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1.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(11): 73, 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527506

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Headache is a common symptom of COVID-19 with emerging literature being published on the subject. Although it may seem unspecific, scientific evidence has allowed a better definition of this headache type, revealing relevant associations with other COVID-19 symptoms and prognoses. We therefore sought to highlight the most remarkable findings concerning headache secondary to COVID-19, specifically focusing on epidemiology, characteristics, pathophysiology, and treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: The real prevalence of headache as a symptom of COVID-19 is still unclear ranging from 10 to 70%. Headache mainly has a tension-type-like phenotype, although 25% of individuals present with migraine-like features that also occur in patients without personal migraine history. This finding suggests that a likely pathophysiological mechanism is the activation of the trigeminovascular system. SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism can occur by trans-synaptic invasion through the olfactory route from the nasal cavity, leading to anosmia which has been associated with headache. SARS-CoV-2 protein has been found not only in olfactory mucosa and bulbs but also in trigeminal branches and the trigeminal ganglion, supporting this hypothesis. However, other mechanisms such as brain vessels inflammation due to SARS-CoV-2 damage to the endothelium or systemic inflammation in the context of cytokine storm cannot be ruled out. Interestingly, headache has been associated with lower COVID-19 mortality. No specific treatment for COVID-19 headache is available at present. Studies show that investigating COVID-19 headache represents an opportunity not only to better understand COVID-19 in general but also to advance in the knowledge of both secondary and primary headaches. Future research is therefore warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular , Headache/etiology , Headache/physiopathology , Headache/therapy , Humans , Inflammation , Migraine Disorders/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tension-Type Headache/physiopathology , Trigeminal Ganglion/physiopathology , Trigeminal Ganglion/virology , Trigeminal Nerve/physiopathology , Trigeminal Nerve/virology , Viral Tropism
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256998, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Qualitative olfactory (smell) dysfunctions are a common side effect of post-viral illness and known to impact quality of life and health status. Evidence is emerging that taste and smell loss are common symptoms of Covid-19 that may emerge and persist long after initial infection. The aim of the present study was to document the impact of post Covid-19 alterations to taste and smell. METHODS: We conducted exploratory thematic analysis of user-generated text from 9000 users of the AbScent Covid-19 Smell and Taste Loss moderated Facebook support group from March 24 to 30th September 2020. RESULTS: Participants reported difficulty explaining and managing an altered sense of taste and smell; a lack of interpersonal and professional explanation or support; altered eating; appetite loss, weight change; loss of pleasure in food, eating and social engagement; altered intimacy and an altered relationship to self and others. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest altered taste and smell with Covid-19 may lead to severe disruption to daily living that impacts on psychological well-being, physical health, relationships and sense of self. More specifically, participants reported impacts that related to reduced desire and ability to eat and prepare food; weight gain, weight loss and nutritional insufficiency; emotional wellbeing; professional practice; intimacy and social bonding; and the disruption of people's sense of reality and themselves. Our findings should inform further research and suggest areas for the training, assessment and treatment practices of health care professionals working with long Covid.


Subject(s)
Anosmia , COVID-19 , Olfactory Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders , Taste Perception , Adult , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anosmia/psychology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Taste Disorders/psychology , Time Factors
3.
Physiol Rep ; 9(18): e14992, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431180

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a public health emergency with cases increasing globally. Its clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic and acute respiratory disease to multiple organ dysfunction syndromes and effects of COVID-19 in the long term. Interestingly, regardless of variant, all COVID-19 share impairment of the sense of smell and taste. We would like to report, as far as we know, the first comprehensive neurophysiological evaluation of the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the olfactory system with potential-related neurological damage. The case report concerns a military doctor, with a monitored health history, infected in April 2020 by the first wave of the epidemic expansion while on military duty in Codogno (Milan). In this subject, we find the electrophysiological signal in the periphery, while its correlate is absent in the olfactory bulb region than in whole brain recordings. In agreement with this result is the lack of metabolic signs of brain activation under olfactory stimulation. Consequently, quantitative and qualitative diagnoses of anosmia were made by means of olfactometric tests. We strongly suggest a comprehensive series of olfactometric tests from the first sign of COVID-19 and subsequent patient assessments. In conclusion, electrophysiological and metabolic tests of olfactory function have made it possible to study the long-term effects and the establishment of neurological consequences.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/physiopathology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , Electrophysiology/methods , Evoked Potentials/physiology , Humans , Male , Olfactory Bulb/physiopathology , Olfactory Nerve/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensory Thresholds/physiology
5.
Arch Pharm Res ; 44(7): 725-740, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321878

