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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(3): 1042-1048, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708605

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Alterations of the olfactory function in patients affected by COVID-19 often have an early onset and a variable duration ranging from a few weeks to months. The aim of this study was to evaluate olfactory dysfunction persistence after recovery from COVID-19, and potential related clinical-demographic conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 76 patients recovered from COVID-19 from at least 20 days with olfactory dysfunction during the infection were included in the study. For the subjective evaluation of olfactory function, a visual analogic scale (VAS) was used. The objective evaluation was performed with the use of the Sniffin' Sticks test. RESULTS: Objective assessment of olfactory function revealed that 48 (63.16%) patients were found to be normosmic (TDI ≥ 30.5), 26 (34.21%) were hyposmic (TDI from 30.5 to 16.5) and two (2.63%) were anosmic (TDI ≤ 16.5) at the time of the evaluation. These results did not show a significant difference between subjective and objective tests (p = 0.45). Most patients recovered their sense of smell within the first two months after recovery while a portion (22.2%) still experienced olfactory alterations 4-6 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients who had not recovered their sense of smell had a significantly longer period of SARS-CoV-2 positivity compared to patients that fully recovered (36.07 ± 7.78 days vs. 29 ± 7.89 days; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the duration of the infection negatively correlates with the recovery of olfactory function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Young Adult
2.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 20-23, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636011
3.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 245-250, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604118

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In patients with COVID-19, olfactory dysfunction and anosmia have been reported, which in pregnant women occur in up to 24.2 %. OBJECTIVE: To know the frequency at which pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection have olfactory dysfunction. METHODS: Age, gestational age, temperature, presence of nasal constipation or rhinorrhea, myalgia, headache, cough or chest pain were asked. Whether patients perceived and identified the scent of grape juice, coffee powder and menthol was evaluated. Central tendency and dispersion measures, frequencies and percentages were used. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated. Mann-Whitney's U-test and contrast of proportions were used for comparisons between groups. RESULTS: There was a higher proportion of women with cough, headache, dyspnea, myalgia, odynophagia, rhinorrhea, chest pain, and anosmia in SARS-CoV-2-positive women. In patients without COVID-19, 88.9 % detected each one of the scents; only 31.8 % of the positive group detected grapes scent, 47.7 % coffee and 59.1 % menthol, which had the highest percentages of sensitivity (40 %), specificity (21 %), positive predictive value (59 %) and negative predictive value (11 %). CONCLUSION: Olfactory dysfunction occurs in a significant percentage of pregnant women with COVID-19.


INTRODUCCIÓN: En pacientes con COVID-19 se ha reportado disfunción olfatoria y anosmia; en la mujer embarazada se presenta hasta en 24.2 %. OBJETIVO: Conocer la frecuencia con la que las mujeres embarazadas e infección por SARS-CoV-2 tienen disfunción olfatoria. MÉTODOS: Se preguntó edad, edad gestacional, temperatura, presencia de constipación nasal o rinorrea, mialgias, cefalea, tos o dolor torácico, además de evaluar si las mujeres percibían e identificaban el aroma de jugo de uva, café en polvo y mentol. Se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión, frecuencias y porcentajes. Se calculó sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y negativo. La U de Mann-Whitney y el contraste de proporciones sirvieron para las comparaciones entre los grupos. RESULTADOS: Hubo mayor proporción de mujeres con tos, cefalea, disnea, mialgias, odinofagia, rinorrea, dolor torácico y anosmia en mujeres positivas a SARS-CoV-2. De las pacientes sin COVID-19, 88.9 % detectó cada uno de los aromas; solo 31.8 % del grupo positivo detectó el aroma a uva, 47.7 % el de café y 59.1 % el de mentol, el cual tuvo los porcentajes más altos en sensibilidad (40 %), especificidad (21 %), valores predictivos positivo (59 %) y negativo (11 %). CONCLUSIÓN: la disfunción olfatoria se presenta en un porcentaje importante de las mujeres embarazadas con COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
4.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(3): 255-260, may.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1552053

