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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 628, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621274

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide. Apart from the extreme global economic impact, the pandemic will likely have a lasting impact through long-term sequelae not yet fully understood. Fully understanding the mechanisms driving the various symptoms and sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection will allow for the eventual development of therapeutics to prevent or treat such life-altering symptoms. In this study, we developed a behavioral test of anosmia in SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters. We find a moderately strong correlation between the level of anosmia and the score of histological damage within the olfactory epithelium. We also find a moderately strong correlation between the level of anosmia and the thickness of the olfactory epithelium, previously demonstrated to be severely damaged upon infection. Thus, this food-searching behavioral test can act as a simple and effective screening method in a hamster model for various therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2-related anosmia.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Olfactory Mucosa/pathology , Animals , Anosmia/pathology , Behavior, Animal , COVID-19/complications , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Mesocricetus , Recovery of Function , Vero Cells
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 748881, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551504

ABSTRACT

Olfactory and taste disorders (OTD) are commonly found as presenting symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with clinically mild COVID-19. Virus-specific T cells are thought to play an important role in the clearance of SARS-CoV-2; therefore the study of T cell specific immune responses in patients with mild symptoms may help to understand their possible role in protection from severe disease. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses to four different peptide megapools covering all SARS-CoV-2 proteins during the acute phase of the disease in 33 individuals with mild or no other symptom beside OTD and in 22 age-matched patients with severe infection. A control group of 15 outpatients with OTD and consistently negative nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA swabs and virus-specific IgG serology was included in the study. Increased frequencies of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were found in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients with OTD compared with those with severe COVID-19 and with SARS-CoV-2 negative OTD individuals. Moreover, enhanced CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation induced by SARS-CoV-2 peptides was associated with higher interferon (IFN)γ production. Increased frequencies of Spike (S1/S2)-specific CD4+ T cells showing enhanced IFNγ secretion and granzyme B content were associated with serum spike-specific IgG in the OTD group. In conclusion, patients with SARS-CoV-2 induced OTD develop highly functional virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during the symptomatic phase of the disease, suggesting that robust and coordinated T-cell responses provide protection against extension of COVID-19 to the lower respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/pathology , Anosmia/pathology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
3.
Immunol Res ; 69(6): 553-557, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345196

ABSTRACT

The persistence of neurological symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the presence of late axonal damage, is still unknown. We performed extensive systemic and neurological follow-up evaluations in 107 out of 193 consecutive patients admitted to the COVID-19 medical unit, University Hospital of Verona, Italy between March and June 2020. We analysed serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels in all cases including a subgroup (n = 29) of patients with available onset samples. Comparisons between clinical and biomarker data were then performed. Neurological symptoms were still present in a significant number (n = 49) of patients over the follow-up. The most common reported symptoms were hyposmia (n = 11), fatigue (n = 28), myalgia (n = 14), and impaired memory (n = 11) and were more common in cases with severe acute COVID-19. Follow-up serum NfL values (15.2 pg/mL, range 2.4-62.4) were within normal range in all except 5 patients and did not differentiate patients with vs without persistent neurological symptoms. In patients with available onset and follow-up samples, a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of NfL levels was observed and was more evident in patients with a severe acute disease. Despite the common persistence of neurological symptoms, COVID-19 survivors do not show active axonal damage, which seems a peculiar feature of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Axons/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/pathology , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/pathology , Anosmia/virology , Axons/virology , Disease Progression , Fatigue/pathology , Fatigue/virology , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Memory Disorders/pathology , Memory Disorders/virology , Middle Aged , Myalgia/pathology , Myalgia/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Neurofilament Proteins/blood , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 873-881, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343623

ABSTRACT

A prominent clinical symptom of 2019-novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection is hyposmia/anosmia (decrease or loss of sense of smell), along with general symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, fever and cough. The identity of the cell lineages that underpin the infection-associated loss of olfaction could be critical for the clinical management of 2019-nCoV-infected individuals. Recent research has confirmed the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) as key host-specific cellular moieties responsible for the cellular entry of the virus. Accordingly, the ongoing medical examinations and the autopsy reports of the deceased individuals indicate that organs/tissues with high expression levels of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and other putative viral entry-associated genes are most vulnerable to the infection. We studied if anosmia in 2019-nCoV-infected individuals can be explained by the expression patterns associated with these host-specific moieties across the known olfactory epithelial cell types, identified from a recently published single-cell expression study. Our findings underscore selective expression of these viral entry-associated genes in a subset of sustentacular cells (SUSs), Bowman's gland cells (BGCs) and stem cells of the olfactory epithelium. Co-expression analysis of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and protein-protein interaction among the host and viral proteins elected regulatory cytoskeleton protein-enriched SUSs as the most vulnerable cell type of the olfactory epithelium. Furthermore, expression, structural and docking analyses of ACE2 revealed the potential risk of olfactory dysfunction in four additional mammalian species, revealing an evolutionarily conserved infection susceptibility. In summary, our findings provide a plausible cellular basis for the loss of smell in 2019-nCoV-infected patients.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4205-4218, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263093