ABSTRACT

Anecdotal evidence suggests that the severity of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is likely to be distinguished by variations in loss of smell (LOS). Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of 45 articles that include a total of 42,120 COVID-19 patients from 17 different countries to demonstrate that severely ill or hospitalized COVID-19 patients have a lesser chance of experiencing LOS than non-severely ill or non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients (odds ratio = 0.527 [95% CI 0.373-0.744; p < 0.001] and 0.283 [95% CI 0.173-0.462; p < 0.001], respectively). We also proposed a possible mechanism underlying the association of COVID-19 severity with anosmia, which may explain why patients without sense of smell develop severe COVID-19. Variations in LOS according to the severity of COVID-19 is a global phenomenon, with few exceptions. Since severely ill patients have a lower rate of anosmia, patients without anosmia should be monitored more closely in the early stages of COVID-19, for early diagnosis of severity of illness. An understanding of how the severity of COVID-19 infection and LOS are associated has profound implications for the clinical management and mitigation strategies for the disease.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Odorants , Olfactory Perception , Smell , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anosmia/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Early Diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 880, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315615

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to a collective scientific effort to study its viral causing agent SARS-CoV-2. Research is focusing in particular on its infection mechanisms and on the associated-disease symptoms. Interestingly, this environmental pathogen directly affects the human chemosensory systems leading to anosmia and ageusia. Evidence for the presence of the cellular entry sites of the virus, the ACE2/TMPRSS2 proteins, has been reported in non-chemosensory cells in the rodent's nose and mouth, missing a direct correlation between the symptoms reported in patients and the observed direct viral infection in human sensory cells. Here, mapping the gene and protein expression of ACE2/TMPRSS2 in the mouse olfactory and gustatory cells, we precisely identify the virus target cells to be of basal and sensory origin and reveal the age-dependent appearance of viral entry-sites. Our results propose an alternative interpretation of the human viral-induced sensory symptoms and give investigative perspectives on animal models.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/physiopathology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Age Factors , Ageusia/virology , Animals , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Male , Mice , Olfactory Perception , Taste Perception
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 505, 2021 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy is generally reassuring but yet not definitive. METHODS: To specifically assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in late pregnancy, we prospectively recruited 315 consecutive women delivering in a referral hospital located in Lombardy, Italy in the early phase of the epidemic. Restriction of the recruitment to this peculiar historical time period allowed to exclude infections occurring early in pregnancy and to limit the recall bias. All recruited subjects underwent a nasopharyngeal swab to assess the presence of Sars-Cov-2 using Real-time PCR. In addition, two different types of antibodies for the virus were evaluated in peripheral blood, those against the spike proteins S1 and S2 of the envelope and those against the nucleoprotein of the nucleocapsid. Women were considered to have had SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy if at least one of the three assessments was positive. RESULTS: Overall, 28 women had a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy (8.9%). Women diagnosed with the infection were more likely to report one or more episodes of symptoms suggestive for Covid-19 (n = 11, 39.3%) compared to unaffected women (n = 39, 13.6%). The corresponding OR was 4.11 (95%CI: 1.79-9.44). Symptoms significantly associated with Covid-19 in pregnancy included fever, cough, dyspnea and anosmia. Only one woman necessitated intensive care. Pregnancy outcome in women with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection did not also differ. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is asymptomatic in three out of five women in late pregnancy and is rarely severe. In addition, pregnancy outcome may not be markedly affected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , Anosmia/physiopathology , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 98: 107871, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267705