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: En pacientes con COVID-19 se ha reportado disfunción olfatoria y anosmia; en la mujer embarazada se presenta hasta en 24.2 %. Objetivo: Conocer la frecuencia con la que las mujeres embarazadas e infección por SARS-CoV-2 tienen disfunción olfatoria. Métodos: Se preguntó edad, edad gestacional, temperatura, presencia de constipación nasal o rinorrea, mialgias, cefalea, tos o dolor torácico, además de evaluar si las mujeres percibían e identificaban el aroma de jugo de uva, café en polvo y mentol. Se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión, frecuencias y porcentajes. Se calculó sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y negativo. La U de Mann-Whitney y el contraste de proporciones sirvieron para las comparaciones entre los grupos. Resultados: Hubo mayor proporción de mujeres con tos, cefalea, disnea, mialgias, odinofagia, rinorrea, dolor torácico y anosmia en mujeres positivas a SARS-CoV-2. De las pacientes sin COVID-19, 88.9 % detectó cada uno de los aromas; solo 31.8 % del grupo positivo detectó el aroma a uva, 47.7 % el de café y 59.1 % el de mentol, el cual tuvo los porcentajes más altos en sensibilidad (40 %), especificidad (21 %), valores predictivos positivo (59 %) y negativo (11 %). Conclusión: la disfunción olfatoria se presenta en un porcentaje importante de las mujeres embarazadas con COVID-19.


Abstract Introduction: In patients with COVID-19, olfactory dysfunction and anosmia have been reported, which in pregnant women occur in up to 24.2 %. Objective: To know the frequency in which pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection have olfactory dysfunction. Methods: Age, gestational age, temperature, presence of nasal constipation or rhinorrhea, myalgia, headache, cough or chest pain were asked. Whether patients perceived and identified the scent of grape juice, coffee powder and menthol was evaluated. Central tendency and dispersion measures, frequencies and percentages were used. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated. Mann-Whitney's U-test and contrast of proportions were used for comparisons between groups. Results: There was a higher proportion of women with cough, headache, dyspnea, myalgia, odynophagia, rhinorrhea, chest pain, and anosmia in SARS-CoV-2-positive women. In patients without COVID-19, 88.9 % detected each one of the scents; only 31.8 % of the positive group detected grapes scent, 47.7 % coffee and 59.1 % menthol, which had the highest percentages of sensitivity (40 %), specificity (21 %), positive predictive value (59 %) and negative predictive value (11 %). Conclusion: Olfactory dysfunction occurs in a significant percentage of pregnant women with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology
5.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258649, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528716

ABSTRACT

Pandemic scenarios like SARS-Cov-2 require rapid information aggregation. In the age of eHealth and data-driven medicine, publicly available symptom tracking tools offer efficient and scalable means of collecting and analyzing large amounts of data. As a result, information gains can be communicated to front-line providers. We have developed such an application in less than a month and reached more than 500 thousand users within 48 hours. The dataset contains information on basic epidemiological parameters, symptoms, risk factors and details on previous exposure to a COVID-19 patient. Exploratory Data Analysis revealed different symptoms reported by users with confirmed contacts vs. no confirmed contacts. The symptom combination of anosmia, cough and fatigue was the most important feature to differentiate the groups, while single symptoms such as anosmia, cough or fatigue alone were not sufficient. A linear regression model from the literature using the same symptom combination as features was applied on all data. Predictions matched the regional distribution of confirmed cases closely across Germany, while also indicating that the number of cases in northern federal states might be higher than officially reported. In conclusion, we report that symptom combinations anosmia, fatigue and cough are most likely to indicate an acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Datasets as Topic , Fatigue/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
6.
Laryngoscope ; 132(2): 419-421, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527451