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological data shows a discrepancy in COVID-19 susceptibility and outcomes with some regions being more heavily affected than others. However, the factors that determine host susceptibility and pathogenicity remain elusive. An increasing number of publications highlight the role of Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in the susceptibility of the host cell to SARS-CoV-2. Cleavage of viral spike protein via the host cell's TMPRSS2 enzyme activity mediates viral entry into the host cell. The enzyme synthesis is regulated by the TMPRSS2 gene, which has also been implicated in the entry mechanisms of previously reported Coronavirus infections. In this review, we have investigated the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 and disease susceptibility dependence on the TMPRSS2 gene as expressed in various population groups. We further discuss how the differential expression of this gene in various ethnic groups can affect the SARS-CoV-2 infection and Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 outcomes. Moreover, promising new TMPRSS2 protease blockers and inhibitors are discussed for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Serine Endopeptidases/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Anosmia/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
6.
J Chem Neuroanat ; 115: 101965, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225275

ABSTRACT

Anosmia, a neuropathogenic condition of loss of smell, has been recognized as a key pathogenic hallmark of the current pandemic SARS-CoV-2 infection responsible for COVID-19. While the anosmia resulting from olfactory bulb (OB) pathology is the prominent clinical characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD), SARS-CoV-2 infection has been predicted as a potential risk factor for developing Parkinsonism-related symptoms in a significant portion of COVID-19 patients and survivors. SARS-CoV-2 infection appears to alter the dopamine system and induce the loss of dopaminergic neurons that have been known to be the cause of PD. However, the underlying biological basis of anosmia and the potential link between COVID-19 and PD remains obscure. Ample experimental studies in rodents suggest that the occurrence of neural stem cell (NSC) mediated neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium (OE) and OB is important for olfaction. Though the occurrence of neurogenesis in the human forebrain has been a subject of debate, considerable experimental evidence strongly supports the incidence of neurogenesis in the human OB in adulthood. To note, various viral infections and neuropathogenic conditions including PD with olfactory dysfunctions have been characterized by impaired neurogenesis in OB and OE. Therefore, this article describes and examines the recent reports on SARS-CoV-2 mediated OB dysfunctions and defects in the dopaminergic system responsible for PD. Further, the article emphasizes that COVID-19 and PD associated anosmia could result from the regenerative failure in the replenishment of the dopaminergic neurons in OB and olfactory sensory neurons in OE.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Neurogenesis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/pathology , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/pathology , Animals , Humans
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1761-1765, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196476

ABSTRACT

To determine the distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) respiratory viral loads (VL) during the acute phase of infection and their correlation with clinical presentation and inflammation-related biomarkers. Nasopharyngeal swabs from 453 adult SARS-CoV-2-infected patients from the Department of Infectious Diseases, Besançon, France, were collected at the time of admission or consultation for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Clinical information and concentrations of biological parameters (C-reactive protein [CRP], fibrinogen, lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], prealbumin) were noticed. Mean respiratory VL homogeneously decreased from 7.2 log10 copies/ml (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.6-7.8) on the first day of symptoms until 4.6 log10 copies/ml (95% CI: 3.8-5.4) at day 10 (slope = -0.24; R2 = .95). VL were poorly correlated with COVID-19 symptoms and outcome, excepted for dyspnea and anosmia, which were significantly associated with lower VL (p < .05). CRP, fibrinogen, and LDH concentrations significantly increased over the first 10 days (median CRP concentrations from 36.8 mg/L at days 0-1 to 99.5 mg/L at days 8-10; p < .01), whereas prealbumin concentrations tended to decrease. Since SARS-CoV-2 respiratory VL regularly decrease in the acute phase of infection, determining the level of VL may help predicting the onset of virus shedding in a specific patient. However, the role of SARS-CoV-2 VL as a biomarker of severity is limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Viral Load/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anosmia/pathology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Dyspnea/pathology , Female , Fibrinogen/analysis , France/epidemiology , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Prealbumin/analysis , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1548-1555, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196475