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the usage of mometasone furoate nasal spray in the recovery of patients with severe microsmia or anosmia induced by COVID-19. This was a prospective clinical trial on non-hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19 (>18 years) who had severe microsmia or anosmia within two weeks. The subjects were randomly assigned to the mometasone furoate group (100 mcg twice daily) or sodium chloride group (0.9%); both groups also received olfactory training for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was the improvement of the olfactory score at the end of the study. Visual analog scale (VAS) and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) were used to assess primary outcome. A total of 80 patients were recruited, 77 of them completed the study and were analyzed. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of demographics and baseline clinical characteristics. The olfactory scores (based on VAS) at weekly intervals showed a significant difference between the two groups (P:0.318, <0.001, <0.001, <0.001, respectively). The analyses also showed significant within-group differences from baseline. Nevertheless, the changes were not significant between the two groups (P: 0.444, 0.402, 0.267, 0.329). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the UPSIT results (p > 0.239). However, a significant between-group difference was noted in the severity of loss of smell (P < 0.001). Compared to olfactory training, mometasone furoate nasal spray combination with olfactory training showed a higher improvement in severe chronic anosmia by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Mometasone Furoate/administration & dosage , Smell/drug effects , Administration, Intranasal , Adult , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Mometasone Furoate/adverse effects , Nasal Sprays , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2499-2504, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217398

ABSTRACT

Various new clinical signs and symptoms, such as dysfunction of smell (anosmia) and taste (dysgeusia) have emerged ever since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic begun. The objective of this study was to identify the clinical presentation and factors associated with 'new loss/change of smell (anosmia) or taste (dysgeusia)' at admission in patients positive by real time polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 infection. All adult COVID-19 patients with new onset anosmia or dysgeusia at admission were included in study group. Equal number of age and gender matched COVID-19 patients without anosmia or dysgeusia at admission were included in the control group. A total of 261 COVID-19 patients were admitted during the study period of which 55 (21%) had anosmia and or dysgeusia. The mean (SD) age was 36 (13) years and majority were males (58%, n = 32). Comorbidity was present in 38% of cases (n = 21). Anosmia and dysgeusia were noted in more than 1/5th of the cases. Anosmia (96%, n = 53) was more common than dysgeusia (75%, n = 41). Presence of both ansomia and dysgeusia was noted in 71% of patients (n = 39). On comparing the cases with the controls, on univariate analysis, fever (higher in cases), rhinitis (lower in cases), thrombocytopenia, elevated creatinine and bilirubin (all higher in cases) were significantly associated with anosmia or dysgeusia. On multivariate analysis, only rhinitis (odds ratio [OR]: 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.09-0.83; p = .02) thrombocytopenia (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.99-0.99; p = .01) and elevated creatinine (OR: 7.6; 95% CI: 1.5-37.6; p = .01) remained significant. In this retrospective study of COVID-19 patients, we found anosmia and dysgeusia in more than 1/5th of the cases. Absence of rhinitis, low platelet counts and elevated creatinine were associated with anosmia or dysgeusia in these patients.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Adult , Anosmia/blood , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Dysgeusia/blood , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/virology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
11.
Neuroepidemiology ; 55(2): 154-161, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166623