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical profile of patients who developed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after full vaccination. Demographic, epidemiological and clinical data were collected through medical records and online patient-reported outcome questionnaire from patients who developed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by nasopharyngeal swab, at least 2 weeks after completion of vaccination. A total of 153 subjects were included. The most frequent symptoms were: asthenia (82.4%), chemosensory dysfunction (63.4%), headache (59.5%), runny nose (58.2%), muscle pain (54.9%), loss of appetite (54.3%), and nasal obstruction (51.6%). Particularly, 62.3% and 53.6% of subjects reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunction, respectively. Symptom severity was mild or moderate in almost all cases. Chemosensory dysfunctions have been observed to be a frequent symptom even in subjects who contracted the infection after full vaccination. For this reason, the sudden loss of smell and taste could continue to represent a useful and specific diagnostic marker to raise the suspicion of COVID-19 even in vaccinated subjects. In the future, it will be necessary to establish what the recovery rate is in these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 132:419-421, 2022.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Smell/drug effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste/drug effects , Vaccination
7.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502532

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is known as a respiratory virus, but SARS-CoV-2 appears equally, or even more, infectious for the olfactory epithelium (OE) than for the respiratory epithelium in the nasal cavity. In light of the small area of the OE relative to the respiratory epithelium, the high prevalence of olfactory dysfunctions (ODs) in COVID-19 has been bewildering and has attracted much attention. This review aims to first examine the cytological and molecular biological characteristics of the OE, especially the microvillous apical surfaces of sustentacular cells and the abundant SARS-CoV-2 receptor molecules thereof, that may underlie the high susceptibility of this neuroepithelium to SARS-CoV-2 infection and damages. The possibility of SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism, or the lack of it, is then analyzed with regard to the expression of the receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) or priming protease (transmembrane serine protease 2), and cellular targets of infection. Neuropathology of COVID-19 in the OE, olfactory bulb, and other related neural structures are also reviewed. Toward the end, we present our perspectives regarding possible mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 neuropathogenesis and ODs, in the absence of substantial viral infection of neurons. Plausible causes for persistent ODs in some COVID-19 convalescents are also examined.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Tropism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/virology , Olfactory Mucosa/metabolism , Olfactory Mucosa/ultrastructure , Prevalence , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism
9.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(9): e577-e586, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple voluntary surveillance platforms were developed across the world in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, providing a real-time understanding of population-based COVID-19 epidemiology. During this time, testing criteria broadened and health-care policies matured. We aimed to test whether there were consistent associations of symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 test status across three surveillance platforms in three countries (two platforms per country), during periods of testing and policy changes. METHODS: For this observational study, we used data of observations from three volunteer COVID-19 digital surveillance platforms (Carnegie Mellon University and University of Maryland Facebook COVID-19 Symptom Survey, ZOE COVID Symptom Study app, and the Corona Israel study) targeting communities in three countries (Israel, the UK, and the USA; two platforms per country). The study population included adult respondents (age 18-100 years at baseline) who were not health-care workers. We did logistic regression of self-reported symptoms on self-reported SARS-CoV-2 test status (positive or negative), adjusted for age and sex, in each of the study cohorts. We compared odds ratios (ORs) across platforms and countries, and we did meta-analyses assuming a random effects model. We also evaluated testing policy changes, COVID-19 incidence, and time scales of duration of symptoms and symptom-to-test time. FINDINGS: Between April 1 and July 31, 2020, 514 459 tests from over 10 million respondents were recorded in the six surveillance platform datasets. Anosmia-ageusia was the strongest, most consistent symptom associated with a positive COVID-19 test (robust aggregated rank one, meta-analysed random effects OR 16·96, 95% CI 13·13-21·92). Fever (rank two, 6·45, 4·25-9·81), shortness of breath (rank three, 4·69, 3·14-7·01), and cough (rank four, 4·29, 3·13-5·88) were also highly associated with test positivity. The association of symptoms with test status varied by duration of illness, timing of the test, and broader test criteria, as well as over time, by country, and by platform. INTERPRETATION: The strong association of anosmia-ageusia with self-reported positive SARS-CoV-2 test was consistently observed, supporting its validity as a reliable COVID-19 signal, regardless of the participatory surveillance platform, country, phase of illness, or testing policy. These findings show that associations between COVID-19 symptoms and test positivity ranked similarly in a wide range of scenarios. Anosmia, fever, and respiratory symptoms consistently had the strongest effect estimates and were the most appropriate empirical signals for symptom-based public health surveillance in areas with insufficient testing or benchmarking capacity. Collaborative syndromic surveillance could enhance real-time epidemiological investigations and public health utility globally. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Health Research, Alzheimer's Society, Wellcome Trust, and Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , Anosmia , COVID-19 , Cough , Dyspnea , Fever , Population Surveillance/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Digital Technology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Int Dent J ; 72(2): 249-256, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300785