ABSTRACT

During this coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, physicians have the important task of risk stratifying patients who present with acute respiratory illnesses. Clinical presentation of COVID-19, however, can be difficult to distinguish from other respiratory viral infections. Thus, identifying clinical features that are strongly associated with COVID-19 in comparison to other respiratory viruses can aid risk stratification and testing prioritization especially in situations where resources for virological testing and resources for isolation facilities are limited. In our retrospective cohort study comparing the clinical presentation of COVID-19 and other respiratory viral infections, we found that anosmia and dysgeusia were symptoms independently associated with COVID-19 and can be important differentiating symptoms in patients presenting with acute respiratory illness. On the other hand, laboratory abnormalities and radiological findings were not statistically different between the two groups. In comparing outcomes, patients with COVID-19 were more likely to need high dependency or intensive care unit care and had a longer median length of stay. With our findings, we emphasize that epidemiological risk factors and clinical symptoms are more useful than laboratory and radiological abnormalities in differentiating COVID-19 from other respiratory viral infections.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/pathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Dysgeusia/pathology , Adult , Ageusia/diagnosis , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Dysgeusia/diagnosis , Dysgeusia/virology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 50(1): 68-73, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hyposmia is frequently reported as an initial symptom in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: As hyposmia accompanies cognitive impairment in several neurological disorders, we aimed to study whether hyposmia represents a clinical biomarker for both neurological involvement and cognitive impairment in mild CO-VID-19. We aimed to study whether olfactory dysfunction (OD) represents a clinical biomarker for both neurological involvement and cognitive impairment in mild COVID-19. METHODS: Formal olfactory testing using the Sniffin'Sticks® Screening test, neuropsychological assessment using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and detailed neurological examination were performed in 7 COVID-19 patients with mild disease course and no history of olfactory or cognitive impairment, and 7 controls matched for age, sex, and education. Controls were initially admitted to a dedicated COVID-19 screening ward but tested negative by real-time PCR. RESULTS: The number of correctly identified odors was significantly lower in COVID-19 than in controls (6 ± 3, vs. 10 ± 1 p = 0.028, r = 0.58). Total MoCA score was significantly lower in COVID-19 patients than in controls (20 ± 5 vs. 26 ± 3, p = 0.042, r = 0.54). Cognitive performance indicated by MoCA was associated with number of correctly identified odors in COVID-19 patients and controls (COVID-19: p = 0.018, 95% CI = 9-19; controls: p = 0.18, r = 0.63, 95% CI = 13-18.5 r = 0.64). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: OD is associated with cognitive impairment in controls and mild COVID-19. OD may represent a potentially useful clinical biomarker for subtle and even subclinical neurological involvement in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anosmia/pathology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2226, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107716