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Smell and taste loss are characteristic symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: We conducted an observational, retrospective study on 376 patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to the San Gerardo Hospital in Monza, Italy, from March to July 2020. All patients answered a phone questionnaire providing information on age, sex, smoking status, and clinical characteristics. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated through logistic regression models including relevant covariates. RESULTS: The prevalence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in COVID-19 patients was 33.5 and 35.6%, respectively. Olfactory dysfunctions were significantly directly associated with current smoking and history of allergy, the multivariable ORs being 6.53 (95% CI 1.16-36.86) for current smokers versus never smokers, and 1.89 (95% CI 1.05-3.39) for those with an allergy compared to those without any allergy. Respiratory allergy in particular was significantly associated with olfactory dysfunctions (multivariable OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.02-5.17). Significant inverse associations were observed for patients aged 60 years or more (multivariable OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.19-0.57) and hospitalization (multivariable OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06-0.89). Considering gustatory dysfunctions, after allowance of other variables a significant direct association was found for respiratory allergies (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.03-4.86), and an inverse association was found only for hospitalization (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.76). CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that current smoking and history of allergy (particularly respiratory) significantly increase the risk for smell loss in COVID-19 patients; the latter is also significantly associated to taste loss. Hospitalization has an inverse association with the risk of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions, suggesting that these may be symptoms characteristics of less severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Respiratory Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Anosmia/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
12.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 171, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of this century has overwhelmed the healthcare systems of affected countries, and all resources have been diverted to coronavirus disease 2019. At the onset, coronavirus disease 2019 can present as any other acute febrile undifferentiated illness. In tropical regions, clinicians are increasingly challenged to differentiate these febrile illnesses without the use of diagnostics. With this pandemic, many of these tropical diseases are neglected and go underreported. Dengue is holoendemic in the Maldives, and dengue viruses circulate throughout the year. Reports about coinfections with dengue virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 are scarce, and the outcome and the dynamics of the disease may be altered in the presence of coinfection. We have described the clinical manifestation and serial laboratory profile, and highlighted the atypical findings uncommon in dengue infection. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 was a 39-year old Asian male, presented on day 6 of dengue infection with warning signs. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that was done as per hospital protocol was found to be positive. Case 2 was a 38-year old Asian male, was admitted on day 5 of illness with symptoms of acute respiratory infection with positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Evaluation of progressive leukopenia and thrombocytopenia showed positive dengue serology. CONCLUSION: Clinicians must be conscientious when working on the differential diagnosis of possible tropical diseases in cases of coronavirus disease 2019, specifically, when patients develop hemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia, and transaminitis with elevated expression of aspartate higher than alanine transaminase, which is frequently observed in dengue infection. Caution must be taken during the administration of intravenous fluids when treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and dengue coinfection, as coronavirus disease 2019 patients are more prone to develop pulmonary edema. Timely diagnosis and appropriate management are essential to avoid the devastating complications of severe forms of dengue infection. It is important to repeat and reconfirm the dengue serology in coronavirus disease 2019 patients to avoid false positivity. Diligence and care must be taken not to neglect other endemic tropical diseases in the region during the present pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dengue/complications , Leukopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Adult , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Coinfection , Cough/physiopathology , Dengue/blood , Dengue/physiopathology , Dengue/therapy , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Fluid Therapy , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Myalgia/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting/physiopathology
13.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(4): e184-e186, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153280