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to determine the relationship and prevalence of taste and smell dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) population. METHODS: Enrolled participants were interviewed online via a phone call after obtaining their informed consent. Quantification of smell, taste, and other sensations before, during, and after COVID-19 infection was correlated with the severity of COVID-19 symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 500 patients with (mild-severe) COVID-19 completed the survey. A total of 26.4% were asymptomatic, and 21.4% were classified as paucisymptomatic with less severe symptoms. Almost equal proportions of the studied population experienced extreme taste sensation reductions (43%) and loss of smell sensation (44%). Statistically significant drastic decreases in smell and taste senses were seen among younger individuals. The magnitude of reduction in both sense changes increased steeply from the asymptomatic group to the paucisymptomatic group to the symptomatic group. CONCLUSIONS: Sudden anosmia or ageusia need to be recognised for early detection of COVID-19 infection to identify otherwise hidden carriers, thus favoring an early isolation strategy that will restrict the spread of the disease.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3664, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275911

ABSTRACT

A central problem in the COVID-19 pandemic is that there is not enough testing to prevent infectious spread of SARS-CoV-2, causing surges and lockdowns with human and economic toll. Molecular tests that detect viral RNAs or antigens will be unable to rise to this challenge unless testing capacity increases by at least an order of magnitude while decreasing turnaround times. Here, we evaluate an alternative strategy based on the monitoring of olfactory dysfunction, a symptom identified in 76-83% of SARS-CoV-2 infections-including those with no other symptoms-when a standardized olfaction test is used. We model how screening for olfactory dysfunction, with reflexive molecular tests, could be beneficial in reducing community spread of SARS-CoV-2 by varying testing frequency and the prevalence, duration, and onset time of olfactory dysfunction. We find that monitoring olfactory dysfunction could reduce spread via regular screening, and could reduce risk when used at point-of-entry for single-day events. In light of these estimated impacts, and because olfactory tests can be mass produced at low cost and self-administered, we suggest that screening for olfactory dysfunction could be a high impact and cost-effective method for broad COVID-19 screening and surveillance.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/diagnosis , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/transmission , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Communicable Disease Control , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Mass Screening/economics , Mass Screening/methods , Models, Theoretical , Prevalence , Time Factors , Viral Load
13.
Infect Dis Now ; 51(6): 556-559, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230513

ABSTRACT

A broad-based SARS-CoV-2 testing program for all symptomatic healthcare workers (HCWs) was implemented in Tenon hospital, Paris, France. From February 26 to April 22, 2020, 701 symptomatic HCWs were screened, of whom 247 (35.2%) tested positive for SARS-Cov-2. Myalgia, fever, anosmia and ageusia were associated with RT-PCR positivity. Testing of HCWs is an essential step toward control of the epidemic. Further studies could establish clinical algorithms for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis to compensate for RT-PCR test and chest CT limits or unavailability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel , Hospitals , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Ageusia/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , France , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Paris , Primary Health Care , Risk Factors , Young Adult
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2499-2504, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217398