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is a viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that clinically affects multiple organs of the human body. Cells in the oral cavity express viral entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 that allows viral replication and may cause tissue inflammation and destruction. Recent studies have reported that Covid-19 patients present oral manifestations with multiple clinical aspects. In this review, we aim to summarise main signs and symptoms of Covid-19 in the oral cavity, its possible association with oral diseases, and the plausible underlying mechanisms of hyperinflammation reflecting crosstalk between Covid-19 and oral diseases. Ulcers, blisters, necrotising gingivitis, opportunistic coinfections, salivary gland alterations, white and erythematous plaques and gustatory dysfunction were the most reported clinical oral manifestations in patients with Covid-19. In general, the lesions appear concomitant with the loss of smell and taste. Multiple reports show evidences of necrotic/ulcerative gingiva, oral blisters and hypergrowth of opportunistic oral pathogens. SARS-CoV-2 exhibits tropism for endothelial cells and Covid-19-mediated endotheliitis can not only promote inflammation in oral tissues but can also facilitate virus spread. In addition, elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators in patients with Covid-19 and oral infectious disease can impair tissue homeostasis and cause delayed disease resolution. This suggests potential crosstalk of immune-mediated pathways underlying pathogenesis. Interestingly, few reports suggest recurrent herpetic lesions and higher bacterial growth in Covid-19 subjects, indicating SARS-CoV-2 and oral virus/bacteria interaction. Larger cohort studies comparing SARS-CoV-2 negative and positive subjects will reveal oral manifestation of the virus on oral health and its role in exacerbating oral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative/complications , Herpesviridae Infections/complications , Oral Ulcer/complications , Periodontal Diseases/complications , Sialadenitis/complications , Stomatitis, Aphthous/complications , Xerostomia/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Anosmia/complications , Anosmia/immunology , Anosmia/pathology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Dysgeusia/complications , Dysgeusia/immunology , Dysgeusia/pathology , Dysgeusia/virology , Gene Expression , Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative/immunology , Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative/pathology , Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative/virology , Herpesviridae Infections/immunology , Herpesviridae Infections/pathology , Herpesviridae Infections/virology , Humans , Mouth/immunology , Mouth/pathology , Mouth/virology , Oral Ulcer/immunology , Oral Ulcer/pathology , Oral Ulcer/virology , Periodontal Diseases/immunology , Periodontal Diseases/pathology , Periodontal Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Sialadenitis/immunology , Sialadenitis/pathology , Sialadenitis/virology , Stomatitis, Aphthous/immunology , Stomatitis, Aphthous/pathology , Stomatitis, Aphthous/virology , Xerostomia/immunology , Xerostomia/pathology , Xerostomia/virology
11.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(6): e34, 2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a worldwide pandemic infection, frequently complain of olfactory disorders. However, psychophysical olfactory tests performed by an examiner are very difficult in these highly infectious patients. This study aimed to develop and validate a questionnaire for olfactory function that can be readily used to evaluate olfactory loss. METHODS: Fourteen smell-related questions were created based on smells familiar to Koreans. Among them, questions with a κ value of 0.6 or higher were finally selected through a test-retest reliability analysis. The correlations between the scores of the olfactory questionnaire and those of olfactory function tests (Butanol Threshold Test [BTT] and Cross Cultural Smell Identification Test [CCSIT]) were analyzed. To evaluate the predictive ability of the questionnaire and elicit cutoff values, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated. RESULTS: Out of the 14 questions in the questionnaire, 11 (κ > 0.6) were selected for the olfactory questionnaire. We analyzed 2,273 subjects, and there was a significant correlation between the total score of the olfactory questionnaire and the BTT (r = 0.643, P < 0.001) or CCSIT (r = 0.615, P < 0.001) scores. ROC curves for the olfactory questionnaire, BTT, and CCSIT all demonstrated high predictive power to discriminate anosmia and severe hyposmia from normosmia. Regarding mild to moderate hyposmia, however, ROC curve for the olfactory questionnaire alone showed high predictive power of discrimination from normosmia. Based on the results of ROC curves among the subclasses, we suggest the classification of the total score of the questionnaire as 0-4, 5-17, 18-27, 28-41, and 42-44, for anosmia, severe hyposmia, moderate hyposmia, mild hyposmia, and normosmia, respectively. CONCLUSION: The total scores of the questionnaires correlated with the BTT and CCSIT scores. The symptom questionnaire for olfactory dysfunction may be useful as an alternative tool for olfactory function testing, when unavailable.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/diagnosis , Adult , Anosmia/pathology , Anosmia/psychology , Area Under Curve , Butanols/chemistry , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Male , ROC Curve , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Smell , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
Neurology ; 95(23): e3145-e3152, 2020 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966472

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the physiopathology of olfactory function loss (OFL) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we evaluated the olfactory clefts (OC) on MRI during the early stage of the disease and 1 month later. METHODS: This was a prospective, monocentric, case-controlled study. Twenty severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2)-infected patients with OFL were included and compared to 20 age-matched healthy controls. All infected patients underwent olfactory function assessment and 3T MRI, performed both at the early stage of the disease and at the 1-month follow-up. RESULTS: At the early stage, SARS-CoV2-infected patients had a mean olfactory score of 2.8 ± 2.7 (range 0-8), and MRI displayed a complete obstruction of the OC in 19 of 20 patients. Controls had normal olfactory scores and no obstruction of the OC on MRI. At the 1 month follow-up, the olfactory score had improved to 8.3 ± 1.9 (range 4-10) in patients, and only 7 of 20 patients still had an obstruction of the OC. There was a correlation between olfactory score and obstruction of the OC (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: OFL in SARS-CoV2-infected patients is associated with a reversible obstruction of the OC.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Edema/pathology , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Nasal Obstruction/pathology , Adult , Anosmia/pathology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Edema/diagnostic imaging , Edema/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Nasal Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Nasal Obstruction/etiology , Young Adult
13.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 164(6): 1337-1344, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852952