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an empirical olfactory test to identify COVID-19 cases during a workplace entrance screening. METHOD: An active screening for olfactory dysfunction using water and vinegar was conducted in April to June 2020 among 4120 meat packing workers in Latin America. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of the active olfactory screening examination were 41.2% and 85.3%, respectively, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests as a gold standard. 10.6% of employees who tested positive for COVID-19 had an olfactory dysfunction as their only symptom. These individuals would not have been identified with standard workplace screening measures including temperature screening. CONCLUSION: Active screening for olfactory dysfunction may serve as a valuable tool to both identify potential COVID-19 infections and exclude those who do not have infection and should be a part of parallel algorithm combined with standard workplace entrance screening procedures.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Workplace , Acetic Acid , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Humans , Mass Screening/standards , Meat-Packing Industry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Water
14.
Neuroepidemiology ; 55(2): 109-118, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can be accompanied by acute neurological complications of both central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS). In this study, we estimate the frequency of such complications among hospital inpatients with COVID-19 in Assiut and Aswan university hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We screened all patients with suspected COVID-19 admitted from 1 June to 10 August 2020 to the university hospitals of Assiut and Aswan in Upper Egypt. Clinical and laboratory tests, CT/MRI of the chest and brain, and neurophysiology study were performed for each patient if indicated. RESULTS: 439 patients had confirmed/probable COVID-19; neurological manifestations occurred in 222. Of these, 117 had acute neurological disease and the remainder had nonspecific neuropsychiatric symptoms such as headache, vertigo, and depression. The CNS was affected in 75 patients: 55 had stroke and the others had convulsions (5), encephalitis (6), hypoxic encephalopathy (4), cord myelopathy (2), relapse of multiple sclerosis (2), and meningoencephalitis (1). The PNS was affected in 42 patients: the majority had anosmia and ageusia (31) and the others had Guillain-Barré syndrome (4), peripheral neuropathy (3), myasthenia gravis (MG, 2), or myositis (2). Fever, respiratory symptoms, and headache were the most common general symptoms. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and ischemic heart disease were the most common comorbidities in patients with CNS affection. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19, both the CNS and PNS are affected. Stroke was the most common complication for CNS, and anosmia and/or ageusia were common for PNS diseases. However, there were 6 cases of encephalitis, 2 cases of spinal cord myelopathy, 2 cases of MG, and 2 cases of myositis.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Anosmia/epidemiology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Egypt/epidemiology , Encephalitis/epidemiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hypoxia, Brain/epidemiology , Hypoxia, Brain/physiopathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/physiopathology , Myasthenia Gravis/epidemiology , Myasthenia Gravis/physiopathology , Myositis/epidemiology , Myositis/physiopathology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Cord Diseases/epidemiology , Spinal Cord Diseases/physiopathology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(3): 229-244, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075605

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Olfactory dysfunction (OD) can be a single and early prominent symptom of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-COV-2 infection unlike middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS) and SARS. OD data are very informative but many are not peer-reviewed, often inconclusive and may reveal variable and sometimes contradictory results. This is often due to incongruent data of subjective and objective OD testing. Mechanistic pathways of OD and taste dysfunction (TD) are slowly unveiling, not infrequently extrapolated from historical models of SARS and MERS and are still partly unclear. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed the literature on OD and TD during the COVID-19 pandemic analyzing current data on pathogenesis and clinical correlates including prevalence, recovery rates, risk factors, and predictive power. Also, we evaluated various methods of subjective and objective olfactory testing and discussed challenges in management of patients with OD and rhinitis during the pandemic. SUMMARY: Subjective evaluation of smell disturbances during COVID-19 pandemic likely underestimates true prevalence, severity, and recovery rates of OD when compared to objective testing. OD is predictive of COVID-19 infection, more so when associated with TD. Recognizing inherent limitations of both subjective and objective OD and TD testing enables us better to manage chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. Besides, current mechanistic data suggest neurotropism of COVID-19 for olfactory neuro-epithelium and a potential role of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Future studies are needed to explore further the neurogenic inflammation in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anosmia , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anosmia/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Taste Disorders/therapy
16.
Rev Neurosci ; 32(3): 351-361, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067453

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 27 million confirmed cases and 8,90,000 deaths all around the world. Verity of viral infections can infect the nervous system; these viral infections can present a wide range of manifestation. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the COVID-19 associated central nervous system manifestations, mental and neurological symptoms. For that we conducted a comprehensive systematic literature review of four online databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and Embase. All relevant articles that reported psychiatric/psychological symptoms or disorders in COVID-19 without considering time and language restrictions were assessed. All the study procedures were performed based on the PRISMA criteria. Due to the screening, 14 studies were included. The current study result indicated that, the pooled prevalence of CNS or mental associated disorders with 95% CI was 50.68% (6.68-93.88). The most prevalence symptoms were hyposmia/anosmia/olfactory dysfunction (number of study: 10) with 36.20% (14.99-60.51). Only one study reported numbness/paresthesia and dysphonia. Pooled prevalence of numbness/paresthesia and dysphonia was 5.83% (2.17-12.25) and 2.39% (10.75-14.22). The pooled prevalence of depression and anxiety was 3.52% (2.62-4.54) and 13.92% (9.44-19.08). Our findings demonstrate that COVID-19 has a certain relation with neurological symptoms. The hypsomia, anosmia or olfactory dysfunction was most frequent symptom. Other symptoms were headache or dizziness, dysgeusia or ageusia, dysphonia and fatigue. Depression, anxiety, and confusion were less frequent symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Depression/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Dysphonia/epidemiology , Dysphonia/physiopathology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypesthesia/epidemiology , Hypesthesia/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Paresthesia/epidemiology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0244127, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067399