ABSTRACT

Various new clinical signs and symptoms, such as dysfunction of smell (anosmia) and taste (dysgeusia) have emerged ever since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic begun. The objective of this study was to identify the clinical presentation and factors associated with 'new loss/change of smell (anosmia) or taste (dysgeusia)' at admission in patients positive by real time polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 infection. All adult COVID-19 patients with new onset anosmia or dysgeusia at admission were included in study group. Equal number of age and gender matched COVID-19 patients without anosmia or dysgeusia at admission were included in the control group. A total of 261 COVID-19 patients were admitted during the study period of which 55 (21%) had anosmia and or dysgeusia. The mean (SD) age was 36 (13) years and majority were males (58%, n = 32). Comorbidity was present in 38% of cases (n = 21). Anosmia and dysgeusia were noted in more than 1/5th of the cases. Anosmia (96%, n = 53) was more common than dysgeusia (75%, n = 41). Presence of both ansomia and dysgeusia was noted in 71% of patients (n = 39). On comparing the cases with the controls, on univariate analysis, fever (higher in cases), rhinitis (lower in cases), thrombocytopenia, elevated creatinine and bilirubin (all higher in cases) were significantly associated with anosmia or dysgeusia. On multivariate analysis, only rhinitis (odds ratio [OR]: 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.09-0.83; p = .02) thrombocytopenia (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.99-0.99; p = .01) and elevated creatinine (OR: 7.6; 95% CI: 1.5-37.6; p = .01) remained significant. In this retrospective study of COVID-19 patients, we found anosmia and dysgeusia in more than 1/5th of the cases. Absence of rhinitis, low platelet counts and elevated creatinine were associated with anosmia or dysgeusia in these patients.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Adult , Anosmia/blood , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Dysgeusia/blood , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/virology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
15.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(11): 2421-2425, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202059

ABSTRACT

We performed a prospective cohort study of 311 outpatients with non-severe COVID-19 (187 women, median age 39 years). Of the 214 (68.8%) who completed the 6-week follow-up questionnaire, 115 (53.7%) had recovered. Others mostly reported dyspnea (n = 86, 40.2%), weight loss (n = 83, 38.8%), sleep disorders (n = 68, 31.8%), and anxiety (n = 56, 26.2%). Of those who developed ageusia and anosmia, these symptoms were still present at week 6 in, respectively, 11/111 (9.9%) and 19/114 (16.7%). Chest CT scan and lung function tests found no explanation in the most disabled patients (n = 23). This study confirms the high prevalence of persistent symptoms after non-severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(5): 436-441, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term recovery rate for coronavirus disease 2019 related chemosensory disturbances has not yet been clarified. METHODS: Olfactory and gustatory functions were assessed with psychophysical tests in patients in the first seven days from coronavirus disease 2019 onset and one, two, three and six months after the first evaluation. RESULTS: A total of 300 patients completed the study. The improvement in olfactory function was significant at the two-month follow up. At the end of the observation period, 27 per cent of the patients still experienced a persistent olfactory disturbance, including anosmia in 5 per cent of cases. As for taste, the improvement in the psychophysical scores was significant only between the baseline and the 30-day control. At the 6-month evaluation, 10 per cent of the patients presented with a persistent gustatory disturbance with an incidence of complete ageusia of 1 per cent. CONCLUSION: Six months after the onset of coronavirus disease 2019, about 6 per cent of patients still had a severe persistent olfactory or gustatory disturbance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Psychophysics/methods , Recovery of Function/physiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Adult , Ageusia/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Smell/physiology , Taste/physiology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis
18.
Eur J Pain ; 25(6): 1342-1354, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed whether COVID-19 is associated with de novo pain and de novo chronic pain (CP). METHODS: This controlled cross-sectional study was based on phone interviews of patients discharged from hospital after COVID-19 compared to the control group composed of individuals hospitalized during the same period due to non-COVID-19 causes. Patients were classified as having previous CP based on the ICD-11/IASP criteria, de novo pain (i.e. any new type of pain, irrespective of the pain status before hospital stay), and de novo CP (i.e. persistent or recurring de novo pain, lasting more than 3 months) after COVID-19. We assessed pain prevalence and its characteristics, including headache profile, pain location, intensity, interference, and its relationship with fatigue, and persistent anosmia. Forty-six COVID-19 and 73 control patients were included. Both groups had similar sociodemographic characteristics and past medical history. RESULTS: Length of in-hospital-stay and ICU admission rates were significantly higher amongst COVID-19 survivours, while mechanical ventilation requirement was similar between groups. Pre-hospitalisation pain was lower in COVID-19 compared to control group (10.9% vs. 42.5%; p = 0.001). However, the COVID-19 group had a significantly higher prevalence of de novo pain (65.2% vs. 11.0%, p = 0.001), as well as more de novo headache (39.1%) compared to controls (2.7%, p = 0.001). New-onset CP was 19.6% in COVID-19 patients and 1.4% (p = 0.002) in controls. These differences remained significant (p = 0.001) even after analysing exclusively (COVID: n = 40; controls: n = 34) patients who did not report previous pain before the hospital stay. No statistically significant differences were found for mean new-onset pain intensity and interference with daily activities between both groups. COVID-19 pain was more frequently located in the head/neck and lower limbs (p < 0.05). New-onset fatigue was more common in COVID-19 survivours necessitating inpatient hospital care (66.8%) compared to controls (2.5%, p = 0.001). COVID-19 patients who reported anosmia had more new-onset pain (83.3%) compared to those who did not (48.0%, p = 0.024). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of de novo CP, chronic daily headache, and new-onset pain in general, which was associated with persistent anosmia. SIGNIFICANCE: There exists de novo pain in a substantial number of COVID-19 survivours, and some develop chronic pain. New-onset pain after the infection was more common in patients who reported anosmia after hospital discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Pain/epidemiology , Pain/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Survivors
19.
Neuroepidemiology ; 55(2): 154-161, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166623