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the differences in olfactory cleft (OC) morphology in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) anosmia compared to control subjects and postviral anosmia related to infection other than severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective. SETTING: This study comprises 91 cases, including 24 cases with anosmia due to SARS-CoV-2, 38 patients with olfactory dysfunction (OD) due to viral infection other than SARS-CoV-2, and a control group of 29 normosmic cases. METHODS: All cases had paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT), and cases with OD had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dedicated to the olfactory nerve. The OC width and volumes were measured on CT, and T2-weighted signal intensity (SI), olfactory bulb volumes, and olfactory sulcus depths were assessed on MRI. RESULTS: This study showed 3 major findings: the right and left OC widths were significantly wider in anosmic patients due to SARS-CoV-2 (group 1) or OD due to non-SARS-CoV-2 viral infection (group 2) when compared to healthy controls. OC volumes were significantly higher in group 1 or 2 than in healthy controls, and T2 SI of OC area was higher in groups 1 and 2 than in healthy controls. There was no significant difference in olfactory bulb volumes and olfactory sulcus depths on MRI among groups 1 and 2. CONCLUSION: In this study, patients with COVID-19 anosmia had higher OC widths and volumes compared to control subjects. In addition, there was higher T2 SI of the olfactory bulb in COVID-19 anosmia compared to control subjects, suggesting underlying inflammatory changes. There was a significant negative correlation between these morphological findings and threshold discrimination identification scores. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/pathology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Adult , Anosmia/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Olfactory Bulb/diagnostic imaging , Olfactory Mucosa/diagnostic imaging , Olfactory Mucosa/pathology , Organ Size , Prospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Chem Senses ; 45(9): 875-881, 2020 12 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842307

ABSTRACT

The purpose of our cohort study was to quantify olfactory deficits in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients using Sniffin' Sticks and a pre-post design to evaluate olfactory recovery. Thirty adult patients with laboratory-confirmed mild to moderate forms of COVID-19 underwent a quantitative olfactory test performed with the Sniffin' Sticks test (SST; Burghardt, Wedel, Germany), considering olfactory threshold (T), odor discrimination (D), and odor identification (I). Results were presented as a composite TDI score (range 1-48) that used to define functional anosmia (TDI ≤ 16.5), hyposmia (16.5 < TDI < 30.5), or functionally normal ability to smell (TDI ≥ 30.5). Patients also self-evaluated their olfactory function by rating their ability to smell on a visual analogue scale (Visual Analog Scale rating) and answering a validated Italian questionnaire (Hyposmia Rating Scale). Patients were tested during hospitalization and about 2 months after symptoms onset. During the hospitalization, the overall TDI score indicated that our cohort had impairments in their olfactory ability (10% was diagnosed with anosmia and more than 50% were hyposmic). Almost all patients showed a significant improvement at around 1 month following the first test and for all the parts of the SST except for odor identification. None of the subjects at 1 month was still diagnosed with anosmia. We also quantified the improvement in the TDI score based on initial diagnosis. Anosmic subjects showed a greater improvement than hyposmic and normosmic subjects. In conclusion, within a month time window and 2 months after symptoms' onset, in our cohort of patients we observed a substantial improvement in the olfactory abilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Olfaction Disorders/pathology , Sensory Thresholds/physiology , Adult , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self Report , Severity of Illness Index , Smell/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Laryngoscope ; 130(11): 2526-2531, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734147

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate clinical and radiological features of olfactory clefts of patients with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective non controlled study. METHODS: Sixteen COVID-19 patients were recruited. The epidemiological and clinical data were extracted. Nasal complaints were assessed through the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test. Patients underwent psychophysical olfactory testing, olfactory cleft examination, and computed tomography (CT) scans. RESULTS: Sixteen anosmic patients were included. The mean Sniffin' Sticks score was 4.6 ± 1.7. The majority of patients had no endoscopical abnormality, with a mean olfactory cleft endoscopy score of 0.6 ± 0.9. The olfactory clefts were opacified in three patients on the CT scan. The mean radiological olfactory cleft score was 0.7 ± 0.8. There were no significant correlations between clinical, radiological, and psychophysical olfactory testing. CONCLUSIONS: The olfactory cleft of anosmic COVID-19 patients is free regarding endoscopic examination and imaging. The anosmia etiology is not related to edema of the olfactory cleft. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 130:2526-2531, 2020.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Olfaction Disorders/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Anosmia/pathology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/pathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Prospective Studies
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