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Olfactory dysfunction (OD) affects a majority of COVID-19 patients, is atypical in duration and recovery, and is associated with focal opacification and inflammation of the olfactory epithelium. Given recent increased emphasis on airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the purpose of the present study was to experimentally characterize aerosol dispersion within olfactory epithelium (OE) and respiratory epithelium (RE) in human subjects, to determine if small (sub 5µm) airborne aerosols selectively deposit in the OE. METHODS: Healthy adult volunteers inhaled fluorescein-labeled nebulized 0.5-5µm airborne aerosol or atomized larger aerosolized droplets (30-100µm). Particulate deposition in the OE and RE was assessed by blue-light filter modified rigid endoscopic evaluation with subsequent image randomization, processing and quantification by a blinded reviewer. RESULTS: 0.5-5µm airborne aerosol deposition, as assessed by fluorescence gray value, was significantly higher in the OE than the RE bilaterally, with minimal to no deposition observed in the RE (maximum fluorescence: OE 19.5(IQR 22.5), RE 1(IQR 3.2), p<0.001; average fluorescence: OE 2.3(IQR 4.5), RE 0.1(IQR 0.2), p<0.01). Conversely, larger 30-100µm aerosolized droplet deposition was significantly greater in the RE than the OE (maximum fluorescence: OE 13(IQR 14.3), RE 38(IQR 45.5), p<0.01; average fluorescence: OE 1.9(IQR 2.1), RE 5.9(IQR 5.9), p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our data experimentally confirm that despite bypassing the majority of the upper airway, small-sized (0.5-5µm) airborne aerosols differentially deposit in significant concentrations within the olfactory epithelium. This provides a compelling aerodynamic mechanism to explain atypical OD in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/analysis , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Olfactory Mucosa/physiopathology , Adult , Aerosols/administration & dosage , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Smell
18.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 142: 110626, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence, clinical course and outcomes of olfactory and taste dysfunction in COVID-19 positive adolescents. METHODS: This prospective study was carried out from May to August 2020. The adolescents, aged 10-19 years, who were detected COVID-19 positive by RT-PCR with mild to moderate disease were included in the study. The following epidemiological and clinical outcomes were studied: age, sex, general symptoms, olfactory and taste dysfunction. RESULTS: Out of 141 patients included in the study, there were 83 males (58.9%) and 58 females (41.1%). The age varied from 10 to 19 years with an average of 15.2 years. Forty patients (28.4%) had olfactory or taste dysfunction. Out of these 40 patients, 28 patients (19.8%) had both olfactory and taste dysfunction. Of the 34 patients (24.1%) who complained of olfactory dysfunction, 16 patients complained of hyposmia and 18 patients complained of anosmia. Dysgeusia was reported by 34 patients (24.1%). The duration of OTD varied from 2 to 15 days with an average of 5.7 days. CONCLUSION: Loss of smell and taste are common symptoms in COVID-19 positive adolescents. It recovers spontaneously within a few weeks, along with the resolution of other symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Adolescent , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Child , Disease Progression , Dysgeusia/etiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Young Adult
19.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 2324709621990765, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063170

ABSTRACT

Smell loss is important for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) screening and diagnosis. Particular attention should be paid to individuals with pre-COVID-19 chronic hyposmia or anosmia. We report a case of reversible taste impairment in a COVID-19 patient with chronically impaired sense of smell. This case emphasizes the importance of COVID-19-related taste assessment.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/physiopathology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Adult , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/complications , COVID-19/complications , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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