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Smell and taste loss are characteristic symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: We conducted an observational, retrospective study on 376 patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to the San Gerardo Hospital in Monza, Italy, from March to July 2020. All patients answered a phone questionnaire providing information on age, sex, smoking status, and clinical characteristics. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated through logistic regression models including relevant covariates. RESULTS: The prevalence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in COVID-19 patients was 33.5 and 35.6%, respectively. Olfactory dysfunctions were significantly directly associated with current smoking and history of allergy, the multivariable ORs being 6.53 (95% CI 1.16-36.86) for current smokers versus never smokers, and 1.89 (95% CI 1.05-3.39) for those with an allergy compared to those without any allergy. Respiratory allergy in particular was significantly associated with olfactory dysfunctions (multivariable OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.02-5.17). Significant inverse associations were observed for patients aged 60 years or more (multivariable OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.19-0.57) and hospitalization (multivariable OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06-0.89). Considering gustatory dysfunctions, after allowance of other variables a significant direct association was found for respiratory allergies (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.03-4.86), and an inverse association was found only for hospitalization (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.76). CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that current smoking and history of allergy (particularly respiratory) significantly increase the risk for smell loss in COVID-19 patients; the latter is also significantly associated to taste loss. Hospitalization has an inverse association with the risk of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions, suggesting that these may be symptoms characteristics of less severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Respiratory Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Anosmia/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
20.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 30(3): 282-284, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158033

ABSTRACT

A survey was conducted through a web link on the students and staff of the Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy in the period 14-30 April 2020. It was anonymous at the source and included history of COVID-19-related questions (fever, headache, cold, cough, anosmia, gastrointestinal complaints and separately fever over 38.5°C) in the previous three weeks, and similar information on cohabitants. A total of 14 374 subjects were included. Overall, from 24 March to 30 April, 3138 subjects (21.8%) reported COVID-19-like symptoms, and 219 (1.5%) fever above 38.5°C; 217 subjects performed at least one swab. Of these, 46 were positive (21.3% of those performed, 0.3% of the total). The frequency of any symptom was similar in women and men, but fever above 38.5°C was lower in women (multivariate odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.49-0.85). There was a strong association between symptoms in the respondent and in cohabitants: 64% of subjects with symptoms reported at least one cohabitant with symptoms, compared to 14% of asymptomatic subjects (OR = 11.4, 95% CI, 10.4-12.6). The lower risk of serious symptoms in women, and the strong intra-nucleus of cohabitation contagiousness are an indication that at least part of the symptoms was caused by a new pathogen - SARS-CoV-2. These data, therefore, suggest that the number of persons affected by COVID-19 was much greater in northern Italy than the number of recorded cases. This has implications for the prevention, management and mortality of other serious diseases, including cancer.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Students/statistics & numerical data , Undiagnosed Diseases , Universities , Young Adult
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