is premature to conclude that taste and smell changes are strongly linked to SARS-COV-2 diagnosis. Further multi center researches are required to find out possible pathophysiological mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 42(Suppl. 1): S87-S93, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863394

ABSTRACT

Objective: The persistence of auditory, vestibular, olfactory, and gustatory dysfunction for an extended time after COVID-19 has been documented, which represents an emerging challenge of which ENT specialists must be aware. This systematic review aims to evaluate the prevalence of persistent audiovestibolar and olfactory/gustatory symptoms in patients with "long-COVID". Methods: The literature was systematically reviewed according to PRISMA guidelines; PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were screened by searching articles on audiovestibular symptoms and olfactory/gustatory dysfunction after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The keywords used were hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, smell disorders, parosmia, anosmia, hyposmia, dysgeusia combined with COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2. Results: 1100 articles were identified. After removal of duplicates (382), 702 articles were excluded, and 16 were included in the systematic review. All articles included identified an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and persistent hearing or chemosensory impairment. The studies were published over a period of 2 years, between 2019 and 2021. Conclusions: The likelihood of patients with persistent audiovestibular symptoms related to COVID-19 was different among the articles; however, olfactory and gustatory disturbances were more consistently reported. Studies with longer follow-up are required to fully evaluate the long-term impact of these conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Taste Disorders , COVID-19/complications , Hearing Disorders/diagnosis , Hearing Disorders/virology , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/virology , Vertigo/diagnosis , Vertigo/virology
18.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(7): 1041-1042, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863264
20.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(9): 1242-1248, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851526

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The post-COVID condition has become a social concern. Although the patient characteristics associated with the development of this condition are partially known, those associated with its persistence have not been identified. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among patients who had recovered from COVID-19 and visited the National Center for Global Health and Medicine between February 2021 and March 2021. Demographic and clinical data, and data regarding the presence and duration of post-COVID conditions were obtained. We identified factors associated with the development and persistence of post-COVID conditions using multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses, respectively. RESULTS: We analyzed 457 of 526 responses (response rate, 86.9%). The median patient age was 47 years. Of these, 378 patients (84.4%) had mild disease in the acute phase. The number of patients with symptoms at 6 and 12 months after onset or diagnosis was 120 (26.3%) and 40 (8.8%), respectively. Women were at risk of developing fatigue (odds ratio [OR]: 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-3.14), dysosmia (OR: 1.91, 95%CI: 1.24-2.93), dysgeusia (OR: 1.56, 95%CI: 1.02-2.39), hair loss (OR: 3.00, 95%CI: 1.77-5.09), and persistence of any symptoms (coefficient: 38.0, 95%CI: 13.3-62.8). Younger age and low body mass index were factors for developing dysosmia (OR: 0.96, 95%CI: 0.94-0.98 and OR: 0.94, 95%CI: 0.89-0.99, respectively) and dysgeusia (OR: 0.98, 95%CI: 0.96-1.00 and OR: 0.93, 95%CI: 0.88-0.98, respectively). CONCLUSION: We identified factors involved in the development and persistence of post-COVID conditions. Many patients, even those with mild conditions, experience long-term residual symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dysgeusia/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
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